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See detailAacht Filmer vum Projet COMPARE: 1. Aféierung; 2. Literacy – Wat ass dat?: 3. Literacy entwéckelen – Wéi a mat weem?; 4. Elterebesuch – Eng Beräicherung; 5. Um Wee zum Partenariat mat den Elteren
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Colucci, Laura; Lutgen, Pit et al

Learning material (2022)

Aféierung Aféierung an d’Filmer vum Projet COMPARE An dëser Serie vu Videoe weise mir iech wéi dir Literacy mat klenge Kanner entwéckelen kennt a wéi Zesummenaarbescht mat Elteren a Bibliothéiken iech ... [more ▼]

Aféierung Aféierung an d’Filmer vum Projet COMPARE An dëser Serie vu Videoe weise mir iech wéi dir Literacy mat klenge Kanner entwéckelen kennt a wéi Zesummenaarbescht mat Elteren a Bibliothéiken iech heibäi hëllefen. Film 1 Literacy – Wat ass dat? Fréi Erfarunge mat Literacy beaflossen de Kanner hir sproochlech Fähegkeeten, hir Erzielfähegkeet, de Prozess vum Liesen- a Schreiweléieren an hir spéider Leeschtunge an der Schoul. Den éischte Video stellt d'Konzept vu Literacy vir a presentéiert produktiv Situatiounen. Film 2 Literacy entwéckelen – Wéi a mat weem? An dësem Film weise mir iech wéi Dir Literacy zesumme mat Elteren a Bibliothéike kennt entweckelen. Film 3 Elterebesuch – Eng Beräicherung Dëse Video weist iech zwee Beispiller vun Zesummenaarbecht. Eng Educatrice an Elteren erklären de Benefice vun der Zesummenaarbecht fir d’Kanner, d’Elteren an d’Educatricen. Film 4 Um Wee zum Partenariat mat den Elteren An dëser Crèche kachen d’Educatrice reegelméisseg mat de Kanner an heiansdo mat den Elteren. Situatiounen vu Literacy a verschiddene Sprooche komme spontan op. Elteren an d’Chargée vun der Crèche presentéieren d'Auswierkunge vun der Zesummenaarbecht. [less ▲]

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See detailA TALE OF ADVERSITY: THE IMPACT OF EARLY LIFE INFECTION BEYOND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Merz, Myriam Pia UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for chronic and noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Changes in the HPA axis and the immune system have been proposed to underlie this ... [more ▼]

Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for chronic and noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Changes in the HPA axis and the immune system have been proposed to underlie this association, however current ELA research remains mainly focused on neglect, abuse and low socioeconomic status as sources of childhood adversity. Early-life adversity covers a range of physical, social and environmental stressors. Acute viral infections in early life are a major source of such adversity and have been associated with a broad spectrum of later-life effects outside the immune system or “off-target”. These include an altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and metabolic reactions. Here, we used a murine postnatal day 14 (PND 14) Influenza A (H1N1) infection model and applied a semi-holistic approach including phenotypic measurements, gene expression arrays and diffusion neuroimaging techniques to investigate HPA axis dysregulation, energy metabolism, brain connectivity, microbial composition and immune cell shift . We then extended our mouse model for a postnatal day 56 (PND56) viral challenge to study immune reactivation after an early life “priming” event. We could show that an early life influenza A virus infection led to an immediate shift in lung microbiota and long-term changes in gut microbiome composition. We also observed several sex-specific effects: retarded growth of males, baseline blood glucose levels being increased in females and decreased in males, and baseline corticosterone levels were reduced while total number of CD3+ cells were higher in males. At the same time, we found a microbial composition shift persistent several weeks after the early life infection. For the brain, MRI scans identified reduced connectivity in the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum which were accompanied by tissue-specific gene expression signatures. Early-life infection appeared to have independently affected each of the systems, potentially independent of HPA axis or immune perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Cole, Mark David UL

in UFITA - Archiv für Medienrecht und Medienwissenschaft (2022), 86(2021), 209-211

