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See detailAn integrated security hardening optimization for dynamic networks using security and availability modeling with multi-objective algorithm
Y. Enoch, Simon; Rodrigues de Mendonça Neto, Júlio UL; B. Hong, Jin et al

in Computer Networks (2022)

The dynamicity of today’s networks has created uncertainties for security administrators about the defense options to deploy. In this paper, we consider the administrator’s challenge of selecting and ... [more ▼]

The dynamicity of today’s networks has created uncertainties for security administrators about the defense options to deploy. In this paper, we consider the administrator’s challenge of selecting and deploying the best set of heterogeneous security hardening solutions for dynamic networks given multiple constraints (such as fixed budget, availability of hardening measures, performance degradation, non-patchable vulnerabilities, etc). The current state of the art does not focus on the dynamic characteristic of modern networks, where the effectiveness of defenses is affected by changes in the networks. Hence, we approach this challenge by developing an integrated method to effectively compute optimal defense solutions for dynamic networks given multiple objectives and constraints. The proposed approach works in the following five phases: (1) input/data collection, (2) model construction (using temporal-graph-based security model and Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets), (3) defense evaluator (based on security metrics), (4) Pareto optimal set evaluator (using Non dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm), and (5) optimal solution evaluator (based on Weighted Sum Model). To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we use a real-world case study while taking into account both the vulnerabilities that are patchable and non-patchable. We investigated the sensitivity of the model parameters based on the dynamic network, and the result showed a good result for values from 0.1–0.4 for the mutation probability while the crossover did not change for all the values. Furthermore, we compared the dynamic network optimization results to a static network and the evaluation shows that our proposed approach could aid a security administrator in selecting the best defense options to deploy for modern networks that are dynamic, with at least 75% and 62.50% of the defense Pareto points appearing in consecutive and in all network states, respectively. Moreover, it also provides an insight into the benefit of each defense option before the deployment. [less ▲]

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See detailRetransmission of broadcast signals by cable in hotels - An analysis of the EU CabSat-Directive in light of a pending CJEU case
Cole, Mark David UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

It is well-known that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has played a key role in giving the EU acquis in the area of intellectual property law the relevance it has today. Especially the ... [more ▼]

It is well-known that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has played a key role in giving the EU acquis in the area of intellectual property law the relevance it has today. Especially the series of judgments clarifying the broad notion of “communication to the public” as laid down in form of an exclusive right in the so-called InfoSoc Directive 2001/29/EC with which the position of authors was significantly reinforced is an extensively debated and commented outcome. Until the recent addition of the DSM Copyright-Directive (EU) 2019/790 to the EU acquis with its inclusion of a press publisher’s right and increased obligations of platforms when they allow users to upload potentially copyrighted material, the InfoSoc Directive of 2001 has always been in the centre of attention. In the shadow of that Directive stands the so-called CabSat Directive 93/83/EEC , originally created in 1993 as supplementary action in order to ensure the realization of an EU-wide single market for television broadcasting which was initiated by the Television without Frontiers-Directive (TwFD) 89/552/EEC . The aim of the CabSat Directive was and remains the goal of ensuring that in the use of satellite distribution of broadcast programmes as well as retransmission by cable, rightholders’ positions are safeguarded and procedures respected that allow for a smooth realization of such use of broadcast signals. This Directive has only rarely been subject of preliminary reference requests by national courts. This makes a currently pending case highly relevant and gives the Court a unique opportunity to complement its case law on communication to the public for the specific aspect of retransmission of broadcasting signals: It has already in the ground-breaking decision of SGAE in 2006 clarified very firmly that the forwarding of broadcast signals – television programmes, notabene – by hotel operators to the individual rooms of a hotel and thereby offering the guests the possibility of individual access to the broadcast programmes constitutes a communication to the public. For such communication an authorization by the author(s) is needed and without such authorization it violates the exclusive right as laid down in Art. 3(1) InfoSoc Directive. While this has been settled concerning authors, the pending case of C-716/20 concerns exactly the same setup – a hotel operator picking up a satellite signal and disseminating it via cable to the hotel rooms – except that this time the questions to the court are asked through the lens of the CabSat Directive and the legal position of broadcasters vis-à-vis the hotel operators as provided for by the specific national law which transposed EU law. This contribution will therefore first explain the notion of ‘cable retransmission’ and in which parts of EU law it is laid down or referred to (II.). It will then give a more detailed look at the relevant provisions of the CabSat Directive and other related secondary law which establishes the framework for questions of cable retransmission and communication to the public (III.). Further, the case law of the CJEU will be analysed in order to identify those judgments that contribute to the clarification of the open question whether a retransmission by cable of a broadcast programme by hotel operators falls under the notion of cable retransmission as presented (IV.). As the actual question has not been answered by the Court in its jurisprudence so far, the main aspects of the pending preliminary proceedings will be explained without going into the details of the national proceedings of the previous instances, before the Portuguese Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court) decided to stay the proceedings and request from the CJEU a clarification of the EU law-related aspects. The criteria as developed will show – when applied to the case at hand – that the hotel operator needs to be qualified as an operator of a cable network conducting a cable retransmission (V.). Finally, in a concluding section the relevance of the outcome of this case will be discussed (VI.). [less ▲]

