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See detailMachine Learning Force Fields: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges
Poltavskyi, Igor UL; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2021)

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See detailFace-swap Deepfake Detection Using High-frequency Components
Mejri, Nesryne UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2021)

Over the last years, very deceitful deepfakes applied to human visuals appeared on theInternet. Given their impressive visual quality, they are nowadays considered a potentialthreat for both individuals ... [more ▼]

Over the last years, very deceitful deepfakes applied to human visuals appeared on theInternet. Given their impressive visual quality, they are nowadays considered a potentialthreat for both individuals and organizations. Hence, researchers started investigatingthe flaws of deepfakes to develop automated tools capable of detecting forged content. Asa result, a wide range of deepfake detection methods has been introduced. In particular,deep learning based-approaches have shown impressive performance. Nevertheless, thesemethods are still not sufficiently robust as they usually consider only one type of artifact,either in the spatial or the frequency domain. In this context, this thesis proposes toleverage the high-frequency components extracted from color images jointly with theoriginal color information to detect unusual traces. It introduces an end-to-end trainablemodule that (a) extracts features from precomputed high-frequency components and (b)fuses them with RGB features. The deepfake detection framework not only exploitsthe high-frequency anomalies present in manipulated images but can also be integratedwith the majority of RGB-based deepfake detectors. Experimental results show thatthe proposed approach improves the performance of state-of-the-art networks, such asXceptionNet and EfficientNet, on a challenging deepfake dataset called Celeb-DF. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid A/D Precoding for Downlink Massive MIMO in LEO Satellite Communications
Qiang, Xiaoyu; You, Li; Li, Ke-Xin et al

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops) (2021, July 09)

In this paper, we develop hybrid analog/digital precoding based on the fully-connected architecture for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications (SATCOM ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we develop hybrid analog/digital precoding based on the fully-connected architecture for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications (SATCOM), by exploiting the statistical channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. The hybrid precoder design is formulated as an energy efficiency (EE) maximization problem by considering both continuous and discrete phase shift networks for implementing the analog precoder. The resulting optimization problem is nonconvex and difficult to solve. To that end, first, we apply a closed-form tight upper bound to approximate the ergodic rate. Then, we adopt Dinkelbach's algorithm and the iteratively weighted minimum mean-square error (WMMSE) method to obtain the fully digital precoders. After that, the alternating minimization and inexact majorization-minimization (MM) algorithms are utilized to compute the hybrid precoders. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithmic solutions achieve significant performance gains when compared to existing literature ones, especially in the case where the discrete phase shift network is employed for analog precoding. [less ▲]

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See detailRepoliticising Investment Disputes: Is it Time?
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailMehrsprachige Repertoires in kollaborativen Schreibinteraktionen
Stierwald, Mona UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Cette thèse examine la problématique du plurilinguisme et de la plurilitéracie individuelle dans des interactions portant sur des pratiques d'écriture collaborative. Le plurilinguisme et la plurilitéracie ... [more ▼]

Cette thèse examine la problématique du plurilinguisme et de la plurilitéracie individuelle dans des interactions portant sur des pratiques d'écriture collaborative. Le plurilinguisme et la plurilitéracie sont éclairées par les concepts de répertoires et de registres langagiers. Dans ce type d'interaction en face à face, deux ou plusieurs personnes se retrouvent au même endroit pour rédiger un document à partir d'idées partagées en menant une conversation à ce sujet. Il s'agit là de sonder les pratiques litéraciques d'étudiant-e-s plurilingues en études romanes de l'université Goethe de Francfort lorsqu'ils/elles formulent conjointement un texte académique dans une langue cible romane (en français ou en espagnol). Pour ce faire, cette recherche s'inscrit dans une approche qualitative mobilisant une pluralité de méthodologies et de courants théoriques inspirés principalement des recherches menées en sociolinguistique et de l'ethnographie comme la recherche action. Le recueil de données a eu lieu dans le cadre d'un séminaire de recherche-action au cours duquel les étudiant-e-s plurilingues ont réfléchi par écrit sur leurs propres répertoires langagiers et se sont réuni-e-s de manière interactive en groupes pour la rédaction de textes académiques. Les données résultantes ont été analysées par le biais d'une analyse de contenu qualitative et d'une analyse conversationnelle. En outre, des concepts venant des recherches sur le plurilinguisme et sur les processus d'écriture sont mobilisés a fin d'accéder à une vision holistique des dynamiques d'écriture collaborative. Cette recherche ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour les recherches portant sur la plurilitéracie. D'un point de vue théorique, on voit comment la plurilitéracie structurelle peut être analysée à partir d'interactions portant sur l'écriture collaborative. D'un point de vue méthodologique, elle ouvre des voies de réflexion pour aiguiser la focalisation sur les processus d'interaction, les productions et leurs corrélations avec les parcours des individus impliqués. À cet égard, la relation entre l'ethnographie et l'analyse conversationnelle joue un rôle primordial. En fin, d'un point de vue didactique, il est significatif de voir comment dans les écrits universitaires le projet d'appropriation d'une langue cible peut aller de pair avec la prise en compte des ressources plurilingues. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal Law: Why do we need to work across disciplines?
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL

