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See detailWealth inequality in the long run
Alfani, Guido; Schifano, Sonia UL

in How Was Life? Volume II: New Perspectives on Well-being and Global Inequality since 1820 (2021)

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See detailPanorama de droit de la consommation 2020
Poillot, Elise UL; Aubry, Hélène; Sauphanor, Natacha

in Recueil Dalloz (2021)

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See detailEmbedding Intelligence in Materials for Responsive Built Environment using Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators and Sensors
Schwartz, Mathew; Lagerwall, Jan UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and ... [more ▼]

Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and actuation. To some, LCEs are simply another type of Shape Memory Polymer, while to others they are an interesting on-going scientific experiment. In this visionary article, we bring an interdisciplinary discussion around creative and impactful ways that LCEs can be applied in the Built Environment to support kinematic and kinetic buildings and situational awareness. We focus particularly on the autonomy made possible by using LCEs, potentially removing needs for motors, wiring and tubing, and even enabling fully independent operation in response to natural environment variations, requiring no power sources. To illustrate the potential, we propose a number of concrete application scenarios where LCEs could offer innovative solutions to problems of great societal importance, such as autonomous active ventilation, heliotropic solar panels systems which can also remove snow or sand autonomously, and invisible coatings with strain mapping functionality, alerting residents in case of dangerous (static or dynamic) loads on roofs or windows, as well as assisting building safety inspection teams after earthquakes. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral decarboxylase inhibitors paradoxically induce aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
Krüger, Rejko UL; Pavelka, Lukas UL; Mollenhauer, Brit et al

in NPJ Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors (PDIs) prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the blood by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Alterations in enzyme activity may ... [more ▼]

Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors (PDIs) prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the blood by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Alterations in enzyme activity may contribute to the required higher dosages of levodopa observed in many patients with Parkinson’s disease. We evaluated the effect of levodopa/PDI use on serum AADC enzyme activity. Serum AADC enzyme activity was evaluated in three independent cohorts of patients with Parkinson’s disease or parkinsonism (n = 301) and compared between patients on levodopa/PDI vs. patients not on this medication. AADC enzyme activity was elevated in 62% of patients on levodopa/PDI treatment, compared to 19% of patients not on levodopa/PDI (median 90 mU/L vs. 50 mU/L, p < 0.001). Patients with elevated AADC activity had longer disease duration and higher doses of levodopa/PDI. These findings may implicate that peripheral AADC induction could underlie a waning effect of levodopa, necessitating dose increases to maintain a sustained therapeutic effect. [less ▲]

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See detailUnfolding the Science Diplomacy Toolbox: Science and Innovation Centres
Epping, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, March 18)

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See detailInvesting in Crises
Penasse, Julien UL

Presentation (2021, March 18)

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See detailMulticasting Precoder Design for Vehicular Joint Radar-Communication Systems
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Kobayashi, Mari et al

in 2021 1st IEEE International Online Symposium on Joint Communications & Sensing (JC&S) (2021, March 16)

We consider the problem of multicasting a single data stream to multiple vehicles in a vehicular network from a joint radar and communication (JRC) equipped vehicle that simultaneously aims to detect ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of multicasting a single data stream to multiple vehicles in a vehicular network from a joint radar and communication (JRC) equipped vehicle that simultaneously aims to detect multiple targets and estimate their localization parameters such as ranges, Doppler shifts and angles. Assuming channel state information (CSI) is known at the JRC car, we design a precoder that exploits to maximize multicasting rate while simultaneously maximizing the radar Signal to Clutter plus Noise Ratio (SCNR) at the JRC vehicle. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep sequencing of sncRNAs reveals hallmarks and regulatory modules of the transcriptome during Parkinson’s disease progression
Krüger, Rejko UL; Kern, Fabian; Fehlmann, Tobias et al

in Nature Aging (2021)

Noncoding RNAs have diagnostic and prognostic importance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We studied circulating small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in two large-scale longitudinal PD cohorts (Parkinson’s ... [more ▼]

Noncoding RNAs have diagnostic and prognostic importance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We studied circulating small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in two large-scale longitudinal PD cohorts (Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and Luxembourg Parkinson’s Study (NCER-PD)) and modeled their impact on the transcriptome. Sequencing of sncRNAs in 5,450 blood samples of 1,614 individuals in PPMI yielded 323 billion reads, most of which mapped to microRNAs but covered also other RNA classes such as piwi-interacting RNAs, ribosomal RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. Dysregulated microRNAs associated with disease and disease progression occur in two distinct waves in the third and seventh decade of life. Originating predominantly from immune cells, they resemble a systemic inflammation response and mitochondrial dysfunction, two hall marks of PD. Profiling 1,553 samples from 1,024 individuals in the NCER-PD cohort validated biomarkers and main findings by an independent technology. Finally, network analysis of sncRNA and transcriptome sequencing from PPMI identified regulatory modules emerging in patients with progressing PD [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain matters – on the phenomenon of legal disembodiment in blockchain technology
Becker, Katrin UL