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See detailUnifying Quantum and Classical Speed Limits on Observables
García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Green, Jason R. et al

in Physical Review X (2022)

The presence of noise or the interaction with an environment can radically change the dynamics of observables of an otherwise isolated quantum system. We derive a bound on the speed with which observables ... [more ▼]

The presence of noise or the interaction with an environment can radically change the dynamics of observables of an otherwise isolated quantum system. We derive a bound on the speed with which observables of open quantum systems evolve. This speed limit is divided into Mandelstam and Tamm’s original time-energy uncertainty relation and a time-information uncertainty relation recently derived for classical systems, and both are generalized to open quantum systems. By isolating the coherent and incoherent contributions to the system dynamics, we derive both lower and upper bounds on the speed of evolution.We prove that the latter provide tighter limits on the speed of observables than previously known quantum speed limits and that a preferred basis of speed operators serves to completely characterize the observables that saturate the speed limits. We use this construction to bound the effect of incoherent dynamics on the evolution of an observable and to find the Hamiltonian that gives the maximum coherent speedup to the evolution of an observable. [less ▲]

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See detailEurpean Mandate M515, CEN/TC250/SC4.T6 - Background Documents for prEN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Kurz, Wolfgang et al

Report (2022)

Background Documents for prEN 1994-1-1

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See detailPreventing active re-identification attacks on social graphs via sybil subgraph obfuscation
Mauw, Sjouke UL; Ramirez Cruz, Yunior UL; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL

in Knowledge and Information Systems (2022), 64

Active re-identification attacks constitute a serious threat to privacy-preserving social graph publication, because of the ability of active adversaries to leverage fake accounts, a.k.a. sybil nodes, to ... [more ▼]

Active re-identification attacks constitute a serious threat to privacy-preserving social graph publication, because of the ability of active adversaries to leverage fake accounts, a.k.a. sybil nodes, to enforce structural patterns that can be used to re-identify their victims on anonymised graphs. Several formal privacy properties have been enunciated with the purpose of characterising the resistance of a graph against active attacks. However, anonymisation methods devised on the basis of these properties have so far been able to address only restricted special cases, where the adversaries are assumed to leverage a very small number of sybil nodes. In this paper, we present a new probabilistic interpretation of active re-identification attacks on social graphs. Unlike the aforementioned privacy properties, which model the protection from active adversaries as the task of making victim nodes indistinguishable in terms of their fingerprints with respect to all potential attackers, our new formulation introduces a more complete view, where the attack is countered by jointly preventing the attacker from retrieving the set of sybil nodes, and from using these sybil nodes for re-identifying the victims. Under the new formulation, we show that k-symmetry, a privacy property introduced in the context of passive attacks, provides a sufficient condition for the protection against active re-identification attacks leveraging an arbitrary number of sybil nodes. Moreover, we show that the algorithm K-Match, originally devised for efficiently enforcing the related notion of k-automorphism, also guarantees k-symmetry. Empirical results on real-life and synthetic graphs demonstrate that our formulation allows, for the first time, to publish anonymised social graphs (with formal privacy guarantees) that effectively resist the strongest active re-identification attack reported in the literature, even when it leverages a large number of sybil nodes. [less ▲]

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See detailAdditive Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Gait Under Single and Dual-Tasking Is Greater Than of Deep Brain Stimulation in Advanced Parkinson Disease With Long-duration Deep Brain Stimulation.
Langer, Agnes; Lucke-Paulig, Lara; Gassner, Lucia et al

in Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society (2022)

INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) often experience problems with mobility, including walking under single- (ST) and dual-tasking (DT) conditions. The effects of deep brain ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) often experience problems with mobility, including walking under single- (ST) and dual-tasking (DT) conditions. The effects of deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (DBS) versus dopaminergic medication (Med) on these conditions are not well investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used two ST and two DT-gait paradigms to evaluate the effect of DBS and dopaminergic medication on gait parameters in 14 PD patients (mean age 66 ± 8 years) under DBS(OFF)/Med(ON), DBS(ON)/Med(OFF), and DBS(ON)/Med(ON) conditions. They performed standardized 20-meter walks with convenient and fast speed. To test DT capabilities, they performed a checking-boxes and a subtraction task during fast-paced walking. Quantitative gait analysis was performed using a tri-axial accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts, The Netherlands). Dual-task costs (DTC) of gait parameters and secondary task performance were compared intraindividually between DBS(OFF)/Med(ON) vs DBS(ON)/Med(ON), and DBS(ON)/Med(OFF) vs DBS(ON)/Med(ON) to estimate responsiveness. RESULTS: Dopaminergic medication increased gait speed and cadence at convenient speed. It increased cadence and decreased number of steps at fast speed, and improved DTC of cadence during the checking boxes and DTC of cadence and number of steps during the subtraction tasks. DBS only improved DTC of cadence during the checking boxes and DTC of gait speed during the subtraction task. CONCLUSION: Dopaminergic medication showed larger additional effects on temporal gait parameters under ST and DT conditions in advanced PD than DBS. These results, after confirmation in independent studies, should be considered in the medical management of advanced PD patients with gait and DT deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailThis Hard Minett Land. Texte über das "Bassin minier", inspiriert von Bruce Springsteens Songs
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

Introduction to a historical and literary project, where C2DH historian Denis Scuto invites writers, historians, sociologists, anthropologists, etc. to be inspired by Bruce Springsteen's songs to write ... [more ▼]

Introduction to a historical and literary project, where C2DH historian Denis Scuto invites writers, historians, sociologists, anthropologists, etc. to be inspired by Bruce Springsteen's songs to write texts about the industrial iron ore basin in the South of Luxembourg and French Lorraine called “Minett”, about yesterday, today or tomorrow, in French, German, Luxembourgish or English. Stories, poems, biographies telling stories, fictional, 'inspired by real facts' or real, stories of those in the Luxembourg and Lorraine mining basin “struggling to do everything right” (Brilliant Disguise). Texts will be published every Friday in 2022 by newspaper Tageblatt and assembled afterwards in a book published by capybarabooks. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Sentiment in Luxembourgish User Comments
Gierschek, Daniela UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Sentiment is all around us in everyday life. It can be found in blog posts, social media comments, text messages and many other places where people express themselves. Sentiment analysis is the task of ... [more ▼]

Sentiment is all around us in everyday life. It can be found in blog posts, social media comments, text messages and many other places where people express themselves. Sentiment analysis is the task of automatically detecting those sentiments, attitudes or opinions in written text. In this research, the first sentiment analysis solution for the low-resource language, Luxembourgish, is conducted using a large corpus of user comments published on the RTL Luxembourg website www.rtl.lu. Various resources were created for this purpose to set the foundation for further sentiment research in Luxembourgish. A Luxembourgish sentiment lexicon and an annotation tool were built as external resources that can be used for collecting and enlarging training data for sentiment analysis tasks. Additionally, a corpus of mainly sentences of user comments was annotated with negative, neutral and positive labels. This corpus was furthermore automatically translated to English and German. Afterwards, diverse text representations such as word2vec, tf-idf and one-hot encoding were used on the three versions of the corpus of labeled sentences for training different machine learning models. Furthermore, one part of the experimental setup leveraged linguistic features for the classification process in order to study their impact on sentiment expressions. By following such a broad strategy, this thesis not only sets the basis for sentiment analysis with Luxembourgish texts but also intends to give recommendations for conducting sentiment detection research for other low-resource languages. It is demonstrated that creating new resources for a low-resource language is an intensive task and should be carefully planned in order to outperform working with translations where the target language is a high-resource language such as English and German. [less ▲]