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See detailMultiomic profiling of the liver across diets and age in a diverse mouse population
Williams, Evan UL; Pfister, Niklas; Roy, Suheeta et al

in Cell Systems (2022), 13(1), 43-57

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See detailIm Spannungsfeld zwischen Informationsfreiheit und Datenschutz: Das Luxemburger Archivgesetz von 2018 und die zeithistorische Forschung
Brüll, Christoph UL; Janz, Nina UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January 19)

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und ... [more ▼]

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und definierte für das Großherzogtum (endlich!), wie Quellen aus Ministerien und Verwaltungen archivalisch behandelt werden müssen. Das Gesetz schuf damit den Rahmen für eine notwendige und geregelte Ablieferungs- und Archivierungspolitik sowie den erforderlichen Einsatz von geschultem Personal in staatlichen und kommunalen Verwaltungen. Der Gesetzestext weist große Ähnlichkeiten mit bundesdeutschen und belgischen Bestimmungen zum Archivzugang auf. Die allgemeine Schutzfrist von 50 Jahren ist allerdings deutlich länger als in den meisten Ländern, wohingegen die 75-Jahre-Sperrfrist für Akten mit persönlichen Daten auf dem Papier kürzer ausfällt als bei den Nachbarn. Die Auslegung des Gesetzes durch das Nationalarchiv und die Ministerialverwaltungen war seitdem mehrmals Gegenstand von parlamentarischen Fragen und Presseberichterstattung, die die restriktive Zugangspraxis und lange Bearbeitungszeiten bei Anträgen auf Schutzfristverkürzung monieren. Den Forscher*innen fielen dabei zwei Dinge auf: zum einen wurde die Entscheidungsfrist für die Anträge auf Schutzfristverkürzungen regelmäßig deutlich überschritten; zum anderen legten die Archivmitarbeiter*innen ihren Entscheidungen, ob ein solcher Antrag vonnöten sei, ein extrem rigides Verständnis von „persönlichen Daten“ zugrunde. Dies verweist auf einige Grundprobleme bei der Konzeption des Gesetzes: die wissenschaftliche Forschung, die ein großes Interesse daran hatte, bei der Archivnutzung Rechtssicherheit zu haben, war zu keinem Zeitpunkt in den Gesetzgebungsprozess eingebunden. Zum anderen problematisierte dieser zu wenig die Tatsache, dass das Nationalarchiv historisch als eine kulturelle und nicht als eine wissenschaftliche Einrichtung betrachtet wurde. Dies war nach unserer Auffassung ein weiterer Grund dafür, dass die Perspektive der Forschung nicht ausreichend mitgedacht wurde. In der Praxis wird beispielsweise der Zugang zu Dokumenten aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs noch regelmäßig erschwert; an eine zeitgeschichtliche Forschung zum Zeitraum ab den 1960er Jahren auf der Grundlage der im Nationalarchiv aufbewahrten Quellen ist kaum zu denken. Das Nationalarchiv nimmt eine restriktive Haltung gegenüber seinen Nutzer*innen ein: Inventare, wie z.B. vorläufige Abgabelisten, werden nicht vorgelegt, ganze Bestände werden wegen mangelnder Bearbeitung oder Unkenntnis der Zuständigkeiten gesperrt. Den Forscher*innen wird kein Vertrauen entgegengebracht. Es besteht beispielsweise keine Möglichkeit, Dokumente nach Zusicherung von Anonymisierung oder Unterzeichnung einer Verpflichtungserklärung einzusehen. Die Einsicht (falls gesperrt) bedarf noch immer teilweise der Zustimmung durch die Aktenproduzenten. Mitunter ist aber den Benutzern nicht klar, welche Akten noch dem Produzenten unterliegen oder nicht. In anderen Fällen ist selbst dem Archiv nicht klar, wer die „Zuständigkeit“ und damit das letzte Wort über den Zugang innehat. Solange aber das Archiv nicht die Benutzungshoheit oder die „Archivhoheit“ über seine eigenen Akten hat, kann keine professionelle Benutzung gewährleistet werden. In Bezug auf die Gemeindearchive gilt das Archivgesetz von 2018 nicht, daher ist dort die Verunsicherung sehr groß und es fehlt das Bewusstsein für eine geordnete Archivierung und Bereitstellung von Unterlagen. Es fehlen beispielsweise Benutzungsordnungen und professionelle Findmittel. Im Falle von Akteneinsichten müssen die Forscher mit der zuständigen Gemeinde eine Art Datenschutzvertrag (Convention de mise á disposition d’archives et collections) schließen, in welches jedes Dokument aufgelistet wird. Seitdem die Probleme mit dem Gesetz und seiner Anwendung bekannt sind, wurden regelmäßig Lösungsansätze diskutiert, die jedoch bisher nicht umgesetzt wurden. Zum einen wird angeregt, die Entscheidungen zu Schutzfristverkürzungen in die Hände des Nationalarchivs zu legen. Dazu wären, wie in anderen Ländern auch, Abkommen zwischen den Ministerialverwaltungen und dem Archiv nötig. In der Zwischenzeit ist jedoch Bewegung in die Sache gekommen: zumindest auf der politischen Ebene ist das Bewusstsein dafür, dass überhaupt ein Problem besteht, gewachsen. Im Raum steht derzeit eine Evaluierung des Gesetzes, die bisher nicht vorgesehen war – obwohl eine solche Vorgehensweise bei anderen Gesetzen regelmäßig praktiziert wird – und die mündlich signalisierte Bereitschaft der Justizministerin, für die ihr unterstellten Bereiche ein Abkommen mit dem Archiv zu schließen. Vielleicht kann so ein Paradox aufgelöst werden. [less ▲]

