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See detailA Holistic Methodology to Deploy Industry 4.0 in Manufacturing Enterprises
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

In the last decade, the manufacturing industry has seen a shift in the way products are produced due to the integration of digital technologies and existing manufacturing systems. This transformation is ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, the manufacturing industry has seen a shift in the way products are produced due to the integration of digital technologies and existing manufacturing systems. This transformation is often referred to as \textbf{Industry 4.0} (I4.0), which guarantees to deliver cost efficiency, mass customization, operational agility, traceability, and enable service orientation. To realize the potential of I4.0, integration of physical and digital elements using advanced technologies is a prerequisite. Large manufacturing companies have been embracing the I4.0 transformation swiftly. However, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) face challenges in terms of skills and capital requirements required for a smoother digital transformation. The goal of this thesis is to understand the features of a typical manufacturing SME and map them with the existing (e.g. Lean) and I4.0 manufacturing systems. The mapping is then used to develop a Self-Assessment Tool (SAT) to measure the maturity of a manufacturing entity. The SAT developed in this research has a critical SME focus. However, the scope of the SAT is not limited to SMEs and can be used for large companies. The analysis of the maturity of manufacturing companies revealed that the managerial dimensions of the companies are more mature than the technical dimensions. Therefore, this thesis attempts to fill the gap in technical dimensions especially Augmented Reality (AR) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) through laboratory experiments and industrial validation. A holistic method is proposed to introduce I4.0 technologies in manufacturing enterprises based on maturity assessment, observations, technical road map, and applications. The method proposed in this research includes SAT, which measures the maturity of a manufacturing company in five categorical domains (\textbf{dimensions}): Strategy, Process and Value Stream, Organization, Methods and Tools, and Personnel. Furthermore, these dimensions are attributed to 36 modules, which help manufacturing companies measure their maturity level in terms of lean and I4.0. The SAT is tested in 100 manufacturing enterprises in Grande Région consisting of the pilot study (n=20) and maturity assessment (n=63). The observations from the assessment are then used to set up the technological road map for the research. AR and IIoT are the two technologies that are associated with the least mature modules, which are explored in depth in this thesis. A holistic method is incomplete without industry validation. Therefore, the above-mentioned technologies are applied in two manufacturing companies for further validation of the laboratory results. These applications include 1) the application of AR for maintenance and quality inspection in a tire manufacturing industry, and 2) the application of retrofitting technology for IIoT on a production machine in an SME. With the validated assessment model and the industrial applications, this thesis overall presents a holistic approach to introducing I4.0 technologies in manufacturing enterprises. This is accomplished through identifying the status of the company using maturity assessment and deriving the I4.0 roadmap for high potential modules. The skill gap in the addressed technologies is compensated by designing and testing prototypes in the laboratory before applying them in the industry. [less ▲]

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See detail1848 und die Folgen. Geburtsstunde der Laienmusik in Luxemburg
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 06)

Im Jahr 1789 hat Luxemburg als selbstständiger und unabhängiger Staat noch nicht existiert. Es bedurfte des Wiener Kongresses (1815) und der belgischen Revolution (1830), um aus Luxemburg ein souveräner ... [more ▼]

Im Jahr 1789 hat Luxemburg als selbstständiger und unabhängiger Staat noch nicht existiert. Es bedurfte des Wiener Kongresses (1815) und der belgischen Revolution (1830), um aus Luxemburg ein souveräner Staat werden zu lassen. Bürgerliche Freiheiten wurden den Luxemburgern allerdings erst unter König-Großherzog Wilhelm II zugestanden. Mit dem Versammlungsrecht wurde der Bevölkerung auch das Vereinigungsrecht gewährt. Das Jahr 1848 bedeutet den Startpunkt und eine erste Wegmarke im Werden der Laienmusik im Großherzogtum. Im Jahr 1940 kam es mit der deutschen Besetzung zu einem abrupten Bruch einer Freiheit, die den Luxemburgern in fast einem Jahrhundert in Fleisch und Blut übergegangen zu sein schien. Der Neubeginn ab dem Jahr 1944 bedeutete eine weitere Wegmarke im Sinne von kultureller Betätigung in einer freiheitlichen Grundordnung. Im Diskurs um weitere Wegmarken sind keine politische, sondern eher soziale, pädagogische und technologische Umwälzungen ins Visier zu nehmen. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-temporal programming of lyotropic phase transition in nanoporous microfluidic confinements
Ulaganathan, Vamseekrishna UL; Ong, Irvine UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Self-assembly of simple molecules into complex phases can be driven by physical constraints, for instance, due to selective molecular uptake by nanoporous surfaces. Despite the significance of surface ... [more ▼]

