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See detailOverview of the impact of the proposed EU Digital Services Act Package on broadcasting in Europe A legal issue paper concerning the main elements of the Commission proposals for a Digital Services Act (DSA) and a Digital Markets Act (DMA) from a media law perspective
Cole, Mark David UL

Report (2021)

A legal issue paper concerning the main elements of the Commission proposals for a Digital Services Act (DSA) and a Digital Markets Act (DMA) from a media law perspective

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See detailThe Impact of SARS-COVID-19 Outbreak on European Cities Urban Mobility
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Connors, Richard UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Frontiers in Future Transportation (2021)

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See detailDJ-1 depletion slows down immunoaging in T-cell compartments
Zeng, Ni; Capelle, Christophe; Baron, Alexandre et al

Report (2021)

Decline in immune function during aging increases susceptibility to different aging related diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms, especially the genetic factors contributing to imbalance ... [more ▼]

Decline in immune function during aging increases susceptibility to different aging related diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms, especially the genetic factors contributing to imbalance of naïve/memory T-cell subpopulations, still remain largely elusive. Here we show that loss of DJ-1 encoded by PARK7 /DJ-1, causing early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), unexpectedly delayed immunoaging in both human and mice. Compared with two gender-matched unaffected sibling carriers of similar ages, the index PD patient with DJ-1 deficiency showed a decline in many critical immunoaging features, including almost doubled frequencies of non-senescent T cells. The observation of a ‘younger’ immune system in the index patient was further consolidated by the results in aged DJ-1 knockout mice. Our data from bone marrow chimera models and adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that DJ-1 regulates several immunoaging features via hematopoietic-intrinsic and naïve-CD8-intrinsic mechanisms. Our finding suggests an unrecognized critical role of DJ-1 in regulating immunoaging, discovering a potent target to interfere with immunoaging- and aging-associated diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization in VHTS Satellite System Design with Irregular Beam Coverage for Non-Uniform Traffic Distribution
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Salas-Natera, Miguel A.; Martinez, Ramon et al

in Remote Sensing (2021), 13(13),

Very High Throughput Satellites (VHTS) have a pivotal role in complementing terrestrial networks to increase traffic demand. VHTS systems currently assume a uniform distribution of traffic in the service ... [more ▼]

Very High Throughput Satellites (VHTS) have a pivotal role in complementing terrestrial networks to increase traffic demand. VHTS systems currently assume a uniform distribution of traffic in the service area, but in a real system, traffic demands are not uniform and are dynamic. A possible solution is to use flexible payloads, but the cost of the design increases considerably. On the other hand, a fixed payload that uses irregular beam coverage depending on traffic demand allows maintaining the cost of a fixed payload while minimizing the error between offered and required capacity. This paper presents a proposal for optimizing irregular beams coverage and beam pattern, minimizing the costs per Gbps in orbit, the Normalized Coverage Error, and Offered Capacity Error per beam. We present the analysis and performance for the case study and compare it with a previous algorithm for a uniform coverage area. [less ▲]

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See detailDo we need artificial inventors?
Stierle, Martin UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailTeacher education in translanguaging to achieve social justice?
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 29)

Multilingual and multicultural settings are an ever-growing reality all over the world. The potential of migrant’s multilingual and multicultural heritage can be unfolded if the citizens of the host ... [more ▼]