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See detailEurope between East and West - looking back, mooving forward
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2022)

“Deep divisions have emerged between East and West [Europe] on matters such as freedom, justice and democracy,” writes the University of Luxembourg’s Dr Elena Danescu. In this article, the researcher ... [more ▼]

“Deep divisions have emerged between East and West [Europe] on matters such as freedom, justice and democracy,” writes the University of Luxembourg’s Dr Elena Danescu. In this article, the researcher explores the origins of these divisions. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser welding of copper to aluminum with spiral trajectory and identification of excessive aluminum melting
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Mathivanan, Karthik UL

in Journal of Laser Applications (2022)

Laser welding of copper and aluminum is challenging due to the formation of complex intermetallic phases. Only a defined amount of Al and Cu can be melted because of the limited solubility of Al–Cu ... [more ▼]

Laser welding of copper and aluminum is challenging due to the formation of complex intermetallic phases. Only a defined amount of Al and Cu can be melted because of the limited solubility of Al–Cu systems. Finding the optimum melting is critical for a strong joint. Optical emission during the welding process contains the metal vapor of Al metal that is being welded. This is a good indicator for monitoring the welding process. This research paper focuses on the optical emission of Al from the bottom sheet during welding of Cu (top) and Al (bottom) in overlapped configuration for a spiral trajectory. The emitted signal in the range of 395 nm (±3 nm) from the bottom sheet of aluminum is used to identify excessive Cu–Al welding. The tensile shear strength, microstructure, and welding signal in the time domain for optimum and excessive weld conditions are investigated. In this study, a technique using a photodiode is shown to identify the excessive melting of Al during the welding process in real time. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing small-angle scattering to guide functional magnetic nanoparticle design
Honecker, Dirk; Bersweiler, Mathias UL; Erokhin, Sergey et al

in Nanoscale Advances (2022), 4

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See detailLASER FUSION WELDING OF CU TO AL WITH SPIRAL TRAJECTORY AND MONITORING OF PROCESS SIGNALS
Mathivanan, Karthik UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Welding of Aluminium (Al) and Copper (Cu) in a dissimilar fashion is required for the manufacturing of solar thermal absorbers, battery modules and refrigeration applications. The high strength, thermal ... [more ▼]

