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See detailMagneto-optical activity in nonmagnetic hyperbolic nanoparticles
Kuttruff, Joel; Gabbani, Alessio; Petrucci, Gaia et al

in Physical Review Letters (2021), 127

Active nanophotonics can be realized by controlling the optical properties of materials with external magnetic fields. Here, we explore the influence of optical anisotropy on the magneto-optical activity ... [more ▼]

Active nanophotonics can be realized by controlling the optical properties of materials with external magnetic fields. Here, we explore the influence of optical anisotropy on the magneto-optical activity in non-magnetic hyperbolic nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the magneto-optical response is driven by fundamental electric and magnetic dipole modes induced by the hyperbolic dispersion. Magnetic circular dichroism experiments confirm the theoretical predictions and reveal tunable magneto-optical activity across the visible and near infrared spectral range. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-border vocational training as processes of cross-border learning
Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter

in Europa Regional (2021), 26(4), 17-30

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped ... [more ▼]

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped by bilateral cross-border formal learning agreements in a border region. Therefore, we build our own model of regional learning in border regions on WELLBROCK et al. (2012) following an integrated conceptual perspective and focusing on the actor’s perspective. The development of this transboundary VET by a variety of actors can be considered to form an intra- und interregional learning process. The interpretation of the structures regarding the conceptual findings reveals that the learning processes in the Saarland-Lorraine border region are dynamic and depend on key actors with expert knowledge as well as advantageous regional characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre mode et religion, un corps à corps riche de sens
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in The Conversation (2021)

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See detailConstitutive Powers of Executive Bodies: a Functional Analysis of the Single Resolution Board
Mendes, Joana UL

in Modern Law Review (2021), 84(6), 13301359

Executive bodies can acquire constitutive powers,even if subject to detailed substantive strictures. Constitutive powers give executive bodies the possibility to transform normative understandings of the ... [more ▼]

Executive bodies can acquire constitutive powers,even if subject to detailed substantive strictures. Constitutive powers give executive bodies the possibility to transform normative understandings of the meaning of norms and of the goals of public action into legal forms. These bodies thus engage in a jurisgenerative process that enables them to progressively delimit their legal mandates in reaction to socio-economic and political realities. The article illustrates this argument by examining the power of the EU Single Resolution Board (SRB) to determine the resolution of a bank in crisis. It concludes that, in view of constitutive powers, the normative demands that the EU legal system places on executive and administrative bodies must be reconsidered. On that basis and to that effect, mechanisms of accountability should be reconceptualised and reoriented. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pratique luxembourgeoise en matière de droit international public 2019
Kinsch, Patrick UL; Friden, Georges

in Annales de droit luxembourgeois (2021), 30

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See detailOptimizing pressure-driven pulsatile flows in microfluidic devices.
Recktenwald, Steffen M.; Wagner, Christian UL; John, Thomas

in Lab on a chip (2021), 21(13), 2605-2613

Unsteady and pulsatile flows receive increasing attention due to their potential to enhance various microscale processes. Further, they possess significant relevance for microfluidic studies under ... [more ▼]

Unsteady and pulsatile flows receive increasing attention due to their potential to enhance various microscale processes. Further, they possess significant relevance for microfluidic studies under physiological flow conditions. However, generating a precise time-dependent flow field with commercial, pneumatically operated pressure controllers remains challenging and can lead to significant deviations from the desired waveform. In this study, we present a method to correct such deviations and thus optimize pulsatile flows in microfluidic experiments using two commercial pressure pumps. Therefore, we first analyze the linear response of the systems to a sinusoidal pressure input, which allows us to predict the time-dependent pressure output for arbitrary pulsatile input signals. Second, we explain how to derive an adapted input signal, which significantly reduces deviations between the desired and actual output pressure signals of various waveforms. We demonstrate that this adapted pressure input leads to an enhancement of the time-dependent flow of red blood cells in microchannels. The presented method does not rely on any hardware modifications and can be easily implemented in standard pressure-driven microfluidic setups to generate accurate pulsatile flows with arbitrary waveforms. [less ▲]

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See detailRosy or blue? Change in recall bias of students’ affective experiences during early adolescence
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Jendryczko, David; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.

in Emotion (2021)

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See detailLiving Wage: Regulatory Solutions to Informal and Precarious Work in Global Supply Chains
Garcia Munoz Alhambra, Manuel Antonio UL

in Australian Journal of Labour Law (2021), (3), 235-241

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See detailInklusives Klassenklima
Knickenberg, Margarita; Stöcker, Anne UL; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL

in Resch, Katharina; Lindner, Katharina-Theresa; Streese, Bettina (Eds.) et al Inklusive Schulentwicklung (2021)

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See detailChanges in prevalence of cognitive impairment and associated risk factors 2000–2015 in São Paulo, Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira et al

in BMC Geriatrics (2021)

