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See detailSpectrum of Phenotypic, Genetic, and Functional Characteristics in Epilepsy Patients With KCNC2 Pathogenic Variants 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200660
Schwarz, Niklas; Seiffert, Simone; Pendziwiat, Manuela et al

in Neurology (2022)

Background: KCNC2 encodes Kv3.2, a member of the Shaw-related (Kv3) voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily, which is important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of ... [more ▼]

Background: KCNC2 encodes Kv3.2, a member of the Shaw-related (Kv3) voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily, which is important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of action potentials in the brain. The objective of this study was to analyse the clinical phenotype, genetic background, and biophysical function of disease-associated Kv3.2 variants.Methods: Individuals with KCNC2 variants detected by exome sequencing were selected for clinical, further genetic, and functional analysis. Cases were referred through clinical and research collaborations. Selected de novo variants were examined electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes.Results: We identified novel KCNC2 variants in 18 patients with various forms of epilepsy including genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) including early-onset absence epilepsy (EOAE), focal epilepsy (FE), and myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (MAE). 10/18 variants were de novo and 8/18 variants were classified as modifying variants. 8 drug responsive cases became seizure-free using valproic acid as monotherapy or in combination including severe DEE cases. Functional analysis of four variants demonstrated gain-of-function in three severely affected DEE cases and loss-of-function in one case with a milder phenotype (GGE) as the underlying pathomechanisms.Conclusion: These findings implicate KCNC2 as a novel causative gene for epilepsy and emphasize the critical role of KV3.2 in the regulation of brain excitability. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking A Balanced Investment Protocol in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA)
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 21)

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See detailClosing Keynote: Networks, governance and design. A journey through some historical case studies
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 18)

As famous as the quotation by Lawrence Lessing “Code is law”, the sentence by David Clark at a meeting at the IETF in 1992 “We reject kings, presidents and voting, we believe in rough consensus and ... [more ▼]

As famous as the quotation by Lawrence Lessing “Code is law”, the sentence by David Clark at a meeting at the IETF in 1992 “We reject kings, presidents and voting, we believe in rough consensus and running code” became a “motto for Internet standardization” (Russell, 2006) that invites us to have a look at the past relationships and intertwinements between networks design and governance. From the 1970s topics related to distribution and openness have become key in networks infrastructures, while complementary issues related to asymmetries and multi-stakeholderism (Raymond and DeNardis 2015) have been emphasized in the 1990s and 2000s, and notably during the WSIS in Tunis and Geneva. Research related to Internet governance (Mueller and Badiei, 2020; Musiani, Schafer, 2021) has also brought to the table strong issues related to agencies, privacy, and many others that have strongly followed the development of networks and their uses as well as controversies related to net neutrality or information flows for example (DeNardis, 2020). This presentation will go through several historical case studies and rethink them through the lens of infrastructure design and governance, from Arpanet in the 1970s, XNS and then the OSI (Russell, 2014), to web archives (Schafer, Winters 2021) and research infrastructures today, through past designs and attempts, related to the Web and Xanadu, the Minitel (Schafer, Thierry, 2012; Mailland, Driscoll, 2017), platforms like Wuala (Musiani, 2022) and Wikipedia (Cardon and Levrel, 2009). This will allow us to explore some notions and approach related to closure, secret, incentives, empowerment, while finally moving from “governance” to “good governance” and its challenges. [less ▲]

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See detail"But you know you won't be back"
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailWorkers rights and human rights: toward a new fundamental principle?
Yusifli, Zahra UL; Fenwick, Colin

in Elliott, Kimberly A. (Ed.) Handbook on Globalisation and Labour Standards (2022)

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See detailTo Kill or Not to Kill – An experimental test of moral Decision-Making in gaming
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Steffgen, Georges UL; Melzer, André UL

in Entertainment Computing (2022)

Commercial video game titles with meaningful and morally relevant storylines are becoming increasingly popular and an intensely researched topic for entertainment scholars. In line with this research, the ... [more ▼]