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See detailManchmal das Recht brechen: Was bedeutet es, wenn ein ständiges Mitglied des UN-Sicherheitsrats wie Russland einem Nachbarland die Staatlichkeit abspricht und dort einmarschiert? Gespräch mit dem Völkerrechtler Michel Erpelding
Erpelding, Michel UL; Feist, Peter

Article for general public (2022)

The main purpose of this interview was to explain to the broader public in Luxembourg: 1. the legal implications of the Russian-backed secessions of Crimea (later annexed by Russia) and the Donetsk and ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this interview was to explain to the broader public in Luxembourg: 1. the legal implications of the Russian-backed secessions of Crimea (later annexed by Russia) and the Donetsk and Luhansk regions in Ukraine, as well as Russia's full-scale aggression against Ukraine on 24th February 2022; 2. the historical context that explains how the post-WWII international order balances the principle of national self-determination with the principles of sovereign equality and territorial integrity of states. Its second purpose was to raise awareness about: 1. the need for Luxembourg and the EU to show coherence when reacting to wars of aggression and annexations, which constitute the most egregious violation of international, regardless of which state committed the aggression and/or annexation (e.g. Russia in Ukraine, Israel on the Golan Heights inter alia, Morocco in Western Sahara); 2. the legal risks (both civil and criminal) for Luxembourg businesses that deal with goods from, or invest in, illegally occupied territories. [less ▲]

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See detailANALYZING THE PRIVACY AND SECURITY OF PROOF-OF-WORK CRYPTOCURRENCIES
Cao, Tong UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

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See detailControllability of complex flow networks
Mazur, Xavier UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

When left uncontrolled, complex flow networks are susceptible to negative externalities and tend not to be used to their full potential. This work focuses more specifically on the specific instance of ... [more ▼]

When left uncontrolled, complex flow networks are susceptible to negative externalities and tend not to be used to their full potential. This work focuses more specifically on the specific instance of transportation networks that are subject to constantly increasing demand. Control strategies, based on increasingly promising technological advancements, have been developed with the aim to exploit the full potential of the existing transportation infrastructure. To improve the current state of transportation networks, control strategies rely on control technologies to impact road users on networks and redirect them, such as to improve the situation by avoiding delays, for example. However, the problem of identifying the required controller numbers, types, and locations has received little attention in the current literature. Existing research works proposed approaches to the problem but often either do not provide complete control over the considered network or lack scalability, thus are not applicable on any type and size of networks. In this dissertation, we aim at filling this gap by providing a general methodology and proposing various approaches to this problem. The first part of this work focuses specifically on studying the problem of fully controlling a transportation network and provides various approaches. Their capacity to actually impact and control transportation networks is assessed empirically, showing that the proposed approaches can fully control small networks. The second part studies the problem of scalability and provides a new method that is proved to be able to provide an efficient set of pricing controllers while being scalable. This approach is later improved by integrating flow information and demonstrated to be more reliable in the specific case where the demand is irregularly distributed over the considered network, which is a common setting in real transportation networks. Additionally, the proposed methods are applied and tested over the network of Luxembourg, demonstrating the scalability of the approaches and their capacity to improve the current state of large realistic networks subject to heavy congestion. [less ▲]

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See detail“Keeping the lights on” – Maintaining (communication) infrastructures
Krebs, Stefan UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

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See detailThe delicate balance between expansion, innovation and maintenance of the Luxembourg Telephone Network
Krebs, Stefan UL; Mossop, Rebecca UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables ... [more ▼]

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables (expansion) and new distribution technology (innovation). However, the envisioned expansion was repeatedly slowed down by a lack of trained technical staff and resources. For example, requests for new connections had repeatedly to be rejected and already planned expansion measures had to be postponed. Due to the one-sided focus of government and Luxembourg Post (PTT) administration on network expansion, the maintenance and repair of the network suffered at the same time, so that more frequent defects occurred. At the same time did the repair of defects tie up human and material resources that were then not available for expansion works. The PTT was thus confronted with a constant balancing act between the expansion and modernisation of the network and its maintenance, with the management level prioritising expansion and innovation. The problem was particularly virulent during the rapid expansion of telephony in the 1960s and 70s, but the paper will trace the fundamental conflict of interests for the first one hundred years of telephony in Luxembourg. The paper draws on legal documents and PTT reports to show how the construction, expansion and maintenance of the telephone network was envisioned, and how the shortage of technical staff and resources hampered the smooth operation of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting Complex Microglia Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration
Ameli, Corrado UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

