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See detail8 mai 1997. Commémoration du 52e anniversaire de l'Armistice au Luxembourg
Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2022)

Le 8 mai 1992, les anciens combattants luxembourgeois commémorent la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale au pied de la Gëlle Fra (« femme dorée »), monument du souvenir pour les Luxembourgeois morts au ... [more ▼]

Le 8 mai 1992, les anciens combattants luxembourgeois commémorent la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale au pied de la Gëlle Fra (« femme dorée »), monument du souvenir pour les Luxembourgeois morts au combat pendant les guerres mondiales et la guerre de Corée. [less ▲]

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See detail30 août 1992. Commémoration de la Grève de 1942 à Dudelange
Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2022)

Le 30 août 1992, la commune de Dudelange commémore les cinquante ans du déclenchement du recrutement forcé au Luxembourg. Dès le 31 août 1942, une vague de grèves avait gagné le Luxembourg. Ce signe de ... [more ▼]

Le 30 août 1992, la commune de Dudelange commémore les cinquante ans du déclenchement du recrutement forcé au Luxembourg. Dès le 31 août 1942, une vague de grèves avait gagné le Luxembourg. Ce signe de protestation contre la mesure de l’Occupant nazi est devenu le symbole d’un pays résistant. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion of an algorithm to transfer arbitrary shear connector load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Kozma, Andras UL; Romero, Alfredo UL

in Kolloquiumsband - 23 DASt-Forschungskolloquium (2022, February 22)

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a ... [more ▼]

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a monotonic increasing nonlinear load-slip behaviour without plastic plateau and failure of the bolt in shear. Current design procedures of steel-concrete composite beams are largely based on the implementation of headed shear studs, which exhibit a rather different load-slip behaviour with a pronounced plastic niveau. Thus, a question turned out, which compression force can be activated by the shear connection in the concrete girder of a composite beam and how can the respective ultimate bending capacity be determined. Hence, this contribution presents an analytical algorithm to estimate the occurring compression force in the concrete girder when demountable shear connectors are used. The proposed algorithm bases on the actual measured load-slip curve of the shear connection and the expected slip along the beam, which is estimated for each single connector to later determine the compression force in the concrete girder. In addition to the explanation of the “general algorithm”, assumptions for practical use have been made for the slip distribution to simplify the calculation of the compression force and an effective shear resistance P_Rd,eff. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual Report on Migration and Asylum Part 1 2021 Luxembourg
Holzapfel, Nicole UL; Mellinger, Lukas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2022)

KEY POINTS 1. The Law of 16 June 2021 amending the Immigration Law changes the legislation on immigration, by lightening the administrative burden for third-country nationals, and by altering certain ... [more ▼]

KEY POINTS 1. The Law of 16 June 2021 amending the Immigration Law changes the legislation on immigration, by lightening the administrative burden for third-country nationals, and by altering certain provisions relating to intercorporate transferees, trainees and family reunification. 2. The Law of 16 June 2021 amending the Asylum Law modifies the remedies available to applicants of international protection (AIPs). This law increases their effectiveness and guarantees maximum legal certainty in the context of transfers under the Dublin Regulation, as well as in the case of final decisions to close proceedings on an application for international protection and of decisions to withdraw international protection. 3. Bill 7877, introduced to Parliament on 2 September 2021, proposes abolishing the 5-year residency clause on active and passive voting rights in municipal elections for EU- and non-EU citizens residing in Luxembourg [less ▲]

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See detailVolunteering in multilingual Luxembourg: the nexus between linguistic diversity, personal trajectory and social engagement
Zhang, Yimin UL

Presentation (2022, February 21)

In this Winter School at University of Oslo, I presented the overview of my PhD research project, with a focus on the role of language in volunteering in multilingual Luxembourg.

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See detailArchitectural Support for Hypervisor-Level Intrusion Tolerance in MPSoCs
Pinto Gouveia, Inês UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Increasingly, more aspects of our lives rely on the correctness and safety of computing systems, namely in the embedded and cyber-physical (CPS) domains, which directly affect the physical world. While ... [more ▼]