Presentation (2021, July 08)

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See detailOn the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one ... [more ▼]

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. [less ▲]

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See detailLes reconfigurations du politique et du religieux, au prisme de la sécularisation et du bioconservatisme : La Manif pour tous en France et le Family Day en Italie.
Durante, Raphaël UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Tensions between politics and religion lead to a very productive scope of investigation for those interested in contemporary democratic reconfigurations. In this context, this thesis will address two ... [more ▼]

Tensions between politics and religion lead to a very productive scope of investigation for those interested in contemporary democratic reconfigurations. In this context, this thesis will address two social phenomena located at the crossroads of political and religious considerations, in a comparative perspective: ‘La Manif pour tous’ - a movement opposing gay- marriage in France – and The Family Day – opposition movement to same-sex civil partnership in Italy. This study highlights the importance of the political and religious context in the structuring, the system of values and the impact of those so-called “anti-gender” movements, through a multidisciplinary approach bringing together conceptual tools from the social movement theory, religious sociology and political philosophy, but also through semi- structured interviews and attendee observations. The comparative perspective will indeed reveal a greater empowerment process for the French case, with more pronounced efforts to distance itself from traditional political and religious institutions. Despite this, this thesis will bring up a certain convergence of these movements towards the formation of a bio-conservative block, steeped in Christian anthropology but also scientific and legal considerations that challenge the principles of contemporary liberal democracies. The bio-conservative block shakes up the opposition between modern autonomy and religious heteronomy, and works on setting up and developing new political cleavages. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailTopics in Computational Number Theory and Cryptanalysis - On Euclidean Lattices, Edwards Curves and Cryptographic Multilinear Maps
Notarnicola, Luca UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The content of this thesis is situated between number theory and cryptology. It contributes in several directions of mathematical cryptanalysis and arithmetic geometry, by the use of explicit and ... [more ▼]

The content of this thesis is situated between number theory and cryptology. It contributes in several directions of mathematical cryptanalysis and arithmetic geometry, by the use of explicit and computational methods in number theory. The thesis is divided into four main parts, describing four different works. The first part of this thesis treats cryptographic multilinear maps, introduced in the early 2000s, as extension of bilinear pairings on abelian varieties following a survey by Boneh and Silverberg (Contemp. Math. 2003). The difficulties of constructing efficient cryptographic multilinear maps from algebraic geometry led cryptographers to obtain multilinear maps from the notion of graded encoding systems, following the formalism of Garg, Gentry and Halevi (Eurocrypt 2013), backgrounded from ideas on fully homomorphic encryption. To this date, there are three candidate constructions. Their security however is rather poorly understood and many attacks have flourished over the past years. In this thesis, we consider the CLT13 Scheme, proposed by Coron, Lepoint and Tibouchi (Crypto 2013), constructing multilinear maps over the integers. A vulnerability of this scheme was detected by Gentry, Lewko and Waters (Crypto 2014), by exploiting the composite-ring structure of the plaintext space, enabling a simple two-dimensional lattice attack to reveal secret information. At the same time, the authors suggested a simple countermeasure to prevent this line of attack. By relying on high-dimensional lattice reduction, we design new cryptanalysis against CLT13, overriding the countermeasure of Gentry, Lewko and Waters by several orders of magnitude. Combined with the Cheon et al. attack (Eurocrypt 2015), we reveal all secret parameters of CLT13. By applying our cryptanalysis to concrete instantiations of CLT13-based construc- tions, certain parameter ranges are found unsecure. The second work presented in this thesis isolates the Hidden Lattice Problem as a more general problem appearing in several cryptographic scenarios, among which the Hidden Sub- set Sum Problem, studied by Nguyen and Stern (Crypto 1999). The Nguyen-Stern algorithm for the Hidden Subset Sum Problem builds on the use of orthogonal lattices, which have shown powerful in public-key cryptanalysis. After extending their algorithm to our more general setting, our main contribution is to present, based on duality in lattice theory, a new algorithm for the Hidden Lattice Problem, providing a competitive alternative to the cel- ebrated Nguyen-Stern orthogonal lattice attack. For both algorithms, we provide practical parameters, based on heuristic and rigorous studies of the geometry of the underlying lat- tices. The generality of our definition for the Hidden Lattice Problem allows encompassing multiple number-theoretic problems of cryptographic interest. For these problems, our new algorithm leads to a valuable alternative to the state-of-the-art algorithms. The third work presented in this thesis aims at extending the powerful cryptanalysis by Cheon et al. (Eurocrypt 2015) against the multiparty Diffie-Hellman protocol instantiated un- der the aforementioned CLT13 Scheme. To do so, we formulate, independently of the CLT- framework, a general problem on simultaneous diagonalization of special matrices of low- rank, which we call “incomplete”. Based on techniques from linear algebra, our major contri- bution is the design of efficient algorithms for this problem, providing explicit and practical parameters. We recognize that our algorithms also apply to solve the Approximate Common Divisor Problem based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT-ACD Problem). In partic- ular, our algorithms lead to quadratic improvements in the input length for the CRT-ACD Problem, and some cases of the Cheon et al. attack. The last work included in this thesis studies Edwards curves, a normal form for elliptic curves, first introduced by Edwards (Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 2007). This model for elliptic curves has been proposed for elliptic-curve cryptography by the work of Bernstein and Lange (Asiacrypt 2007), by exploiting the efficient Edwards point arithmetic. Their work includes a construction of the Edwards model from the Weierstrass model. While not directly oriented towards cryptographic targets, our study of the Edwards model is of arithmetic-geometric nature. Our main contributions include abstract constructions for the Edwards model, an explicit generalization of the Bernstein-Lange construction, as well as general properties of geometric nature. From an analytic perspective, we complement our study with extensive computer calculations related to the ranks of rational elliptic curves in a family related to Ed- wards curves. Part of our statistical data is based on our extension of an algorithm involving L-functions and relying on the well-known Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture for elliptic curves. [less ▲]