Welding of Aluminium (Al) and Copper (Cu) in a dissimilar fashion is required for the manufacturing of solar thermal absorbers, battery modules and refrigeration applications. The high strength, thermal and electrical conductivity of Cu combined with the lightweight property of Al material enable the high performance of the product. A laser is a precise tool, which can increase the productivity and quality of the welding process. Welding Al and Cu is considered difficult because of the formation of complex intermetallic phases which reduce the strength of the joint. Laser brazing from low melting Al sheet to Cu sheet is the traditional technique to reduce the intermetallic phases. This thesis focuses on irradiation of laser beam from copper sheet to aluminium sheet in overlapped configuration. The approach is to form a large amount of intermixing to obtain (Cu) solid solution and Al-rich phase Al+Al2Cu in the interface. By this approach, it was found that a fusion zone with a large number of good phases was formed. The intermetallic compounds Al2Cu,Al3Cu4,Al4Cu9 are intermixed and small. Such a microstructure is beneficial for joint strength. The characterization was done by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope. EDS analysis was used to estimate the composition and identify the phases. It was found that a beneficial Cu solid solution phase is present in the joint. To qualify the joint and identify the weld status, melting characteristics during laser welding by observation of the optical emission in Ultraviolet-visible wavelength was studied. The Al melting peak at 396 nm and Cu melting peak at 578 nm was found to correlate to the welding process parameters. The signals correlate to the actual melting of Cu and Al sheets, which was investigated by the cross-sectional images and the weld images on the top of the Cu-Al weld. Therefore, the possibility for real-time analysis to identify different welding conditions is shown. [less ▲]

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See detailRefugees’ Integration Process in Luxembourg: The case of Arab refugees’ post-political transformations in the Arab region
Badawy, Haythem Kamel UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

2011 was significant in the Arab countries; it started a people's political movement in many countries. It was known as (The Arab Spring). This Arab spring led to instability and insecurities in many ... [more ▼]

2011 was significant in the Arab countries; it started a people's political movement in many countries. It was known as (The Arab Spring). This Arab spring led to instability and insecurities in many countries, which resulted in a large flow of asylum seekers to neighbouring countries and Europe. This flow reached its peak in 2015, and many of them ended up arriving in Luxembourg. The Arab-speaking population is relatively tiny in Luxembourg compared to other neighbouring countries. Still, numbers increased from 1200 residents in 2011 to over 7000 due to this flow of asylum seekers, mainly from Syria and Iraq. While Luxembourg had a specific demographic structure and a multilingual context compared to other European countries, the refugees faced a different situation concerning their integration into Luxembourgish society. Multilingualism is one of the main challenges asylum seekers face, especially if they do not have previous experience or competencies in any European language. Language learning played a prominent role in allowing people to find job opportunities, decent housing, and be independent of the state and social support. In this dissertation, I am trying to investigate how the integration process is functioning for this specific group of people in Luxembourg, which factors play a role in their integration, and how the support measures are valid. I used a qualitative research approach with data collected through semi-structured interviews with asylum seekers who had already received their refugee status to analyse their perception and understanding of their integration process. The interviews were conducted in their native language (Arabic), which gave me access to a more straightforward free discussion with the interviewees but added a limitation of the need to translate the selected excerpts and not having the possibility to translate the whole interviews. The main results are that the Arab refugees’ integration process had several aspects. Concerning the prejudgment before arrival, the waiting time of their asylum application, then after holding the refugee status, other elements that they faced played a role as a barrier; or a challenge for their integration processes like housing, language learning, job market and family conditions. I concluded that different components are needed to fulfil their integration needs, and they can be structured in organized stages for integration. The multiculturalism of Luxembourg can play a positive role in facilitating integration but, simultaneously, can create challenges for people to adapt and progress in their integration process. The diverse components can be organized in a tower model built on the different integration components to reach the level needed for good integration. [less ▲]

