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See detailEffective Review in the Age of Information: The Case-study of Semi-automated Decision-making based on Schengen Information System
Demkova, Simona UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The speed with which the EU employs automation in large-scale informational cooperation is unparalleled by the attention devoted to the adjustment of the corresponding system of legal protection ... [more ▼]

The speed with which the EU employs automation in large-scale informational cooperation is unparalleled by the attention devoted to the adjustment of the corresponding system of legal protection. Illustrated with the case study of the Schengen Information System, yet as manifested across broader policy areas, the EU's determination to exploit the benefits of information technologies by rendering them ever smarter, fast and efficient, eventually puts to a test the Union’s fundamental values and principles. The technological progress affects not only the European constitutional promise of effective judicial protection but also of good administration. The drive to revolutionise decision-making takes a sway on the very act of deciding, rendering it an ever-more ‘automatised’ behaviour. Against this backdrop, the thesis addresses the research question: to what extent are supervisory authorities able to ensure effective protection to individuals against decisions taken based on large-scale informational cooperation, in light of the challenges arising from technological innovation, namely automation, for the exercise of effective review. The thesis offers a holistic assessment of the existing and novel challenges to effective account-giving and enforcement of individual rights in the EU multilevel system in view of contributing to the debate on the impacts of technological progress on the legal position of private persons. The assessment shows that ex post enforcement of rights is fundamentally weakened where established jurisdictional limits prevent addressing the multijurisdictional and cross-border conduct underpinning data-driven decision-making. Legal protection instead increasingly depends on the array of additional safeguards, including ex ante legal protection through the judicial authorisation or regular monitoring of the automated support systems. Their existence alone, however, does not uphold the constitutional promise of effective judicial protection. The quest to strengthen the available ex post review mechanisms needs to be addressed as the absolute priority in order to balance the magnitude of power exerted by means of automation on both public conduct and private lives. [less ▲]

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See detailThroughput Enhancement in FD- and SWIPT-enabled IoT Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channel
Nguyen, Nhat Tan; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021)

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks and improving their spectral efficiency (SE). The article investigates the outage and throughput performance for a decode-and-forward (DF) relay SWIPT system, which consists of one source, multiple relays, and one destination. The relay nodes in this system can harvest energy from the source’s signal and operate in FD mode. A suboptimal, low-complexity, yet efficient relay selection scheme is also proposed. Specifically, a single relay is selected to convey information from a source to a destination so that it achieves the best channel from the source to the relays. An analysis of outage probability (OP) and throughput performed on two relaying strategies, termed static power splitting-based relaying (SPSR) and optimal dynamic power splitting-based relaying (ODPSR), is presented. Notably, we considered independent and non-identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels, which pose new challenges in obtaining analytical expressions. In this context, we derived exact closed-form expressions of the OP and throughput of both SPSR and ODPSR schemes. We also obtained the optimal power splitting ratio of ODPSR for maximizing the achievable capacity at the destination. Finally, we present extensive numerical and simulation results to confirm our analytical findings. Both simulation and analytical results show the superiority of ODPSR over SPSR. [less ▲]

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See detailÉTRANGERS FAMILIERS Les travailleurs frontaliers en Suisse : Conceptualisation, Emploi, Quotidien et Pratiques
Bolzman, claudio; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Duchêne-Lacroix, Cédric

Book published by L'harmattan (2021)

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis ... [more ▼]

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis plusieurs décennies un des facteurs de la croissance économique. Pourtant, ils sont relativement peu connus. A cheval entre deux pays, leurs modes de vie, leur statut spécifique, leur pratique de la frontière interrogent. Ils sont ainsi qualifiés d’Etrangers familiers par les différents auteurs de cet ouvrage. Leur emploi, leur quotidien et leurs pratiques sont passés au crible, à la lumière d’entretiens mais également de données statistiques, révélant au passage la diversité des situations selon les cantons, et la grande variété des profils des frontaliers. C’est finalement tout un système organisé autour du travailleur frontalier lui-même qui est au cœur de cet ouvrage, retraçant l’emploi, le parcours des frontaliers, mais également leur quotidien et les questions relatives à leur intégration. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo centuries of music education in Luxembourg. 'Learning to teach' in the focus of two traditions
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 15)