Increasingly, more aspects of our lives rely on the correctness and safety of computing systems, namely in the embedded and cyber-physical (CPS) domains, which directly affect the physical world. While systems have been pushed to their limits of functionality and efficiency, security threats and generic hardware quality have challenged their safety. Leveraging the enormous modular power, diversity and flexibility of these systems, often deployed in multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoC), requires careful orchestration of complex and heterogeneous resources, a task left to low-level software, e.g., hypervisors. In current architectures, this software forms a single point of failure (SPoF) and a worthwhile target for attacks: once compromised, adversaries can gain access to all information and full control over the platform and the environment it controls, for instance by means of privilege escalation and resource allocation. Currently, solutions to protect low-level software often rely on a simpler, underlying trusted layer which is often a SPoF itself and/or exhibits downgraded performance. Architectural hybridization allows for the introduction of trusted-trustworthy components, which combined with fault and intrusion tolerance (FIT) techniques leveraging replication, are capable of safely handling critical operations, thus eliminating SPoFs. Performing quorum-based consensus on all critical operations, in particular privilege management, ensures no compromised low-level software can single handedly manipulate privilege escalation or resource allocation to negatively affect other system resources by propagating faults or further extend an adversary’s control. However, the performance impact of traditional Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR) protocols is prohibitive in the context of MPSoCs due to the high costs of cryptographic operations and the quantity of messages exchanged. Furthermore, fault isolation, one of the key prerequisites in FIT, presents a complicated challenge to tackle, given the whole system resides within one chip in such platforms. There is so far no solution completely and efficiently addressing the SPoF issue in critical low-level management software. It is our aim, then, to devise such a solution that, additionally, reaps benefit of the tight-coupled nature of such manycore systems. In this thesis we present two architectures, using trusted-trustworthy mechanisms and consensus protocols, capable of protecting all software layers, specifically at low level, by performing critical operations only when a majority of correct replicas agree to their execution: iBFT and Midir. Moreover, we discuss ways in which these can be used at application level on the example of replicated applications sharing critical data structures. It then becomes possible to confine software-level faults and some hardware faults to the individual tiles of an MPSoC, converting tiles into fault containment domains, thus, enabling fault isolation and, consequently, making way to high-performance FIT at the lowest level. [less ▲]

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See detailArchitectural Support for Hypervisor-Level Intrusion Tolerance in MPSoCs
Pinto Gouveia, Ines UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Increasingly, more aspects of our lives rely on the correctness and safety of computing systems, namely in the embedded and cyber-physical (CPS) domains, which directly affect the physical world. While ... [more ▼]

Increasingly, more aspects of our lives rely on the correctness and safety of computing systems, namely in the embedded and cyber-physical (CPS) domains, which directly affect the physical world. While systems have been pushed to their limits of functionality and efficiency, security threats and generic hardware quality have challenged their safety. Leveraging the enormous modular power, diversity and flexibility of these systems, often deployed in multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoC), requires careful orchestration of complex and heterogeneous resources, a task left to low-level software, e.g., hypervisors. In current architectures, this software forms a single point of failure (SPoF) and a worthwhile target for attacks: once compromised, adversaries can gain access to all information and full control over the platform and the environment it controls, for instance by means of privilege escalation and resource allocation. Currently, solutions to protect low-level software often rely on a simpler, underlying trusted layer which is often a SPoF itself and/or exhibits downgraded performance. Architectural hybridization allows for the introduction of trusted-trustworthy components, which combined with fault and intrusion tolerance (FIT) techniques leveraging replication, are capable of safely handling critical operations, thus eliminating SPoFs. Performing quorum-based consensus on all critical operations, in particular privilege management, ensures no compromised low-level software can single handedly manipulate privilege escalation or resource allocation to negatively affect other system resources by propagating faults or further extend an adversary’s control. However, the performance impact of traditional Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR) protocols is prohibitive in the context of MPSoCs due to the high costs of cryptographic operations and the quantity of messages exchanged. Furthermore, fault isolation, one of the key prerequisites in FIT, presents a complicated challenge to tackle, given the whole system resides within one chip in such platforms. There is so far no solution completely and efficiently addressing the SPoF issue in critical low-level management software. It is our aim, then, to devise such a solution that, additionally, reaps benefit of the tight-coupled nature of such manycore systems. In this thesis we present two architectures, using trusted-trustworthy mechanisms and consensus protocols, capable of protecting all software layers, specifically at low level, by performing critical operations only when a majority of correct replicas agree to their execution: iBFT and Midir. Moreover, we discuss ways in which these can be used at application level on the example of replicated applications sharing critical data structures. It then becomes possible to confine software-level faults and some hardware faults to the individual tiles of an MPSoC, converting tiles into fault containment domains, thus, enabling fault isolation and, consequently, making way to high-performance FIT at the lowest level. [less ▲]

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See detail"Be part of it"
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailESSAYS ON ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN RUSSIA
Lisina, Anastasiya UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

There can be little doubt regarding the importance of inequality problem in Russia. Within the scope of this thesis, I have focused on documenting and understanding trends in inequality in Russia from ... [more ▼]