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See detailFairness, integrity, and privacy in a scalable blockchain-based federated learning system
Rückel, Timon; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Hofmann, Peter

in Computer Networks (2022), 202

Federated machine learning (FL) allows to collectively train models on sensitive data as only the clients’ models and not their training data need to be shared. However, despite the attention that ... [more ▼]

Federated machine learning (FL) allows to collectively train models on sensitive data as only the clients’ models and not their training data need to be shared. However, despite the attention that research on FL has drawn, the concept still lacks broad adoption in practice. One of the key reasons is the great challenge to implement FL systems that simultaneously achieve fairness, integrity, and privacy preservation for all participating clients. To contribute to solving this issue, our paper suggests a FL system that incorporates blockchain technology, local differential privacy, and zero-knowledge proofs. Our implementation of a proof-of-concept with multiple linear regressions illustrates that these state-of-the-art technologies can be combined to a FL system that aligns economic incentives, trust, and confidentiality requirements in a scalable and transparent system. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of ultra-rare coding variants with genetic generalized epilepsy: A case–control whole exome sequencing study
Koko, Mahmoud; Motelow, Joshua E.; Stanley, Kate E. et al

in Epilepsia (2022)

Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set out to compare the association of genes independently with familial and sporadic GGE. Methods We performed a case–control whole exome sequencing study in unrelated individuals of European descent diagnosed with GGE (previously recruited and sequenced through multiple international collaborations) and ancestry-matched controls. The association of ultra-rare variants (URVs; in 18 834 protein-coding genes) with epilepsy was examined in 1928 individuals with GGE (vs. 8578 controls), then separately in 945 individuals with familial GGE (vs. 8626 controls), and finally in 1005 individuals with sporadic GGE (vs. 8621 controls). We additionally examined the association of URVs with familial and sporadic GGE in two gene sets important for inhibitory signaling (19 genes encoding γ-aminobutyric acid type A [GABAA] receptors, 113 genes representing the GABAergic pathway). Results GABRG2 was associated with GGE (p = 1.8 × 10−5), approaching study-wide significance in familial GGE (p = 3.0 × 10−6), whereas no gene approached a significant association with sporadic GGE. Deleterious URVs in the most intolerant subgenic regions in genes encoding GABAA receptors were associated with familial GGE (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95 confidence interval [CI] = 1.9–7.8, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted p = .0024), whereas their association with sporadic GGE had marginally lower odds (OR = 3.1, 95 CI = 1.3–6.7, FDR-adjusted p = .022). URVs in GABAergic pathway genes were associated with familial GGE (OR = 1.8, 95 CI = 1.3–2.5, FDR-adjusted p = .0024) but not with sporadic GGE (OR = 1.3, 95 CI = .9–1.9, FDR-adjusted p = .19). Significance URVs in GABRG2 are likely an important risk factor for familial GGE. The association of gene sets of GABAergic signaling with familial GGE is more prominent than with sporadic GGE. [less ▲]

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See detailPeut-on parler d'une écriture auto-socio-biographique dans l'oeuvre d'Annie Ernaux ?
Mounom Mbong, Frank UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Annie Ernaux renews autobiographical writing with a style that promotes social struggle for the benefit of the underprivileged classes.

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See detailOn Trustworthy AI and Localized Complex Network Analytics
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

We live in a world where the interaction of many different entities results in the formation of complex systems. The communication between billions of smart devices, interactions of millions of people in ... [more ▼]