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung ... [more ▼]

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung Luxemburgs – sie setzt für die musikalische Bildung um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ein – ist das Wissen um den historischen Kontext unerlässlich. Publikationen erster musikpädagogischer Werke, in der Mehrzahl Liederbücher, werden mit didaktischen Anweisungen eingeleitet, stehen nicht selten unter der Einflussnahme der katholischen Kirche und werden in einschlägigen Publikationsorganen behandelt. Dabei spielt die Bewegung des Cäcilianismus eine herausgehobene Rolle. Der erste spezialisierte Musikunterricht (Instrumentalunterricht und Gesangsunterricht) erfolgt in Privatinitiative, bis im Jahr 1844 der Gemeinderat der Stadt Luxemburg der Gründung der ersten öffentlichen Musikschule im Großherzogtum zustimmt. Die Besetzung von Direktorenposten und Lehrern abwechselnd mit deutsch- und mit französischsprachigen Persönlichkeiten führt zu einem Sonderweg musikpädagogischen Wirkens. Seit dem Jahrhundertwechsel sind die Grundsteine des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts gelegt. Die geographische Nähe zum Pariser bzw. zum Brüsseler Konservatorium führen jedoch überwiegend zur Übernahme der dort vorherrschenden Traditionen. Das Thema des Symposiums 'Das Lehren lernen' bewahrheitet sich hier in der Negation. Angehende Lehrer sind zuerst Musiker, dann Lehrer. Das Erwerben von Expertise erfolgt vielfach durch Lernen in der Praxis. Diese Tendenz setzt sich z.T. bis heute fort. Studiengänge für musikpädagogische Praxis werden in französischsprachigen Ländern sehr spät angeboten und existieren in Luxemburg bis heute nicht. Auf der anderen Seite folgt der Musikunterricht (Gesangunterricht) in Grund- und Sekundarschulen eher der Vorgehensweise in deutschsprachigen Ländern. Die gegenseitige Beeinflussung im Fokus der beiden Traditionen ist in diesem Bereich weniger ausgeprägt. Für meinen Vortrag schlage ich einen historischen Überblick über die Entwicklung der Musikpädagogik in Luxemburg anhand von der Organisation des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts vor. Die Ausbildung der Lehrenden im Bereich der Kirchenmusik gehört als integrativer Bestandteil in den Vortrag mit einbezogen. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of vulnerabilities in the international protection procedure
Petry, Ralph UL; Osburg, Mathis UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Article for general public (2021)

The vulnerability of applicants for international protection is a key component of the EU acquis on asylum, with both the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU) and the Recast Reception ... [more ▼]

The vulnerability of applicants for international protection is a key component of the EU acquis on asylum, with both the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU) and the Recast Reception Conditions Directive (2013/33/EU) providing special provisions for vulnerable persons with regard to the procedure for international protection (i.e. special procedural guarantees) and reception (i.e. special reception needs), respectively. Hence, in order for Member States to be able to provide and guarantee these special provisions for vulnerable applicants, it is essential that a potential vulnerability is detected and identified at an early stage in the international protection procedure. It is in this context that EMN Luxembourg decided, in consultation with the Luxembourgish authorities and national stakeholders, to launch a request for information to Member States via the EMN ad-hoc query system. As a consequence, the aim of this Inform is to map how vulnerabilities of applicants for international protection are detected in the international protection procedure in EU Member States and how the follow-up of this detection is guaranteed by the authorities and stakeholders involved, including special procedural guarantees. [less ▲]

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See detailLes soldats de la Wehrmacht d'Eupen-Malmedy
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 14)

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See detailNonstandard n-distances based on certain geometric constructions
Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The concept of n-distance was recently introduced to generalize the classical definition of distance to functions of n arguments. In this paper we investigate this concept through a number of examples ... [more ▼]