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See detailTopological Defect-Guided Regular Stacking of Focal Conic Domains in Hybrid-Aligned Smectic Liquid Crystal Shells
Noh, Junghyun; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(8), 913

We study liquid crystal (LC) shells in hybrid configuration (director tangential to the inside but normal to the outside) as they slowly undergo a transition from a nematic (N) to a smectic-A (SmA) phase ... [more ▼]

We study liquid crystal (LC) shells in hybrid configuration (director tangential to the inside but normal to the outside) as they slowly undergo a transition from a nematic (N) to a smectic-A (SmA) phase. Every shell has two antipodal +1 topological defects, at the thinnest and thickest points, respectively. On cooling from N to SmA, the symmetry axis connecting the defects gradually reorients from blackalong gravity to perpendicular to it, reversibly and continuously, if the LC and aqueous phase are density matched at the N-SmA transition. This suggests reduced density near the defects---reflecting a local reduction in order---under the strong confinement with antagonistic boundary conditions. In the SmA phase, a regular array of focal conic domains (FCDs) develops, templated in position and orientation by the +1 defect at the thinnest point. Around this defect, a single complete toroidal FCD always develops, surrounded by incomplete FCDs. In contrast to similar FCD arrangements on flat aqueous interfaces, this is a stable situation, since the two +1 defects are required by the spherical topology. Our results demonstrate how the topological defects of LC shells can be used to template complex self-organized structures. blackWith a suitable adaption of the LC chemistry, shells might serve as a basis for producing solid particles with complex yet highly regular morphologies. [less ▲]

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See detailNomads’ Poetic Translingualism. Multiple voices, dialogical writing and space constructions in the work of Liliane Welch and Pierre Joris
Pauly Ep Hansen, Marie Anne UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In the past decades, multilingualism has developed into a highly researched topic in literary studies as well as in applied linguistics. Surprisingly, two Anglophone poets, Liliane Welch and Pierre Joris ... [more ▼]