Multilingual and multicultural settings are an ever-growing reality all over the world. The potential of migrant’s multilingual and multicultural heritage can be unfolded if the citizens of the host country are open to it. However, immigrants are often confronted with cultural and linguistic supremacy while nationals of the host country are afraid of a loss or ‘dilution’ of their existing culture and language. The increase of multilingual and multicultural settings as well as the difficulty in overcoming this fear impelled scholars of various sciences to conduct extensive research on the issues of marginalization and cultural imperialism. Researchers in educational sciences, most notably Li Wei and Ofelia García, have opposed the linguistic and cultural hegemony in education through the promotion of translanguaging pedagogy. Translanguaging as a term describes both the natural discourse of bi- and multilingual people through the use of their entire linguistic repertoire and the pedagogy that makes use of these unique linguistic repertoires of bi- and multilingual students to foster learning, comprehension and academic achievement (Celic & Selzer, 2011; Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). The use of a translanguaging pedagogy in multicultural and multilingual settings proves beyond useful to disrupt linguistic hegemonies and socio-politically constructed named languages by giving bi- and multilingual students a voice and space to prosper, learn and develop their bi- and multilingual identities (García, 2019). The need of a translanguaging pedagogy becomes necessary in countries such as the small trilingual Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The culturally and linguistically highly diverse country with its three official languages (Luxembourgish, French, and German) sees a staggering gap between the school achievements of native and non-native children, forcing even the government to implement mandatory multilingual education in preschools (PISA, 2019). The development of Luxembourgish, familiarization of French and valorization of the home languages of the children have become an official requirement for preschool teachers since 2017. Given that 64 % of four-year olds in Luxembourg do not speak Luxembourgish at home, multiple projects and courses have launched to aid teachers in the practical application of this new law (MENJE, 2018). Thus, we developed our professional development course in translanguaging for preschool teachers in Luxembourg to support their work with multilingual children and their families. The disruption of the linguistic hegemony in Luxembourgish classrooms was implicitly carried through three distinct objectives of the project : (1) 18-hours professional development course in translanguaging to 38 preschool teachers from June to December 2019 divided into 7 sessions (multilingual ecology, home-school collaboration, multilingual brain, multilingual oracy and literacy), (2) active inclusion of children’s families to foster home-school collaboration through parents’ questionnaires and interviews and the promotion of partnerships between families and teachers in the course, and (3) support of children’s linguistic, socio-emotional and cognitive development and engagement in the classroom through early literacy and numeracy tests in the school and home languages, and video observations of classroom activities and interactions. As the goal of social justice was thematized implicitly throughout the course given that most teachers are monolingually and monoculturally biased to be confronted with the topic of cultural imperialism and linguistic hegemony head-on, we tried to assess the teachers change in attitudes through the use of focus group and questionnaires at the beginning and the end of the course. This is the present focus. As the voluntary participation in a translanguaging course would already suggest, the preliminary results of our project show an overall openness of the participating teachers towards other languages and cultures and an awareness of the need of inclusion of the home languages of the children for the benefit of their development and well-being. The results from teacher questionnaires show that there was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards multilingualism (t(35) = -3.83, p < .001) and significant decrease in exclusive interest in Luxembourgish (t(35) = 3.45, p < .001), after the course. This openness and awareness do, however, not automatically translate into social justice as only a very small number of teachers was open to the idea of disrupting linguistic hegemonies and in the video observations unconsciously put all the languages at a same level. The majority of the participants did change their views about their multilingual students (from deficit to richness) realizing that the inclusion of children’s home languages and cultures is a valuable tool for comprehension, learning and socio-emotional development instead of only being a stepping-stone until full mastery of Luxembourgish is achieved. Yet, their strong focus on the development of Luxembourgish and its absolute untouchable status as the language that receives the most recognition did not change. Beside the linguistic superiority of Luxembourgish, even linguistic hierarchies became blatantly obvious during video observations, showing just how much work still needs to be done for teachers to truly interiorize the potentially harmful consequences of linguistic hegemonies and hierarchies. It is our responsibility as researchers to continue to work with teachers, and involve parents, children, and their communities. Change in attitudes and raise of social responsibility and justice is a process. At this point of our project, we see it in fragments, and it is important for all of us not to disrupt it. If we do, the networks that we created will dissolve and the positive impact on multilingual children’s lives and their families could disappear. Therefore, we see two opportunities to continue the work on translanguaging pedagogy by: (1) organizing an additional training for teachers in which we will analyze the video observations to focus on power relations, and (2) organizing a teacher/parent conference in which we will facilitate the discussion on translanguaging pedagogy. Educational and social contexts are rapidly changing and we believe that our professional development course in translanguaging pedagogy is contributing to the process of adaptation to these changes by explicitly inviting us to be more socially responsible and fair. The Conference will give us the opportunity to present the final results and future directions of the project. References Celic, C., & Selzer, K. (2011). Translanguaging: A CUNY-NYSIEB Guide for Educators. New York: CUNY-NYSIEB. García, O. (2019). Translanguaging: a coda to the code?, Classroom Discourse, 10(3-4), 369-373, doi: 10.1080/19463014.2019.1638277 Ministry of National Education, Childhood and Youth [MENJE]. (2018). Les chiffres clés de l'Éducation nationale: statistiques et indicateurs - Année scolaire 2016-2017 [Key numbers of the national education: statistics and indicators – School year 2016-20167]. Retrieved from http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/index.html OECD (2019). PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What students know and can do. PISA, OECD Publishing: Paris. doi: https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named langauges: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistic Review, 6(3), 281–307. [less ▲]

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See detailDas (vermeintliche) Verschwinden des Reparierens
Krebs, Stefan UL; Hoppenheit, Thomas UL

Presentation (2021, April 27)

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See detailDefining a Manageable, Dynamic Chemical Space for Exposomics
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 27)

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See detailMulti-GNSS Slant Wet Delay Retrieval Using Multipath Mitigation Maps
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Ejigu, Yohannes Getachew; Teferle, Felix Norman UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, April 24)