The concept of n-distance was recently introduced to generalize the classical definition of distance to functions of n arguments. In this paper we investigate this concept through a number of examples based on certain geometrical constructions. In particular, our study shows to which extent the computation of the best constant associated with an n-distance may sometimes be difficult and tricky. It also reveals that two important graph theoretical concepts, namely the total length of the Euclidean Steiner tree and the total length of the minimal spanning tree constructed on n points, are instances of n-distances. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Urban Mining Automation and Digitalisation for a Closed- Loop Circular Construction
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL et al

Poster (2021, October 13)

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance ... [more ▼]

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance of the circular economy, construction actors are aligning their practices to be more circular and sustainable. The concept of material banks is born out of this awareness in order to document the lifecycle information of materials and facilitate re-using them. The introduction of new cycles before individual materials reach their final lifecycle stages results in reduced negative environmental impacts. This paper presents a workflow by positioning different digital technologies to automate the procedures for reuse assessment: from the deconstructed building to M/C bank to new construction projects. This automation supports a practical material and component reuse, while it provides the necessary infrastructure to digitise and digitalise the post-deconstruction materials to be visualised, selected and used by future designers in Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based design and management environments. To this aim, the coupling of BIM, reality capturing technologies, additive manufacturing techniques, IoT and RFID sensors is also anticipated. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Tool to Experience: Establishing a User Experience Perspective on Digital Concept Mapping
Rohles, Björn UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Education today faces difficult challenges, particularly because the complexity of topics or problems is rising and requires that learners see connections across different domain boundaries. Consequently ... [more ▼]

Education today faces difficult challenges, particularly because the complexity of topics or problems is rising and requires that learners see connections across different domain boundaries. Consequently, learners and instructors need a systematic approach to build and assess structural knowledge, supporting them to work with complexity in the 21st century. Digital concept mapping is a promising method to address these challenges. Concept maps are graphical networks of concepts and links with a particular emphasis on explicit semantic relations. Digitalization of concept mapping offers a range of capabilities but also adds challenges of its own. As learners take on a simultaneous role of users, the question of how to purposefully design positive experiences in digital concept mapping becomes a key concern. A digital tool needs to be optimized to allow learners to focus on task-relevant aspects instead of investing cognitive resources into operating the tool. Furthermore, a digital tool can itself be a source of positive experiences, contributing to motivation and reaching the overall educational goals. With an insufficient focus on users, designers and researchers risk creating tools that do not adequately acknowledge the aforementioned impacts on education. The present dissertation argues that the notion of user experience (UX) is adequate for investigating and purposefully shaping learner experiences with concept maps. The dissertation addresses the following research question: How does a user experience-driven approach contribute to digital concept mapping? After a general introduction (Part I), the dissertation builds on eight studies in four main parts: defining objectives of user experience design for digital concept mapping (Part II), investigating user experience design for a digital concept mapping tool (Part III), identifying scoring approaches for concept map-based assessment (Part IV), and investigating the impact of user experience on digital concept mapping (Part V). It concludes with a general discussion (Part VI). Part II presents three studies. Chapter 2 describes a co-design study in four classes. It combined functionality-driven and experience-driven design and identified a requirements profile for a digital concept mapping tool. Chapter 3 describes a storytelling focus group study that identified the role, desired outcomes, and pain points of digital concept mapping in Luxembourgish secondary education. Chapter 4 describes an interview study that identified how digital concept mapping contributes to fulfilling psychological needs. Part III describes the user experience design of a digital concept mapping tool. Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 investigate and optimize user experience with a concept mapping tool, building on a combination of critical incidents, think-aloud, card-driven investigation of psychological needs, and interviews. In summary, these studies were able to optimize user experience in digital concept mapping. Part IV addresses the scoring of concept maps which was identified as a key challenge for instructors and researchers in Part II. Chapter 10 is a systematic literature review of criteria used to score concept maps, resulting in a comprehensive framework with three dimensions that define concept map scoring. Finally, Part V presents two studies measuring the impact of a user experience perspective on digital concept mapping. Chapter 11 investigates user experience, psychological needs, intention to use, and concept map scores. Psychological needs strongly determined positive user experience, but not universally across all needs. User experience strongly impacted intention to use. Furthermore, our results indicated the need for further research into the relation between user experience and scores. Chapter 12 presents work in progress on guidelines and a scoring rubric for the meaningful use of multimodal features (like color, shape, or line type) in digital concept mapping. The present dissertation contributes empirical results to establishing a user experience perspective by identifying functional and non-functional goals, contextual factors, desired outcomes, pain points, and functionalities and characteristics of digital concept mapping tools. Furthermore, it outlines how these requirements can be achieved with UX design. The dissertation also contributes theoretical and meta-analytical findings by proposing a profile of psychological needs for concept mapping and deriving a comprehensive framework of criteria used to score concept maps. Finally, the dissertation makes methodological contributions by demonstrating how humans can be systematically involved in shaping their experiences with digital concept maps. The dissertation also provides recommendations for future design and instruction. [less ▲]