We live in a world where the interaction of many different entities results in the formation of complex systems. The communication between billions of smart devices, interactions of millions of people in social networks, and the existence of our biological life, which is based on seamless interactions between hundreds of genes and proteins within our cells, all are just a few examples of the complex systems surrounding us. At the core of these complex systems, there is clear evidence of a complex network, which symbolizes the interaction between the system’s components. Analytical metrics and algorithms derived from graph theory are used in network analysis to understand the functionality of complex systems, anticipate system behavior, and control changes. Many of these global patterns in complex networks are generally influenced by decisions made by communities. Communities are a tightly connected group of nodes with sparse connections to the rest of the network. These modular structures are crucial to understanding the complex network due to being closely tied to the system’s functional and topological features. They can, for example, represent modules of proteins with similar functionality in a protein interaction network or influence dynamic network activities such as opinion and epidemic propagation. Local community detection methods have gained popularity among other strategies to dis- cover communities in a complex network. The traditional methods are based on a top-down approach acquiring global information about the entire network; however, due to the growing size and complexity of existing networks, they often result in tangled communities, hence not providing functional information of the network. The primary goal of this thesis is to provide methods and solutions for local network analysis. The following components comprise the thesis contribution: 1) Introduce a transformation approach to construct networks from relational data and describe how network structure affects community detection, 2) Provide a comprehensive evaluation of current local community detection techniques and suggest a locality exploration scheme (LES) for community detection algorithms, 3) Develop a local community detection Algorithm (LCDA) and employ it on real-world data, 4) Extend LCDA to LCDA-GO, which integrates biological functional information and detects protein communities in the cell on the PPI network. Thereby, this thesis proposes a novel community detection algorithm that addresses the shortcomings of prior algorithms by presenting a local method. The applicability of the suggested algorithm is investigated by running it on real-world PPI networks. 7 Furthermore, this thesis contributes to industrial technical reports and whitepapers on the standardization and regulation of big data and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The thesis addresses the critical issues of digital trust in big data and AI by incorporating technical standardization and cutting-edge research solutions. The key contributions include, but are not limited to: 1) A comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in numerous scientific and standard materials regarding privacy and trustworthiness concerns, including the introduction of privacy leaks and mitigation measures in big data and AI, 2) Investigating the societal implications of artificial intelligence standards in light of the recently initiated worldwide and European standardized processes, 3) Design and implementation of a scheme that connects scientific contributions and stan- dardization efforts in the direction of AI conformity assessment. The contribution of the thesis to standards demonstrates an impact on both scientific and standardization communities by contributing to both and offering recent outcomes from each. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermolecular Interactions in Static Electric Fields Studied with Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Electrodynamics
Karimpour, Mohammad Reza UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

In the present work, the interactions between neutral molecular systems subject to external static electric fields are studied. To comprehensively explore the effects of external fields on intermolecular ... [more ▼]

In the present work, the interactions between neutral molecular systems subject to external static electric fields are studied. To comprehensively explore the effects of external fields on intermolecular interactions, the two most reliable frameworks in the subject, namely molecular quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics are employed while atomic and molecular responses are modeled using quantum Drude oscillators (QDO). In the first part of the work, the focus is to understand the interplay between dispersion and field-induced forces in two-body systems for both nonretarded and retarded ranges of inter-species distances. To identify the origin and the mechanism responsible for different field-induced interactions, a complementary approach based on classical electrodynamics with a zero-point radiation field, namely stochastic electrodynamics, is employed. The results show that neglecting higher-order contributions coming from field-induced hyperpolarizabilities of atoms, the dispersion interaction remains unchanged by the external uniform static field, for both regimes. However, using an external static field one can control the magnitude and characteristics of intermolecular interactions. The second part of the work is devoted to the extension of the study to many-body interacting systems. There, the total interaction energy in systems with many interacting atoms or molecules is obtained by extending the well-established theory of many-body dispersion (MBD) interactions to the presence of external static electric fields. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of the system in the nonretarded regime and in the framework of quantum mechanics yields the total energy of the interacting system in terms of the corresponding normal mode frequencies. Subtraction of the energy of the non-interacting QDOs-in-fields from the total energy of the interacting system results in the many-body interaction energy. The impact of the field-induced many-body contributions is investigated for a benzene dimer as well as for two carbyne chains. Varying the number of carbon atoms per chain demonstrates the significance of the field-induced many-body terms in the interplay between dispersion and field-induced interactions. Such contributions can be of great importance for controlling delamination and self-assembly of materials in static electric fields. [less ▲]