In the past decades, multilingualism has developed into a highly researched topic in literary studies as well as in applied linguistics. Surprisingly, two Anglophone poets, Liliane Welch and Pierre Joris, originally from Luxembourg, have not been included in research despite the rich and manifold perspectives on languages that their work displays. They grew up and were educated in the multilingual environment of Luxembourg before they immigrated to North America while continuing to travel widely. For their writing, they rejected their earlier languages, Luxembourgish, French and German and opted for English as the language of their writing. These observations have motivated the overall research question: What multiple facets of translingualism does a nomadic approach of writing offer? Through close references to the work of Welch and Joris the study aims to investigate the impact of multiple languages on poetic writing, with a particular attention to poets’ linguistic meta-reflections and their positioning in relation to languages. The dissertation is divided into three parts with separate yet related research aims and objectives. Part I sets out the context of the research while it also enquires into the pertinence of associating literary and linguistic dimensions with important features of nomadic theory. The definition of research aims and objectives motivates the description of a concept-based inquiry. An extensive review of relevant studies highlights the international and interdisciplinary character of recent research on multilingualism while nomadism appears as a rich resource for thinking about what moving means for writers. Both areas thus significantly contribute to the description of conceptual and textual cornerstones, which ensure the coherence of the study as a whole. Concepts need not come as abstract ideas only; the palimpsest as conceptual metaphor proves a fitting tool to investigate layers of texts, thoughts and locations. It is a golden thread that all along the dissertation functions as reminder of transformative processes. A distinction between fact-oriented and poetic writing accounts for differences in focus in Parts II and III. Primary text resources in Part II comprise documentary and autobiographical writing as well as academic pieces. These texts help draw the poets’ itineraries, inquire into how they reconstruct former language experiences and develop key elements of a poetics for their creative writing. Gradually, the specificities of each poet’s conception of the role of language multiplicity emerges. Poetry as creative and imaginative work is at the centre of Part III, which scrutinizes texts for their various uses of translingualism in dialogical writing, in translational practices and in the creation of poetic spaces marked by superimposed voices, languages and texts. Among the outcomes of the study, a few points stand out. The elaboration of an interdisciplinary framework stresses the benefits of crossing disciplinary perspectives and negotiating between terminologies in different languages. Part II shows that, contrary to widespread beliefs, both poets reject the mother tongue as language for writing; moreover, they demonstrate the rich cognitive, self- constructive and creative potential that a new self-selected language holds. The fundamental role that nomads’ ongoing reading in several languages holds for translingual writing is another crucial point that both poets constantly demonstrate. Differences, however, appear in their understanding of language multiplicity in texts. While Welch aims at a unified language, Joris is in search of new forms of writing that transgress borders of languages and genres. The analysis of poems in Part III confirms these diverse orientations and underlines the relevance of a distinction between implicit and explicit forms of heterolingualism, which account for a highly diversified range of writing across languages. For a study of all forms, the palimpsest remains a powerful conceptual metaphor to investigate the articulation of languages. The examples show that only an in-depth analysis can bring to light the nature of interactions and indicate their relevance for studies of multilingualism outside the literary context. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and stress in university students: An experience-sampling study
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on ... [more ▼]

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on immediate experience and an open and non-judging attitude towards these mental experiences. It is positively related to well-being and to intrapsychic congruence. The aim of the present work is to examine the relationship of daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress in the everyday life of university students. During a week of smartphone-based experience-sampling, 108 university students were asked five times daily about their momentary mindfulness and whether they experience motivational conflicts. Additionally, we assessed perceived stress each evening. The relationship between daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress was analyzed on the daily level with multi-level analyses. Both aggregated daily conflict (i.e., feeling that one should be doing something else) and mindfulness (i.e., being non-judgmental) yielded an effect on perceived stress, even when controlling for between-person differences in study load, for example. Findings underline the relevance of mindfulness for perceived stress in academic contexts and thereby also show an approach to positively influence well-being in university students in the future. [less ▲]

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See detail"Getting on the same page" - How participants' reading aloud from an interactive tabletop facilitates joint game participation
Heuser, Svenja UL; Arend, Béatrice UL; Sunnen, Patrick UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 01)

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co-facilitate joint accessibility to interactionally relevant text information about the unfamiliar game they are engaging in. These so called ‘written informings’ displayed on the horizontal interface are designed to serve as a game-manual. Since the activity is new to the participants, they rely on these informings in order to jointly accomplish the game. We consider participants’ reading aloud as an interactional practice for participating in the interaction and getting each other ‘on the same page’. By verbalizing and thereby also emphasizing specific (parts of the) text at a specific point in the interaction, participants make written informings from the ITT interactionally relevant and mutually accessible within the group. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailLifelike Computing Systems
Stein, Anthony; Tomforde, Sven; Botev, Jean UL et al

in Proceedings of the Lifelike Computing Systems Workshop (LIFELIKE) (2021, July)

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See detailTaming Reflection: An Essential Step Toward Whole-program Analysis of Android Apps
Sun, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(3), 1-36

Android developers heavily use reflection in their apps for legitimate reasons. However, reflection is also significantly used for hiding malicious actions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art static ... [more ▼]

Android developers heavily use reflection in their apps for legitimate reasons. However, reflection is also significantly used for hiding malicious actions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art static analysis tools for Android are challenged by the presence of reflective calls which they usually ignore. Thus, the results of their security analysis, e.g., for private data leaks, are incomplete, given the measures taken by malware writers to elude static detection. We propose a new instrumentation-based approach to address this issue in a non-invasive way. Specifically, we introduce to the community a prototype tool called DroidRA, which reduces the resolution of reflective calls to a composite constant propagation problem and then leverages the COAL solver to infer the values of reflection targets. After that, it automatically instruments the app to replace reflective calls with their corresponding Java calls in a traditional paradigm. Our approach augments an app so that it can be more effectively statically analyzable, including by such static analyzers that are not reflection-aware. We evaluate DroidRA on benchmark apps as well as on real-world apps, and demonstrate that it can indeed infer the target values of reflective calls and subsequently allow state-of-the-art tools to provide more sound and complete analysis results. [less ▲]

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