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See detailJugend aus der UdSSR als ZwangsarbeiterInnen in Luxemburg 1942-1944
Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

At the center of the conversation about young people of the same age in the same city as today's high school students from Esch, were Soviet girls and guys who were taken by the Nazis to work in the steel ... [more ▼]

At the center of the conversation about young people of the same age in the same city as today's high school students from Esch, were Soviet girls and guys who were taken by the Nazis to work in the steel industry in Luxembourg. Luxembourg schoolchildren participate in the design of the monument to their peers 80 years ago, together with a sculpture from Russia. [less ▲]

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See detailParental migration and psychological well-being of children. Longitudinal evidence from Ghana
Raturi, Radhika; Cebotari, Victor UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailEl Estado de Bienestar de la 4T y La Tercera Vía
Huitrón García, Patricia Manuela; Cebotari, Victor UL; Rodríguez Rosario, David Gustavo

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailBismut-Stroock Hessian formulas and local Hessian estimates for heat semigroups and harmonic functions on Riemannian manifolds
Chen, Qin-Qian; Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this article, we develop a martingale approach to localized Bismut-type Hessian formulas for heat semigroups on Riemannian manifolds. Our approach extends the Hessian formulas established by Stroock ... [more ▼]

In this article, we develop a martingale approach to localized Bismut-type Hessian formulas for heat semigroups on Riemannian manifolds. Our approach extends the Hessian formulas established by Stroock (1996) and removes in particular the compact manifold restriction. To demonstrate the potential of these formulas, we give as application explicit quantitative local estimates for the Hessian of the heat semigroup, as well as for harmonic functions on regular domains in Riemannian manifolds. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging High-Frequency Components for Deepfake Detection
Mejri, Nesryne UL; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos UL; Aouada, Djamila UL

in IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (2021)

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily ... [more ▼]

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily dependent on the quality of the forged content and the level of artifacts introduced by the forgery method. To detect these artifacts, it is often necessary to separate and analyze the frequency components of an image. In this context, we propose to utilize the high-frequency components of color images by introducing an end-to-end trainable module that (a) extracts features from high-frequency components and (b) fuses them with the features of the RGB input. The module not only exploits the high-frequency anomalies present in manipulated images but also can be used with most RGB-based deepfake detectors. Experimental results show that the proposed approach boosts the performance of state-of-the-art networks, such as XceptionNet and EfficientNet, on a challenging deepfake dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance assessment of the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG-6
Francis, Olivier UL

in Journal of Geodesy (2021), 95:116

The new-generation relative gravimeter Scintrex CG6 is put on the test bench: Its performance is compared to its predecessor, the Scintrex-CG5. A CG5 Scintrex and a CG6 Scintrex were both submitted to the ... [more ▼]