Self-assembly of simple molecules into complex phases can be driven by physical constraints, for instance, due to selective molecular uptake by nanoporous surfaces. Despite the significance of surface-mediated assembly in evolution of life, physical routes to molecular enrichment and assembly have remained overlooked. Here, using a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal as model biological material, confined within nanoporous microfluidic environments, we study molecular assembly driven by nanoporous substrates. We demonstrate that nanoporous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces, due to selective permeation of water molecules, drive transition of disordered isotropic phase to ordered nematic, and higher order columnar phases under isothermal conditions. Synergistically, by tailoring the wettability, the surface-to-volume ratio, and surface topography of the confinements, we program the lyotropic phase transitions with a high degree of spatial and temporal control. Using a combination of timelapse polarized imaging, quantitative image processing, and a simple mathematical model, we analyze the phase transitions, and construct a master diagram capturing the role of surface wettability and channel geometry on programmable lyotropic phase transitions. Intrinsic PDMS nanoporosity and confinement cross-section, together with the imposed wettability regulate the rate of the N-M phase transition; whereas the microfluidic geometry and embedded topography enable phase transition at targeted locations. We harness the emergent long-range order during N-M transition to actuate elasto-advective transport of embedded micro-cargo, demonstrating particle manipulation concepts governed by tunable phase transitions. Our results present a programmable physical route to material assembly, and offer a new paradigm for assembling genetic components, biological cargo, and minimal synthetic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailToy created by an Ostarbeiter
Ganschow, Inna UL

in Cauvin, Thomas; van Donkersgoed, Joëlla (Eds.) HistorESCH. Histories of Esch Told in 25 Objects (2022)

During the war, the steel industry in Esch played an important strategic role for the Germans. To ensure and increase production, unskilled additional labour was needed. Thus, the German occupiers ... [more ▼]

During the war, the steel industry in Esch played an important strategic role for the Germans. To ensure and increase production, unskilled additional labour was needed. Thus, the German occupiers resorted to the occupied peoples of Soviet Union and Poland, who were transported to Luxembourg to work in the steel mills and mines. The first so called Ostarbeiter entered Luxembourg during October 1942 and were placed in different barracks called Ostarbeiterlager. Most of these barracks were located in the south of Luxembourg, close to the iron and steel industries. One of those camps was situated close to what is today the Ramerish roundabout. In Esch, they worked in the ironworks. Although the inhabitants were forbidden to communicate with the Ostarbeiters, some inhabitants gave them food or clothing to compensate for the lack of food and the poor living conditions. In return the Ostarbeiters were crafting wooden dynamic toys for Luxembourgish children. [less ▲]

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See detailEU acts without binding legal force producing binding legal effects at the national level: Enforcement of ESA soft law in the Czech Republic
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) are empowered, by their founding regulations, to adopt guidelines and recommendations “with a view to establishing consistent, efficient and effective ... [more ▼]