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See detailLocalization System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Inspection Tasks
Benjumea, Diego; Alcántara, Alfonso; Ramos, Agustin et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(17 5937),

This paper presents a localization system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) especially designed to be used in infrastructure inspection, where the UAVs have to fly in challenging conditions, such as ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a localization system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) especially designed to be used in infrastructure inspection, where the UAVs have to fly in challenging conditions, such as relatively high altitude (e.g., 15 m), eventually with poor or absent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signal reception, or the need for a BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line of Sight) operation in some periods. In addition, these infrastructure inspection applications impose the following requirements for the localization system: defect traceability, accuracy, reliability, and fault tolerance. Our system proposes a lightweight solution combining multiple stereo cameras with a robotic total station to comply with these requirements, providing full-state estimation (i.e., position, orientation, and linear and angular velocities) in a fixed and time-persistent reference frame. Moreover, the system can align and fuse all sensor measurements in real-time at high frequency. We have integrated this localization system in our aerial platform, and we have tested its performance for inspection in a real-world viaduct scenario, where the UAV has to operate with poor or absent GNSS signal at high altitude. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient and Transferable Adversarial Examples from Bayesian Neural Networks
Gubri, Martin UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

An established way to improve the transferability of black-box evasion attacks is to craft the adversarial examples on a surrogate ensemble model to increase diversity. We argue that transferability is ... [more ▼]

An established way to improve the transferability of black-box evasion attacks is to craft the adversarial examples on a surrogate ensemble model to increase diversity. We argue that transferability is fundamentally related to epistemic uncertainty. Based on a state-of-the-art Bayesian Deep Learning technique, we propose a new method to efficiently build a surrogate by sampling approximately from the posterior distribution of neural network weights, which represents the belief about the value of each parameter. Our extensive experiments on ImageNet and CIFAR-10 show that our approach improves the transfer rates of four state-of-the-art attacks significantly (up to 62.1 percentage points), in both intra-architecture and inter-architecture cases. On ImageNet, our approach can reach 94% of transfer rate while reducing training computations from 11.6 to 2.4 exaflops, compared to an ensemble of independently trained DNNs. Our vanilla surrogate achieves 87.5% of the time higher transferability than 3 test-time techniques designed for this purpose. Our work demonstrates that the way to train a surrogate has been overlooked although it is an important element of transfer-based attacks. We are, therefore, the first to review the effectiveness of several training methods in increasing transferability. We provide new directions to better understand the transferability phenomenon and offer a simple but strong baseline for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro Red Blood Cell Segregation in Sickle Cell Anemia
Claveria, Viviana; Connes, Philippe; Lanotte, Luca et al

in FRONTIERS IN PHYSICS (2021), 9

Red blood cells in sickle cell anemia (sRBC) are more heterogeneous in their physical properties than healthy red blood cells, spanning adhesiveness, rigidity, density, size, and shape. sRBC with ... [more ▼]

Red blood cells in sickle cell anemia (sRBC) are more heterogeneous in their physical properties than healthy red blood cells, spanning adhesiveness, rigidity, density, size, and shape. sRBC with increased adhesiveness to the vascular wall would trigger vaso-occlusive like complications, a hallmark of sickle cell anemia. We investigated whether segregation occurs among sRBC flowing in micron-sized channels and tested the impact of aggregation on segregation. Two populations of sRBC of different densities were separated, labeled, and mixed again. The mixed suspension was flowed within glass capillary tubes at different pressure-drops, hematocrit, and suspending media that promoted or not cell aggregation. Observations were made at a fixed channel position. The mean flow velocity was obtained by using the cells as tracking particles, and the cell depleted layer (CDL) by measuring the distance from the cell core border to the channel wall. The labeled sRBC were identified by stopping the flow and scanning the cells within the channel section. The tube hematocrit was estimated from the number of fluorescence cells identified in the field of view. In non-aggregating media, our results showed a heterogeneous distribution of sRBC according to their density: low-density sRBC population remained closer to the center of the channel, while the densest cells segregated towards the walls. There was no impact of the mean flow velocity and little impact of hematocrit. This segregation heterogeneity could influence the ability of sRBC to adhere to the vascular wall and slow down blood flow. However, promoting aggregation inhibited segregation while CDL thickness was enhanced by aggregation, highlighting a potential protective role against vaso-occlusion in patients with sickle cell anemia. [less ▲]

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See detailAnterior cingulate cortex activity during rest is related to alterations in pain perception in aging
Terrasa, Juan L.; Montoya, Pedro; Sitges, Carolina et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2021)

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See detailThe Dialectic of Transnational Integration and National Disintegration as Challenge for Multilevel Governance
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Social Sciences (2021), 20(7),