The new-generation relative gravimeter Scintrex CG6 is put on the test bench: Its performance is compared to its predecessor, the Scintrex-CG5. A CG5 Scintrex and a CG6 Scintrex were both submitted to the same rigorous tests, which have been developed in recent years to highlight some defects of the CG5. The results show that the CG6 always performs better than the CG5. For instance, the instrumental drift is 5 times smaller for the CG6 than for the CG5. In the tidal bands, the noise level of the CG6 is 3 times lower than of the one of the CG5. We confirmed the tilt susceptibility of the CG5 and found that the CG6 is barely affected by long duration tilts before taking measurements. Unlike the CG5, the CG6 measurements are not influenced by external temperature variations. Overall, the CG6 provides more precise and stable gravity measurements compared to the CG5. [less ▲]

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See detailCyborg, IA et société "cyborgisée" : l’avènement d’une société-ruche
Derian, Maxime UL

in Collectif (Ed.) Aux frontières de l'humain (2021)

If the cyborg remains a human - repaired, augmented or diminished -, the emergence of metaphorical or real figures such as the latter as well as hybrids, robots, drones and AIs, is perhaps the expression ... [more ▼]

If the cyborg remains a human - repaired, augmented or diminished -, the emergence of metaphorical or real figures such as the latter as well as hybrids, robots, drones and AIs, is perhaps the expression of an anthropological major shift. Indeed, beyond the question of the enhanced humanity, transhumanism and the possibility of posthumanism, it seems topical to ask whether it is not society itself that is in the process of becoming 'cyborgised' on a global scale. In such a case, rather than listing the anthropotechnical technologies (of human modification) that have appeared since the invention of computers, it seems appropriate to anticipate and attempt to understand the ethical, political, economic and social issues emblematic of these technologies. Hence the concept of the 'hive-society', used to describe this possible major break in history marked by the advent of an organisation that is above all administered by - and sometimes for - digital machines. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced Characterizations of Silica Surface in Rubber Compounds by Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Yan, Chuanyu UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

This thesis details the development, validation, and application of advanced solid-state nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques for the characterization of the silica surface in raw ... [more ▼]

This thesis details the development, validation, and application of advanced solid-state nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques for the characterization of the silica surface in raw materials and in rubber compounds. The performance of the quantitative techniques (29Si DP-CPMG, SVD and 29Si multiCP) and qualitative techniques (29Si CP-CPMG and {1H-29Si}-1H MCPi) are investigated using model and close-to-real life samples. The insights gained from this study are useful for the surface-specific characterization of silica and could offer clues for similar topics. [less ▲]

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See detailMendelian randomization study of smoking, alcohol, and coffee drinking in relation to Parkinso's disease
Domenighetti, Cloe; Sugier, Pierre Emmanuel; Sreelatha, Ashwin Ashok Kumar et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Background:Previous studies showed that lifestyle behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee) are inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The prodromal phase of PD raises the possibility ... [more ▼]

Background:Previous studies showed that lifestyle behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee) are inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The prodromal phase of PD raises the possibility that these associations may be explained by reverse causation. Objective:To examine associations of lifestyle behaviors with PD using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) and the potential for survival and incidence-prevalence biases. Methods:We used summary statistics from publicly available studies to estimate the association of genetic polymorphisms with lifestyle behaviors, and from Courage-PD (7,369 cases, 7,018 controls; European ancestry) to estimate the association of these variants with PD. We used the inverse-variance weighted method to compute odds ratios (ORIVW) of PD and 95%confidence intervals (CI). Significance was determined using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold (p = 0.017). Results:We found a significant inverse association between smoking initiation and PD (ORIVW per 1-SD increase in the prevalence of ever smoking = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.60–0.93, p = 0.009) without significant directional pleiotropy. Associations in participants ≤67 years old and cases with disease duration ≤7 years were of a similar size. No significant associations were observed for alcohol and coffee drinking. In reverse MR, genetic liability toward PD was not associated with smoking or coffee drinking but was positively associated with alcohol drinking. Conclusion:Our findings are in favor of an inverse association between smoking and PD that is not explained by reverse causation, confounding, and survival or incidence-prevalence biases. Genetic liability toward PD was positively associated with alcohol drinking. Conclusions on the association of alcohol and coffee drinking with PD are hampered by insufficient statistical power. [less ▲]

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