Scientific Conference (2021, March 15)

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See detailNegative mood increases desire to eat, but not event-related potentials, for food images in bulimia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Georgii, Claudio; Blechert, Jens et al

Scientific Conference (2021, March 12)

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See detailMachine Learning Force Fields
Oliver T. Unke; Stefan Chmiela; Huziel E. Sauceda et al

in Chemical Reviews (2021)

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See detailMeet the ECI Team!
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, March 11)

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See detailNATIONAL FORGETTING AND MEMORY: THE DESTRUCTION OF "NATIONAL" MONUMENTS FROM A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

The Fall of Monuments: a Public History Monuments have, for a few years now, been hitting the headlines all over the world. Public debates do not focus so much on the erection of new monuments as they do ... [more ▼]

The Fall of Monuments: a Public History Monuments have, for a few years now, been hitting the headlines all over the world. Public debates do not focus so much on the erection of new monuments as they do on acts of vandalism, removal, and destruction. If destructions of monuments are not new – for example during the French Revolution – their multiple examples all around the world (United States, England, Australia, Spain, Argentina, South Africa for instance) raise questions about their origins, meanings, and consequences. In my presentation, I propose to understand those synchronous destructions and removals through the angle of public history. Developed as a process to include publics into its production, interpretation, and communication, public history helps to better understand the issues at stake in destroying monuments. In the words of Ludmilla Jordanova, the past is more than ever considered as a public property subject to many different interpretations. Remembering and interpreting the past has become more democratic, more participatory, more diverse but has also shacked power relations. New participatory practices have impacted how we memorialize and interpret the past at official levels. Questions such as who owns the past and who can decide what historical events, actors can be remembered through monuments are being reconsidered. In this reinvention of our relations to monuments – and indirectly to the past – I propose to reconsider the role of historians. I argue that more than simply interpreting the past, historians can help communities deciding what to do with (unwanted) monuments [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Impact of Flaky Tests in Automated Program Repair
Qin, Yihao; Wang, Shangwen; Liu, Kui UL et al

in 28th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering, Hawaii 9-12 March 2021 (2021, March 10)

The literature of Automated Program Repair is largely dominated by approaches that leverage test suites not only to expose bugs but also to validate the generated patches. Unfortunately, beyond the widely ... [more ▼]

The literature of Automated Program Repair is largely dominated by approaches that leverage test suites not only to expose bugs but also to validate the generated patches. Unfortunately, beyond the widely-discussed concern that test suites are an imperfect oracle because they can be incomplete, they can include tests that are flaky. A flaky test is one that can be passed or failed by a program in a non-deterministic way. Such tests are generally carefully removed from the repair benchmarks. In practice, however, flaky tests are available test suite of software repositories. To the best of our knowledge, no study has discussed this threat to validity for evaluation of program repair. In this work, we highlight this threat and further investigate the impact of flaky tests by reverting their removal from the Defects4J benchmark. Our study aims to characterize the impact of flaky tests for localizing bugs and the eventual influence on the repair performance. Among other insights, we find that (1) although flaky tests are few (≈0.3%) of total tests, they affect experiments related to a large proportion (98.9%) of Defects4J real-world faults; (2) most flaky tests (98%) actually provide deterministic results under specific environment configurations (with the jdk version influencing the results); (3) flaky tests drastically hinder the effectiveness of spectrum-based fault localization (e.g., the rankings of 90 bugs drop down while none of the bugs obtains better location results compared with results achieved without flaky tests); and (4) the repairability of APR tools is greatly affected by the presence of flaky tests (e.g., 10 state of the art APR tools can now fix significantly fewer bugs than when the benchmark is manually curated to remove flaky tests). Given that the detection of flaky tests is still nascent, we call for the program repair community to relax the artificial assumption that the test suite is free from flaky tests. One direction that we propose is to consider developing strategies where patches that partially-fix bugs are considered worthwhile: a patch may make the program pass some test cases but fail some (which may actually be the flaky ones). [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph ...
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, March 04)

Presentation of the chapter co-written with Francesca Musiani (CNRS) within the book Digital Roots (De Gruyter, 2021) edited by G. Balbi, N. Ribeiro, V. Schafer and C. Schwarzenegger

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See detailNonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-ideal chemical reaction networks
Avanzini, Francesco UL; Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2021), 154

All current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks rely on the assumption of non-interacting species. We develop a general theory that accounts for interactions ... [more ▼]

All current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks rely on the assumption of non-interacting species. We develop a general theory that accounts for interactions between chemical species within a mean-field approach using activity coefficients. Thermodynamic consistency requires that rate equations do not obey standard mass-action kinetics but account for the interactions with concentration dependent kinetic constants. Many features of the ideal formulations are recovered. Crucially, the thermodynamic potential and the forces driving non-ideal chemical systems out of equilibrium are identified. Our theory is general and holds for any mean-field expression of the interactions leading to lower bounded free energies. [less ▲]

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