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See detailMOBILE APPLICATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY‐INFORMED, PERSONALIZED MHEALTH INTERVENTION FOR ADOLESCENTS (MAPA)
Domin, Alex UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The beneficial impact of physical activity (PA) has been extensively documented, with well-evidenced improved physical and mental health across lifespan, together with increased life expectancy. Yet, a ... [more ▼]

The beneficial impact of physical activity (PA) has been extensively documented, with well-evidenced improved physical and mental health across lifespan, together with increased life expectancy. Yet, a lack of PA and increased sedentary lifestyle continue to represent a serious public health burden. Insufficient levels of physical inactivity have also been observed in adolescents, which is alarming, as PA levels may be transferred into adulthood. Given the ubiquitous use of smartphones by adolescents, these devices may offer feasible means to reach young populations and deliver an intervention aimed at increasing PA participation. The aim of the current project, therefore, concerns the development, delivery and pilot-evaluation of a smartphone application intervention for adolescents 16-18 who are insufficiently active, in order to promote PA engagement and decrease sedentary time. Overall, three independent studies were conducted. Within the first study, a scoping literature review was performed. The results present a range of evidence (both quantitative and qualitative) available on smartphone-based mHealth PA interventions as well as the development and evaluation trajectory of mHealth PA interventions and systematic theory- and evidence-based practices and methods that are implemented along this trajectory. Within the second study, a focus group discussion was conducted and features and components that are preferred by adolescents (aged 16-18) in apps promoting PA were identified. Finally, within our third study, the development and evaluation of the MAPA intervention were reported. The MAPA within-subject trial demonstrated that smartphone-based intervention produced significant reductions in sedentary time in adolescents during the first week of the trial. This trend, while remaining positive, diminished over time. Our findings indicate that there was no effect of the intervention on MET-based MVPA minutes, although the descriptive increase may give reason for further investigation. Although the results suggested no overall change in heart rate based MVPA minutes, the results from the change point analyses suggest that the personalized PA prompts significantly increased HR per minute (bpm) during the second week of the study. There were no significant increases in participants’ overall step count; however, the personalized PA prompts resulted in a marginally significant increased step counts per minute in the second week of the study. These results suggest the feasibility and promise of smartphone-based PA interventions with personalized PA suggestions for adolescents. This study also provides first information and an example for researchers and practitioners on how to guide development of future smartphone-based mHealth PA interventions in adolescents. Future investigations should focus on the replication of these findings and testing the potential of scalability of such an intervention within larger population samples. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hotspot Approach. CONDISOBS Policy Paper No. 1
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s ... [more ▼]

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 838722. CONDISOBS explored the governance of the mobility of asylum seekers in the European Union through a multi-sited qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with state officials, representatives of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, lawyers, members of advocacy groups, social workers and activists. Interview material was integrated by an extensive review of academic literature, policy documents and institutional and non-governmental reports. Data was collected between October 2020 and June 2021. This policy paper is part of a series on the hotspot approach, which also includes a policy paper on the implementation of the approach in Greece and another one on its implementation in Italy. All policy papers, as well as other research outputs, are freely accessible on the project website. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Implementation of the Hotspot Approach in Greece. CONDISOBS Policy Paper No. 3
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s ... [more ▼]

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 838722. CONDISOBS explored the governance of the mobility of asylum seekers in the European Union through a multi-sited qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with state officials, representatives of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, lawyers, members of advocacy groups, social workers and activists. Interview material was integrated by an extensive review of academic literature, policy documents and institutional and non-governmental reports. Data was collected between October 2020 and June 2021. This policy paper is part of a series on the hotspot approach, which also includes a policy paper on the features of this mechanism in a broad sense and one on its implementation in Italy. All policy papers, as well as other research outputs, are freely accessible on the project website. [less ▲]

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