Commercial video game titles with meaningful and morally relevant storylines are becoming increasingly popular and an intensely researched topic for entertainment scholars. In line with this research, the current study investigates behavioral, emotional, and personality patterns of moral decision-making in gaming with a special emphasis on selected contextual factors. In the current laboratory experiment, a total of N = 101 participants played four chapters of Detroit: Become Human for approx. 55 min. A maximum of 13 moral decisions had to be made either under time pressure or not. Before playing, participants were assigned to one of three conditions (i.e., playing morally vs. immorally framed character vs. no framing/control condition). As expected, players generally preferred to act morally regardless of character framing. Time pressure further increased the proportion of moral (vs. immoral) decision-making. Our results underline that moral decision-making is dependent on specific contexts and that morality theories can be applied to virtual gaming scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the use of self-sovereign identity for event ticketing systems
Feulner, Simon; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Schlatt, Vincent et al

in Electronic Markets (2022), 32

This position paper discusses the challenges of blockchain applications in businesses and the public sector related to an excessive degree of transparency. We first point out the types of sensitive data ... [more ▼]

This position paper discusses the challenges of blockchain applications in businesses and the public sector related to an excessive degree of transparency. We first point out the types of sensitive data involved in different patterns of blockchain use cases. We then argue that the implications of blockchains’ information exposure caused by replicated transaction storage and execution go well beyond the often-mentioned conflicts with the GDPR’s “right to be forgotten” and may be more problematic than anticipated. In particular, we illustrate the trade-off between protecting sensitive information and increasing process efficiency through smart contracts. We also explore to which extent permissioned blockchains and novel applications of cryptographic technologies such as self-sovereign identities and zero-knowledge proofs can help overcome the transparency challenge and thus act as catalysts for blockchain adoption and diffusion in organizations. [less ▲]

See detailTemporary Protection in the EU - State of Play
Mellinger, Lukas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2022)

On 24 February 2022, the armed forces of the Russian Federation launched an unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine. This was an unprecedented act of aggression against a sovereign and independent ... [more ▼]

On 24 February 2022, the armed forces of the Russian Federation launched an unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine. This was an unprecedented act of aggression against a sovereign and independent country and goes against fundamental principles of international law. It has been strongly condemned by the international community, including the European Union. As of mid-March, over three million Ukrainian and international refugees are fleeing the war to neighbouring EU and third countries (including Moldova). This massive inflow of Ukrainian refugees into the EU resulted in the Council adopting the implementing Decision 2022/382 of 4 March 2022, introducing temporary protection as a means of dealing with the crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailA Workshop on War Letters (in the Digital Age)
Janz, Nina UL; van der Lange, Milan

Report (2022)

Impressions of building a community around people working on the digitization of historical ‘egodocuments’ using Transkribus.

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See detailLa relecture entre pairs : un levier de motivation de la pratique de l’écrit
Lejot, Eve UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 17)

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la ... [more ▼]

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la relecture entre pairs apporte un échange avec moins de pression (Lejot 2017). Cet échange se fait à un niveau de hiérarchie égal et facilite la négociation de sens des éléments du texte. Néanmoins, certains élèves pointent le manque de qualification des pairs pour remplacer les commentaires des professeurs dans l’enseignement supérieur (Rollinson 2005). Cette démarche trouve toute sa force pour les doctorants. Mis en place sur un semestre, ce système fermé de relecture et de commentaires reçus en boucle est bénéfique et motivant pour ces derniers. Dans les ateliers interdisciplinaires sur les compétences transversales et en l'occurrence celle de l'écrit académique, les doctorants soulignent l’énergie, la réflexion commune et le soutien que leur a apporté la relecture de texte d'un pair et d'être eux-mêmes relus (Lejot 2017). Relire est formateur et être compris par des chercheurs pairs fait faire un grand pas en termes de cohérence d'écriture et d'argumentation bien articulée à ces groupes des écoles doctorales. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Homework: an underresearched element of the active schools concept
Bailey, Richard; Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research (2022)