The conventional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) processing is typically contaminated with errors due to atmospheric variabilities, such as those associated with the mesoscale phenomena. These ... [more ▼]

The conventional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) processing is typically contaminated with errors due to atmospheric variabilities, such as those associated with the mesoscale phenomena. These errors are manifested in the parameter estimates, including station coordinates and atmospheric products. To enhance the accuracy of these GNSS products further, a better understanding of the local-scale atmospheric variability is necessary. As part of multi-GNSS processing, station coordinates, carrier phase ambiguities, orbits, zenith total delay (ZTD) and horizontal gradients are the main parameters of interest. Here, ZTD is estimated as the average zenith delay along the line-of-sight to every observed GNSS satellite mapped to the vertical while the horizontal gradients are estimated in NS and EW directions and provide a means to partly account for the azimuthally inhomogeneous atmosphere. However, a better atmospheric description is possible by evaluating the slant path delay (SPD) or slant wet delay (SWD) along GNSS ray paths, which are not resolved by ordinary ZTD and gradient analysis. SWD is expected to provide better information about the inhomogeneous distribution of water vapour that is disregarded when retrieving ZTD and horizontal gradients. Usually, SWD cannot be estimated directly from GNSS processing as the number of unknown parameters exceeds the number of observations. Thus, SWD is generally calculated from ZTD for each satellite and may be dominated by un-modelled atmospheric delays, clock errors, unresolved carrier-phase ambiguities and near-surface multipath scattering. In this work, we have computed multipath maps by stacking individual post-fit carrier residuals incorporating the signals from four GNSS constellations, i.e. BeiDou, Galileo, Glonass and GPS. We have selected a subset of global International GNSS Service (IGS) stations capable of multi-GNSS observables located in different climatic zones. The multipath effects are reduced by subtracting the stacked multipath maps from the raw post-fit carrier phase residuals. We demonstrate that the multipath stacking technique results in significantly reduced variations in the one-way post-fit carrier phase residuals. This is particularly evident for lower elevation angles, thus, producing a retrieval method for SWD that is less affected by site-specific multipath effects. We show a positive impact on SWD estimation using our multipath maps during increased atmospheric inhomogeneity as induced by severe weather events. [less ▲]

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See detailRomania and Luxembourg – Connecting Memory, Sharing History
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2021, April 24)

In spite of their fondamental geopolitical differences and their contrasting trajectories through the history, modern-day Romania and Luxembourg have always enjoyed a unique relationship, which started in ... [more ▼]

In spite of their fondamental geopolitical differences and their contrasting trajectories through the history, modern-day Romania and Luxembourg have always enjoyed a unique relationship, which started in the 12th century, when a number of Siebenbürger Sachsen could migrate eastwards (in Transylvania). A second migratory movement occurs in the 18th century when inhabitants of the then Duchy of Luxembourg set off towards the Danubian plains (the Banat of Timisoara), establishing themselves as settlers on this land previously conquered by the Habsburgs from the Turks and today part of Romania. Bilateral diplomatic relations between Romania and Luxembourg were first established on 8 December 1920, and in 1966 their respective diplomatic representations were elevated to the rank of embassy. After the fall of the communist regime, the democratic government of Romania appointed, in 1990, its first resident ambassador in Luxembourg. During its gradual integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures (EU, NATO), Romania and Luxembourg increase their synergies in a bi- and multilateral international framework. Moreover, on 5 April 2005, Romania (and Bulgaria) signed the EU accession treaty in Luxembourg, under the Luxembourg Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Taking into account these elements, and also the fact that Romania and Luxembourg (both, independent and sovereign nation-states) are subjects of the international relations and diplomacy process, this lecture aims to present a insightful foray into a long-centuries common history, by highlighting moments, events and key-figures on both-sides, by means of several undisclosed and unpublished archival documents provided courtesy of the Diplomatic Archives of Romania. (A brief presentation of definitions, concepts and notions specific to the international relations and diplomacy field will ensure a better understanding of the subject). [less ▲]

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailOutage Probability Analysis of IRS-Assisted Systems Under Spatially Correlated Channels
Van Chien, Trinh; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K.; Thanh Tu, Lam et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(8), 1815-1819

This letter investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In ... [more ▼]

This letter investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In particular, we derive a novel closed-form expression of the outage probability for arbitrary phase shifts and correlation matrices of the indirect channels. To shed light on the impact of the spatial correlation, we further attain the closed-form expressions for two common scenarios met in the literature when the large-scale fading coefficients are expressed by the loss over a propagation distance. Numerical results validate the tightness and effectiveness of the closed-form expressions. Furthermore, the spatial correlation offers significant decreases in the outage probability as the direct channel is blocked. [less ▲]