The European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) are empowered, by their founding regulations, to adopt guidelines and recommendations “with a view to establishing consistent, efficient and effective supervisory practices within the ESFS, and to ensuring the common, uniform and consistent application of Union law”. These acts can be considered genuine EU soft law since they lack the binding legal force. However, they remain perfectly non-binding only at the EU level and in the relation between the ESAs and the national competent authorities (NCAs). Although the NCAs have a duty “to make every effort to comply” with such soft law, they keep a certain leeway to decide whether they eventually comply or not. Nonetheless, the situation is different in case of financial institutions under their supervision. Formally, the EU regulations attribute to them also only a duty “to make every effort to comply”. However, once the NCA decides to comply and effectively enforces the compliance from financial institutions, the latter have a very limited, or even no leeway to decide about the compliance. Within the complex regulatory system, the NCA metamorphosis from a normtaker into an effective norm-enforcer who is capable to determine what effects the ESA soft law have at the national level. This paper focuses on the life of ESA soft law in the Czech Republic. It examines the role and power of the Czech NCA (the Czech National Bank, CNB) in the light of the legislative framework and other domestic binding legal rules. It takes into consideration the real enforcement strategy and practices of the CNB to show that, in the hands of the CNB, ESA guidelines and recommendations become acts, which produce binding legal effects upon financial institutions. Based on this observation, the paper raises questions about the proper control of ESA soft law and potential remedies. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sanctions au regard du droit
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailCurrent Status of Bottom-Up Fabrication Approaches for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Micro-Concentrator Solar Cells
Pérez-Rodríguez, Ana; Goncalinho Poeira, Ricardo Jorge UL; Alves, Marina et al

in 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS (CPV-17) (2022, September 02)

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and ... [more ▼]

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and high cost of raw materials. To reduce the amount of solar cell material, strong efforts have been devoted to the development of the micro-concentrator photovoltaics concept for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, which combines the well established concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) technology with the miniaturization of the solar cells. In this work, we review different bottom-up approaches for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells, that potentially allow the reduction of raw material, and we present the latest results on a magnetron sputtering based method for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic development, weather shocks and child marriage in South Asia: A machine learning approach
Dietrich, Stephan; Meysonnat, Aline; Rosales, Francisco et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 17(9), 0271373

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See detailContrôler la dette publique pour garantir la paix. Quelques réflexions juridiques sur la modernité du 4e article préliminaire du projet de paix perpétuelle de Kant
Allemand, Frederic UL

in Estudos Kantianos (2022)

In the 'century of debt' that was the Enlightenment, Immanuel Kant was well aware of the pecuniary power that borrowing represents for any state and the realisation of its civil and/or military ambitions ... [more ▼]

In the 'century of debt' that was the Enlightenment, Immanuel Kant was well aware of the pecuniary power that borrowing represents for any state and the realisation of its civil and/or military ambitions. The 4th preliminary article of the Perpetual Peace Project forbids the use of debt for military purposes: "National debts must not be contracted in order to support the interests of the state outside". While he does not subscribe in every respect to Hume's pessimism about the very principle of public debt, Kant shares some of his criticisms. The hierarchy of types of debts established according to their modalities of constitution (internal/external financing, limited/unlimited) and their uses (civil/military) testifies to a series of axiological judgments on debt that suggest the basic elements of a legal regime of public debt. The present contribution aims at analysing the 4th preliminary article in the light of the economic, financial and political context of Prussia and other European states at the end of the 18th century. It compares Kant's position on public debt with those of his contemporaries (Hume, Diderot) and of the classical economists (Melon, Smith...). It also identifies the legal characteristics of Kant's framework of public debt and underlines its scope and limits. [less ▲]

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See detailIndicators for assessing the necessity of power system flexibility: a systematic review and literature meta‐analysis
Bhuiyan, Rajon UL; Weissflog, Jan; Schoepf, Michael et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September)

There are different flexibility options to align power systems to volatile feed-in of renewable electricity sources. The flexibility options differ in the dimensions of time, spatiality, and resource type ... [more ▼]

There are different flexibility options to align power systems to volatile feed-in of renewable electricity sources. The flexibility options differ in the dimensions of time, spatiality, and resource type. To make policy decisions on future energy systems, it is necessary to get a top-down indication of how much power system flexibility is needed. With the ongoing energy transition, there is yet no comprehensive overview of indicators that describe which dimension of flexibility will be necessary to what extent for different energy systems. Therefore, this paper provides a first overview of indicators that can be used to assess the necessity of power system flexibility. Thus, we do a systematic literature review to identify indicators that allow us to estimate the necessity of power system flexibility. We conduct a meta-analysis of these indicators and categorize them as indicators that either stand for an increasing or decreasing necessity of power system flexibility. Our paper can help inform policy, assess needed changes to system operations, increase stakeholder acceptance and investor confidence in implementing new technology and measures. [less ▲]