There can be little doubt regarding the importance of inequality problem in Russia. Within the scope of this thesis, I have focused on documenting and understanding trends in inequality in Russia from 1994-2015. The four chapters analyze different aspects of inequality in Russia. The second chapter of the thesis aims at documenting and explaining changes in income inequality in Russia from 1994-2015. First, I provide evidence for inequality and poverty trends in Russia. Second, I provide a detailed examination of the main determinants of the above-mentioned changes. I document that changes in socio-demographic characteristics together with labour market employment of individuals have not affected changes in income inequality, poverty and income levels. Changes in income sources, in particular earnings and pensions, are the key drivers of changes. A fall in income inequality and poverty and increase in income levels is the result of increasing real levels in pensions and public sector earnings and a decreasing dispersion of private sector earnings. The third chapter focuses on the two dimensions of inequality: income and consumption. First, I provide evidence on the inequality trends in income and consumption. Second, I uncover evidence on the joint analysis in income and consumption inequality. The analysis reveals large differences in consumption across income levels and significant differences in consumption changes given income. I document that low and high income top savers have not changed their consumption behavior. The fourth chapter of this thesis addresses the issue of adjusting income to regional price differences by suggesting an approach to estimating cost-of-living indices without data on prices. The proposed approach relies on household survey data only. The key idea of this approach is that the cost-of-living indices between regions are reflected in average differences in income among homogenous individuals. Homogenous individuals experience similar financial needs, which are captured by observed individual characteristics, and the same level of satisfaction with economic conditions. A matching technique is applied to pair individuals from different regions. Finally, the last chapter focuses on the relationship between income changes and political trust in Russia by answering the following question: Do income changes matter for political trust? The paper shows that income changes do not matter for political trust. Furthermore, neither income gains nor income losses play a significant role in the relationship between income changes and trust. I, however, find that short-run income changes from 2012-2011 are positively associated with political trust and that this link is stronger for lower incomes. [less ▲]

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See detailBiobanking science applied to patient specific stem cells and biomarkers for Parkinson's disease research
Mommaerts, Kathleen Michèle Ghislaine Marie UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Biomedical research aims to understand the pathological and pathophysiological mechanisms that cause disease. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), are major contributors to the ... [more ▼]

Biomedical research aims to understand the pathological and pathophysiological mechanisms that cause disease. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), are major contributors to the burden of disease across the globe. PD is an age-related, progressive neurodegenerative disease. The pathological hallmarks are a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra in conjunction with the presence of protein aggregates involving α-synuclein in the residual neurons. Cystatin C expression has been shown to become upregulated in brain injuries, neurological disorders and in animal models of neurodegenerative states, which suggests it could play a part in neurodegenerative disorders. The main function of this primarily secreted protein is the inhibition of cysteine proteases. Various tools are available to researchers to study diseases, ranging from animal models, human biospecimens and human in vitro models. Regardless of the model selected, reproducibility is crucial to ensure meaningful research. To maximise the quality of biomedical research, biobanks work to ensure the biospecimens they issue are compromised as little as possible as a consequence of the unavoidable preanalytical variables occurring during their collection, processing and storage. The scientific discipline that studies preanalytical variables and how they affect biospecimens is called biospecimen science. In this thesis, biospecimen science was applied to patient specific stem cells and cystatin C in the scope of PD research. A standardized research-grade human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) workflow was established for use as an in vitro PD model, which encompasses both iPSC generation and cryostorage. Controlled-rate freezing of iPSCs using three different dimethyl sulfoxide-based cryosolutions containing ice recrystallization inhibitors was evaluated and optimized to achieve efficient iPSC cryopreservation. A double, indirect sandwich ELISA was established to quantify the concentration and the degradative state of secreted cystatin C. The ELISA was validated using well-defined and standardized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biospecimens, then applied as a tool to retrospectively identify CSF biospecimens that had been stored in suboptimal conditions. Secreted cystatin C was quantified and compared in blood derivatives (plasma and serum) and in the culture media of derived models (iPSCs, neuroepithelial stem cells and midbrain organoids) from three idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy controls. The standardized in vitro PD models, novel quality control and cryopreservation methods not only demonstrate the critical importance of preanalytical standardization but open the way to future biomedical research. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Memes Challenges. Virality, Mediatic Dimensions and Heritagization 
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, February 17)

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See detailHPV-related quality of life in diagnosed women: A longitudinal study
Santos, B Daiana; Moreira, Celia S; Teixeira Santos, Ana Carolina UL et al

in Journal of Health Psychology (2022)

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See detailEMN Ad-Hoc Queries (AHQ), Informs & other outputs
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Learning material (2022)

The training aims to explain to all the members of the EMN on what are the rules for launching and answering the ad-hoc queries through the EMN AHQ Tool.

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See detailTheoretical Considerations about Energy Transition in Luxembourg
Arababadi, Ali; Leyer, Stephan UL; Hansen, Joachim UL et al

in Environmental Sciences Proceedings (2022)

The energy transition is a certain phenomenon in the future which as of yet has no agreed definition. It involves a shift in the dominant ‘rules of the game’—a transformation of established technologies ... [more ▼]

The energy transition is a certain phenomenon in the future which as of yet has no agreed definition. It involves a shift in the dominant ‘rules of the game’—a transformation of established technologies and societal practices and movement from one dynamic equilibrium to another, typically stretching over several generations. The study aims to explore some salient features of this transition that Luxembourg will face using a theoretical approach. The study was limited to the transportation sector, residential sector, and public dimension. it has been shown how the availability of different contextual factors in Luxembourg will raise the need for new pathways to move towards this transition. The alternative pathways have been argued, to [less ▲]

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