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See detailAn Analysis of Cholesteric Spherical Reflector Identifiers for Object Authenticity Verification
Arenas Correa, Monica Patricia UL; Demirci, Huseyin UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction (2022), 4(1), 222-239

Arrays of Cholesteric Spherical Reflectors (CSRs), microscopic cholesteric liquid crystals in a spherical shape, have been argued to become a game-changing technology in anti-counterfeiting. Used to build ... [more ▼]

Arrays of Cholesteric Spherical Reflectors (CSRs), microscopic cholesteric liquid crystals in a spherical shape, have been argued to become a game-changing technology in anti-counterfeiting. Used to build identifiable tags or coating, called CSR IDs, they can supply objects with unclonable fingerprint-like characteristics, making it possible to authenticate objects. In a previous study, we have shown how to extract minutiæ from CSR IDs. In this journal version, we build on that previous research, consolidate the methodology, and test it over CSR IDs obtained by different production processes. We measure the robustness and reliability of our procedure on large and variegate sets of CSR IDs’ images taken with a professional microscope (Laboratory Data set) and with a microscope that could be used in a realistic scenario (Realistic Data set). We measure intra-distance and interdistance, proving that we can distinguish images coming from the same CSR ID from images of different CSR IDs. However, without surprise, images in Laboratory Data set have an intra-distance that on average is less, and with less variance, than the intra-distance between responses from Realistic Data set. With this evidence, we discuss a few requirements for an anti-counterfeiting technology based on CSRs. [less ▲]

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See detailA Hybrid Approach to Optimal TOA-Sensor Placement With Fixed Shared Sensors for Simultaneous Multi-Target Localization
Xu, Sheng; Wu, Linlong UL; Doğançay, Kutluyıl et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2022)

This paper focuses on optimal time-of-arrival (TOA) sensor placement for multiple target localization simultaneously. In previous work, different solutions only using non-shared sensors to localize ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on optimal time-of-arrival (TOA) sensor placement for multiple target localization simultaneously. In previous work, different solutions only using non-shared sensors to localize multiple targets have been developed. Those methods localize different targets one-by-one or use a large number of mobile sensors with many limitations, such as low effectiveness and high network complexity. In this paper, firstly, a novel optimization model for multi-target localization incorporating shared sensors is formulated. Secondly, the systematic theoretical results of the optimal sensor placement are derived and concluded using the A-optimality criterion, i.e., minimizing the trace of the inverse Fisher information matrix (FIM), based on rigorous geometrical derivations. The reachable optimal trace of Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is also derived. It can provide optimal conditions for many cases and even closed form solutions for some special cases. Thirdly, a novel numerical optimization algorithm to quickly find and calculate the (sub-)optimal placement and achievable lower bound is explored, when the model becomes complicated with more practical constraints. Then, a hybrid method for solving the most general situation, integrating both the analytical and numerical solutions, is proposed. Finally, the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed theoretical and mathematical methods are demonstrated by several simulation examples. [less ▲]

See detail30 juin 1967. Prix Robert Schuman pour Joseph Bech
Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2022)

Le 20 juin 1967, l’homme d’État luxembourgeois, Joseph Bech reçoit le prix Robert Schuman de l’université de Bonn pour honorer son engagement européen. Dans son discours de remerciement, il rappelle les ... [more ▼]

Le 20 juin 1967, l’homme d’État luxembourgeois, Joseph Bech reçoit le prix Robert Schuman de l’université de Bonn pour honorer son engagement européen. Dans son discours de remerciement, il rappelle les acquis du projet européen, mais précise que tout reste à faire. La cérémonie a été suivie d'une rencontre avec des étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detail20 septembre 1972. Vingtimèe anniversaire de la CECA
Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2022)

La Communauté européenne du Charbon et de l'Acier (CECA) célèbre son vingtième anniversaire. Retour sur cette organisation internationale née au Luxembourg avec Jean Monnet, premier président de la CECA ... [more ▼]

La Communauté européenne du Charbon et de l'Acier (CECA) célèbre son vingtième anniversaire. Retour sur cette organisation internationale née au Luxembourg avec Jean Monnet, premier président de la CECA, et Gaston Thorn, ministre luxembourgeois des Affaires étrangères. [less ▲]

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