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See detailWho benefits from air service agreements? The case of international air cargo operations
Wu, You UL; Lange, Anne UL; Mantin, Benny UL

in Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2022), 163

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total ... [more ▼]

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total welfare and its distribution. We consider the interactions between two competing cargo airlines, their end customers, logistics service providers—who serve as intermediaries between the former two agent types—as well as the policy makers. Accounting for demand uncertainty, we model this interaction as a two-stage game. In the first stage, the policy makers coordinate equal capacity allocations to the two asset providers, whereas in the second stage, the asset providers compete over prices in the spot market. Solving the model, we characterize the pricing strategies employed by the two competing capacity-constrained asset providers in the spot market when facing price sensitive demand from end customers. We further analyze the corresponding capacity decisions. We then compare this coordinated competitive setting with a collaborative setting where the two asset providers can (virtually) merge and act as a monopoly. We find that, compared with the monopoly setting, the coordinated duopoly results in lower capacity, lower profits to the asset providers, larger benefits to both end customers and logistics service providers, and overall lower total welfare. These results suggest that policy makers shall hold an open attitude towards a higher level of cooperation among the asset providers. We carry out robustness checks to verify our insights hold with three, rather than two, asset providers, with different demand distributions, when capacity is costly and when asymmetric capacities are allowed in the spot market. [less ▲]

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See detailRadio Regulation Compliance of NGSO Constellations’ Interference towards GSO Ground Stations
Jalali, Mahdis UL; Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 12–15 September 2022, Virtual Conference (2022, September)

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite ... [more ▼]

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite services increases with the number of satel- lites in such mega-constellations. As the GSO arc encompasses the primary and existing satellite assets providing essential fixed and broadcasting satellite services, the interference avoidance for this area is of the utmost importance. In particular, non- geostationary orbit (NGSO) operators should comply with the regulations set up both by their national regulators and by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to minimize the impact of emissions on existing GSO and non-GSO systems. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the most recent radio regulations that dictate the NGSO-GSO spectral co-existence. Next, we analyze the NGSO-GSO radio frequency interference for the downlink scenario, following the so-called time-simulation methodology introduced by ITU. The probability distribution of aggregated power flux-density for NGSO co-channel interference is evaluated and assessed, adopting different degrees of exclusion angle strategy for interference avoidance. We conclude the paper by discussing the resulting implications for the continuity of operation and service provision and we provide remarks for future work [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking of univariate pleiotropy detection methods applied to epilepsy
Adesoji, Oluyomi M.; Schulz, Herbert; May, Patrick UL et al

in Human Mutation (2022), 43(9), 1314-1332

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single ... [more ▼]

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single trait only, only univariate pleiotropy detection methods are applicable, with yet unknown comparative performance. Here, we compared five such methods with respect to their ability to detect pleiotropy, including meta-analysis, ASSET, cFDR, CPBayes, and PLACO, by performing extended computer simulations that varied the underlying etiological model for pleiotropy for a pair of traits, including the number of causal variants, degree of traits’ overlap, effect sizes as well as trait prevalence, and varying sample sizes. Our results indicate that ASSET provides the best trade-off between power and protection against false positives. We then applied ASSET to a previously published ILAE consortium dataset on complex epilepsies, comprising genetic generalized epilepsy and focal epilepsy cases and corresponding controls. We identified a novel candidate locus at 17q21.32 and confirmed locus 2q24.3, previously identified to act pleiotropically on both epilepsy subtypes by a mega-analysis. Functional annotation, tissue-specific expression and regulatory function analysis as well as Bayesian co-localization analysis corroborated this result, rendering 17q21.32 a worthwhile candidate for follow-up studies on pleiotropy in epilepsies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to Optimize: Balancing Two Conflict Metrics in MB-HTS Networks
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Advanced Satellite Multimedia Conference / Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop (ASMS), Gratz, Viena, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailJoint Beam Placement and Load Balancing Optimization for Non-Geostationary Satellite Systems
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Mediterranean Conference on Communications and Networking (IEEE MediCom), Athens, Greece, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailOptimal Timing of Carbon Capture and Storage Policies - a Social Planner's View
Chen, Yiwen; Wan, Xi; Zou, Benteng UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered one of the most realistic and plausible options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large pollution sources. However, CCS deployment is costly ... [more ▼]