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to review evidence from the last ten years of the contribution of physically Active Homework (AH) to the promotion of PA. Methods Using a rapid review methodology, the article reports on evidence contribution of AH and considers conditions for its effective implementation. Results Although research literature on the effects of AH is limited and missing a theoretical base, studies reporting small positive associations between AH and PA levels were identified. Increases in PA were, however, of low intensity; moderate and vigorous intensities remained relatively unchanged. Conclusions Strategies to increase PA extending beyond the school gym are needed. Further and better research is needed to understand the conditions of effective implementation of AH. Nevertheless, there is a plausibility in providing students regular opportunities to further promote PA in students’ lives by practicing movement and sports skills, and offering a flexible way of finding and pursuing meaningful activities. The fact that AH may encourage the engagement of families and communities, multiplies its potential benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrograde Procedural Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study
Pauly, Laure UL; Pauly, Claire UL; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2022)

Background: The analysis of the procedural memory is particularly relevant in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, due to the central role of the basal ganglia in procedural memory. It ... [more ▼]

Background: The analysis of the procedural memory is particularly relevant in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, due to the central role of the basal ganglia in procedural memory. It has been shown that anterograde procedural memory, the ability to learn a new skill, is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. However, retrograde procedural memory, the long-term retention and execution of skills learned in earlier life stages, has not yet been systematically investigated in Parkinson’s disease. Objective: This study aims to investigate retrograde procedural memory in people with Parkinson’s disease.We hypothesized that retrograde procedural memory is impaired in people with Parkinson’s disease compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. Methods: First, we developed the CUPRO evaluation system, an extended evaluation system based on the Cube Copying Test, to distinguish the cube copying procedure, representing functioning of retrograde procedural memory, and the final result, representing the visuo-constructive abilities. Development of the evaluation system included tests of discriminant validity. Results: Comparing people with typical Parkinson’s disease (n = 201) with age- and gender-matched control subjects (n = 201), we identified cube copying performance to be significantly impaired in people with Parkinson’s disease (p = 0.008) No significant correlation was observed between retrograde procedural memory and disease duration. Conclusion: We demonstrated lower cube copying performance in people with Parkinson’s disease compared to control subjects, which suggests an impaired functioning of retrograde procedural memory in Parkinson’s disease. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening for Consensus: Delegation with Collective Principals
Anesi, Vincent UL; Buisseret, Peter

Presentation (2022, March 16)

A group of principals collectively and sequentially screen an agent. The principals hold heterogeneous values from the relationship that may evolve over time. At each date, the principals use a collective ... [more ▼]

A group of principals collectively and sequentially screen an agent. The principals hold heterogeneous values from the relationship that may evolve over time. At each date, the principals use a collective decision rule to propose a contract to the agent. We unearth circumstances in which every non-dictatorial decision rule yields inefficiency in the form of excessive learning: relative to a single-principal benchmark, collective principals screen the agent too aggressively. They do so in order to reduce uncertainty about the agent’s preferences, and alleviate dynamic conflicts of interest between the principals that exist regardless of their static alignment. [less ▲]

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See detailDefeating Super-Reactive Jammers WithDeception Strategy: Modeling, SignalDetection, and Performance Analysis
Van Huynh, Nguyen; Nguyen, Diep N.; Hoang, Dinh Thai et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022), 21(9), 7374-7390

This paper aims to develop a novel framework to defeat a super-reactive jammer, one of the mostdifficult jamming attacks to deal with in practice. Specifically, the jammer has an unlimited power budgetand ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to develop a novel framework to defeat a super-reactive jammer, one of the mostdifficult jamming attacks to deal with in practice. Specifically, the jammer has an unlimited power budgetand is equipped with the self-interference suppression capability to simultaneously attack and listen tothe transmitter’s activities. Consequently, dealing with super-reactive jammers is very challenging. Thus,we introduce a smart deception mechanism to attract the jammer to continuously attack the channel andthen leverage jamming signals to transmit data based on the ambient backscatter communication whichis resilient to radio interference/jamming. To decode the backscattered signals, the maximum likelihood(ML) detector can be adopted. However, the method is notorious for its high computational complexityand require a specific mathematical model for the communication system. Hence, we propose a deeplearning-based detector that can dynamically adapt to any channel and noise distributions. With the LongShort-Term Memory network, our detector can learn the received signals’ dependencies to achieve theperformance close to that of the optimal ML detector. Through simulation and theoretical results, wedemonstrate that with proposed approaches, the more power the jammer uses to attack the channel, thebetter bit error rate performance we can achieve [less ▲]