A large number of studies have detected that within the EU multilevel governance there is a transformation toward a hybrid knowledge co-production that overcomes traditional categories such as locality or ... [more ▼]

A large number of studies have detected that within the EU multilevel governance there is a transformation toward a hybrid knowledge co-production that overcomes traditional categories such as locality or embeddedness. There, a sort of sustainable decision-making knowledge is co-developed and theoretically supposed to be applied top-down on the national level of EU member states. However, in practice such processes of unification are always associated with a risk of limited compliance with specific national situations and with a specific national “world of relevancies”. Despite the rise in popularity of these top-down initiatives within international policy levels, there is a lack of studies that empirically analyze how national policy systems respond to these global standardization approaches. Therefore, the central aim of this study is twofold: Based on an exemplary case of an international information system co-produced by an expert group of the European Commission, it first reconstructs whether and how transnational information is integrated on the national policy level. Second, it elucidates factors limiting an application. The results show that this international knowledge system was used for basal purposes and was mainly challenged by non-compliance with national specificities and the existence of alternative knowledge sources. [less ▲]

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See detailFASKU. French version of the General Self-Efficacy Short Scale [Test description and questionnaire]
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schumacher, Anette UL et al

Report (2021)

The FASKU is an economical instrument for recording individual competence expectations of dealing with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by ... [more ▼]

The FASKU is an economical instrument for recording individual competence expectations of dealing with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by Beierlein, Kemper, Kovaleva, and Rammstedt (2013). In 2019, the authors developed and tested a French version of this scale (FASKU) and tested it for reliability (internal consistency), validity, and measurement equivalence towards the original German Version (see Décieux et al., 2020a). The provided evidence on the quality of the German and the French Version of ASKU (FASKU) indicates that the scales allow a reliable, valid, and economical assessment of subjective competence expectations and that the two language versions can be used to assess and compare self-efficacy in German- and French-speaking populations. [less ▲]

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See detailTime use, childcare and home schooling
Todorovic, Jelena; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Peluso, Eugenio UL

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have jumped to historical highs.Work conditions for those who remained employed changed abruptly, with many being forced to work from home. As schools and daycare centres closed, child-care needs soared. Social distancing recommendations and stay-at-home orders made it difficult, if not impossible, for informal care providers, such as grandparents or other family members, to help with child-care responsibilities. So how did parents cope? [less ▲]

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See detailGerman Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS): Documentation of the Second Wave
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Witte, Nils; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

Book published by Feder - BiB Daten- und Methodenberichte (2021)

International migration originating from highly developed countries is a crucial component of global migration flows. There are, however, surprisingly little data about the international mobility of the ... [more ▼]

International migration originating from highly developed countries is a crucial component of global migration flows. There are, however, surprisingly little data about the international mobility of the populations of affluent countries. The German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) aims to provide a resource that enables the analysis of individual consequences of international migration as well as the socio-structural consequences for the country of origin. GERPS is based on an origin-based multistage probability sample using the German population registers as a sampling frame. The second wave yields a net sample of roughly 7,000 persons who recently moved abroad from Germany and persons who returned from Germany after having lived abroad. The study follows a multidestination- country-design and enables the comparative analysis of migrants and nonmigrants, who stayed in the country of origin. GERPS is a panel study with at least four waves during a period of at least 24 months. This documentation presents the methods and data of the second wave. It provides information for researchers and invites them to use the new data infrastructure for their own research. [less ▲]

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See detailEmigration, Friends, and Social Integration: The Determinants and Development of Friendship Network Size After Arrival
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mörchen, Luisa

in Erlinghagen, Marcel; Ette, Andreas; Schneider, Norbert (Eds.) et al The Global Lives of German Migrants (2021)

Friendships can be interpreted as voluntary relationships between individuals and characterised as relatively amorphous bond. Since migration usually diversifies people’s social bonds, it can be suggested ... [more ▼]

Friendships can be interpreted as voluntary relationships between individuals and characterised as relatively amorphous bond. Since migration usually diversifies people’s social bonds, it can be suggested that in this context friendships have to be reconfigured. Even though friendships are important for societal integration and related to individual well-being, migration research has treated friendships as a side issue. This chapter aims to narrow this gap by answering three questions: Are there significant differences between emigrants and non-mobiles in their number of close friends? What are important factors influencing emigrants’ number of close friends abroad? How does this number develop during the first years after emigration? Based on data from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study and the German Socio-Economic Panel, the results show that emigrants have more friends than non-mobiles. Additionally, we find that individual characteristics and cultural distance between emigrant and host society or the intension to stay in the emigration country are significantly related to emigrants’ friendship network size. Furthermore, we find that identification with the emigration country is the most influential factor on the size of the friendship networks during the first 2 years after arrival. Our results also provide some evidence that there is an optimal size of the close-friendship-network. [less ▲]

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