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered one of the most realistic and plausible options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large pollution sources. However, CCS deployment is costly. This paper considers the social cost of CCS projects and GHG damage from a central planer's point of view, providing clear information about when each player should deploy CCS. The findings are twofold: (1) given the heterogeneity of players, it is not socially optimal for all players to start CCS projects at the same time; instead, the player that has a cost advantage should start first; (2) it may be socially desirable for the player with a cost disadvantage never starts CCS. We show the conditions that support both possibilities. The second finding provides a clear policy guideline for the decision-maker: reduce the costs of the high-cost player in order to reduce global GHG emissions, provided that is the aim of the supranational institute. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative Object Use in Adults and Children: Embodied Cognitive Bases of Creativity
Gubenko, Alla UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022)

Why does one need creativity? On a personal level, improvisation with available resources is needed for online coping with unforeseen environmental stimuli when existing knowledge and apparent action ... [more ▼]

Why does one need creativity? On a personal level, improvisation with available resources is needed for online coping with unforeseen environmental stimuli when existing knowledge and apparent action strategies do not work. On a cultural level, the exploitation of existing cultural means and norms for the deliberate production of novel and valuable artifacts is a basis for cultural and technological development and extension of human action possibilities across various domains. It is less clear, however, how creativity develops and how exactly one arrives at generating new action possibilities and producing multiple alternative action strategies using familiar objects. In this theoretical paper, we first consider existing accounts of the creative process in the Alternative Uses Task and then present an alternative interpretation, drawing on sociocultural views and an embodied cognition approach. We explore similarities between the psychological processes underlying the generation of new uses in the Alternative Uses Task and children’s pretend play. We discuss possible cognitive mechanisms and speculate how the generation of new action possibilities for common objects in pretend play can be related to adults’ ability to generate new action strategies associated with object use. Implications for creativity development in humans and embodied artificial agents are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Politics of Graves – Negotiations, Practice and Reactions about Fallen German Soldiers of World War Two and Their Resting Places in Russia
Janz, Nina UL

in Rydel, Jan; Trobst, Stefan (Eds.) Instrumentalizing the Past: The Impact of History on Contemporary International Conflicts (2022)

The coming to terms with the past is essential as a negotiating point in interstate relations, especially in the consequences of the Second World War. Not only the question towards compensation, guilt and ... [more ▼]

The coming to terms with the past is essential as a negotiating point in interstate relations, especially in the consequences of the Second World War. Not only the question towards compensation, guilt and victimhood but as well in numbers and losses of humans - and their remains. The dealing of the commemoration of the dead and their resting places makes an integral part in the history politics. After the end of the Soviet Union, the new Russian Federation signed an agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany on the war graves in both countries. Based on this document, the German War Grave Commission is allowed to work on the Russian territory, recovering, exhuming and building new cemeteries for the German dead. Its workflow and the access to the former soldier graves consist not without difficulties. Starting with the diplomatic and political issue of the traces of the Wehrmacht in Russia and the Soviet Union, continuing with gaining access and the permission for excavations and constructing new burial grounds in Russia, the work of the German organisation met obstacles, reservations and incomprehension. The cemetery constructions were restricted by local negotiations partners. Protests appeared by veterans and the local population. The fallen Wehrmacht soldiers, who attacked the Soviet Union and committed crimes against humanity, trigger very controversial discussions alongside the official Russian narrative of the Great Patriotic War. Based on the negotiations regarding the graves of the deceased, a policy about historical images arose, which can be interpreted as politics of graves [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse Statique et Automatisée de Code
Samhi, Jordan UL

Article for general public (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 UL)