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See detailAWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research ... [more ▼]

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research. Web archives provide a rich resource for exploration and discovery! As such, this session will feature the program’s inaugural research teams, who will discuss the innovative ways they are exploring web archival collections to tackle interdisciplinary topics and methodologies. Projects from the Cohort program include: AWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset—Valérie Schafer (University of Luxembourg) Everything Old is New Again: A Comparative Analysis of Feminist Media Tactics between the 2nd- to 4th Waves—Shana MacDonald (University of Waterloo) Mapping and tracking the development of online commenting systems on news websites between 1996–2021—Robert Jansma (University of Siegen) Crisis Communication in the Niagara Region during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Tim Ribaric (Brock University) Viral health misinformation from Geocities to COVID-19—Shawn Walker (Arizona State University) UPDATE: Quinn Dombrowski from Saving Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Online (SUCHO) will give an introductory presentation about the team of volunteers racing to archive Ukrainian digital cultural heritage. [less ▲]

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See detailState Responsibility for Judicial Acts in Investment Arbitration
Cavdarevic, Ivan UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their ... [more ▼]

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their judiciary. The protection against denial of justice was traditionally the main international standard used for determining state responsibility for judicial acts, characterized by a relatively high threshold. Only with the proliferation of primary obligations of states towards individuals, the practical relevance of this standard was somewhat decreased. Nonetheless, this type of state responsibility – arising from domestic judicial acts – remains particularly sensitive due to the special nature and position of the national judiciary. It is commonly noted that role of national courts and their decision-making process is so particular that international courts and tribunals should not treat national judicial acts in an identical manner as acts of other state organs. Against this background, this thesis examines whether and to what extent the investment tribunals’ practice on cases concerning domestic judicial acts differs from comparable practices of other international adjudicatory bodies – in particular, the International Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. Through the analysis of various standards of protection – when applied to judicial acts – and the relevant case law, the thesis aims to address two different questions. Firstly, whether the standards of protection granted investment treaties substantially differ from standards commonly applied by other international adjudicatory bodies. Secondly, if the investment tribunals practice’ in cases concerning host states’ judicial acts is influenced only by these substantive standards or protection, or it is also shaped by more general features of investment law and the investor investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Ultimately, this research – through the analysis of these particular types of investor-state disputes – tries to offer novel insights into the deficiencies of the ISDS regime that should be taken into account, especially in light of the current initiatives for the reform of this regime. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning for Radio Resource Management in Multibeam GEO Satellite Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Electronics (2022), 11(7), 992

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and ... [more ▼]

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and changes in traffic demand diurnal. This problem is addressed by using flexible payload architectures, which allow payload resources to be flexibly allocated to meet the traffic demand of each beam. While optimization-based radio resource management (RRM) has shown significant performance gains, its intense computational complexity limits its practical implementation in real systems. In this paper, we discuss the architecture, implementation and applications of Machine Learning (ML) for resource management in multibeam GEO satellite systems. We mainly focus on two systems, one with power, bandwidth, and/or beamwidth flexibility, and the second with time flexibility, i.e., beam hopping. We analyze and compare different ML techniques that have been proposed for these architectures, emphasizing the use of Supervised Learning (SL) and Reinforcement Learning (RL). To this end, we define whether training should be conducted online or offline based on the characteristics and requirements of each proposed ML technique and discuss the most appropriate system architecture and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. [less ▲]

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