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See detailFace-GCN: A Graph Convolutional Network for 3D Dynamic Face Identification/Recognition
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Kacem, Anis UL; Shabayek, Abdelrahman et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Face identification/recognition has significantly advanced over the past years. However, most of the proposed approaches rely on static RGB frames and on neutral facial expressions. This has two ... [more ▼]

Face identification/recognition has significantly advanced over the past years. However, most of the proposed approaches rely on static RGB frames and on neutral facial expressions. This has two disadvantages. First, important facial shape cues are ignored. Second, facial deformations due to expressions can have an impact on the performance of such a method. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for dynamic 3D face identification/recognition based on facial keypoints. Each dynamic sequence of facial expressions is represented as a spatio-temporal graph, which is constructed using 3D facial landmarks. Each graph node contains local shape and texture features that are extracted from its neighborhood. For the classification/identification of faces, a Spatio-temporal Graph Convolutional Network (ST-GCN) is used. Finally, we evaluate our approach on a challenging dynamic 3D facial expression dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangled Face Identity Representations for joint 3D Face Recognition and Expression Neutralisation
Kacem, Anis UL; cherenkova, kseniya; Aouada, Djamila UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this paper, we propose a new deep learning-based approach for disentangling face identity representations from expressive 3D faces. Given a 3D face, our approach not only extracts a disentangled ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a new deep learning-based approach for disentangling face identity representations from expressive 3D faces. Given a 3D face, our approach not only extracts a disentangled identity representation but also generates a realistic 3D face with a neutral expression while predicting its identity. The proposed network consists of three components; (1) a Graph Convolutional Autoencoder (GCA) to encode the 3D faces into latent representations, (2) a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) that translates the latent representations of expressive faces into those of neutral faces, (3) and an identity recognition sub-network taking advantage of the neutralized latent representations for 3D face recognition. The whole network is trained in an end-to-end manner. Experiments are conducted on three publicly available datasets showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular basis for higher affinity of SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD for human ACE2 receptor
Julián M. Delgado; Nalvi Duro; David M. Rogers et al

in Wiley (2021)

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See detailTrauerdefinition, Geschlechterunterschiede sowie religiöse und kulturelle Unterschiede im Umgang mit Tod und Trauer
Skrozic, Amna UL; Kijamet, Dzenita UL

in Böhmer, Matthias; Steffgen, Georges (Eds.) Trauer an Schulen. Basiswissen und Hinweise zum Umgang mit Sterben und Tod (2021)

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See detailCheminformatics and the Exposome in Health and Disease
Schymanski, Emma UL; Aurich, Dagny UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 10)

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See detailAdaptive Waveform Design for Automotive Joint Radar-Communication Systems
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(5), 4273-4290

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform ... [more ▼]

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform necessitates meeting the requirements of both systems, thereby making it a challenging task. The contribution of this paper is to formulate the JRC design problem into an optimization problem and propose an algorithm to maximize the signal-to-clutter-plus-noise-ratio (SCNR) of radar system and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at communicating vehicle, simultaneously. Central to this are the exploitation of the communication link to acquire environment/ channel information and enhance radar tasks, flexibility to impart trade-off between the two systems during design as well the formulation of the optimization problem to include sidelobe constraints and yield solutions robust to Doppler shifts. The designed waveforms exhibit enhanced radar performance in terms of probability of detection and communication performance in terms of bit error rate (BER), while taking into account the trade-off between two systems. The numerical simulations corroborate the claim of optimized performance with environment/ channel information, ease of effecting trade-off and the use of design flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailNF-κB and TNF Affect the Astrocytic Differentiation from Neural Stem Cells
Grandbarbe, Luc UL; Michelucci, Alessandro UL; Heuschling, Paul UL et al

in Cells (2021)

The NF-κB signaling pathway is crucial during development and inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that NF-κB activation induces dedifferentiation of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells ... [more ▼]

The NF-κB signaling pathway is crucial during development and inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that NF-κB activation induces dedifferentiation of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we provide evidence  that the NF-κB pathway plays also a fundamental role during the differentiation of NPCs into astrocytes. First, we show that the NF-κB pathway is essential to initiate astrocytic differentiation as its early inhibition induces NPC apoptosis and impedes their differentiation. Second, we demonstrate that persistent NF-κB activation affects NPC-derived astrocyte differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated NPCs show NF-κB activation, maintain their multipotential and proliferation properties, display persistent expression of immature markers and inhibit astrocyte markers. Third, we analyze the effect of  NF-κB activation on the main known astrocytic differentiation pathways, such as NOTCH and JAK-STAT. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB pathway plays a dual fundamental role during NPC differentiation into astrocytes: it promotes astrocyte specification, but its persistent activation impedes their differentiation. [less ▲]

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