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See detailÉTRANGERS FAMILIERS Les travailleurs frontaliers en Suisse : Conceptualisation, Emploi, Quotidien et Pratiques
Bolzman, claudio; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Duchêne-Lacroix, Cédric

Book published by L'harmattan (2021)

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis ... [more ▼]

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis plusieurs décennies un des facteurs de la croissance économique. Pourtant, ils sont relativement peu connus. A cheval entre deux pays, leurs modes de vie, leur statut spécifique, leur pratique de la frontière interrogent. Ils sont ainsi qualifiés d’Etrangers familiers par les différents auteurs de cet ouvrage. Leur emploi, leur quotidien et leurs pratiques sont passés au crible, à la lumière d’entretiens mais également de données statistiques, révélant au passage la diversité des situations selon les cantons, et la grande variété des profils des frontaliers. C’est finalement tout un système organisé autour du travailleur frontalier lui-même qui est au cœur de cet ouvrage, retraçant l’emploi, le parcours des frontaliers, mais également leur quotidien et les questions relatives à leur intégration. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo centuries of music education in Luxembourg. 'Learning to teach' in the focus of two traditions
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 15)

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung ... [more ▼]

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung Luxemburgs – sie setzt für die musikalische Bildung um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ein – ist das Wissen um den historischen Kontext unerlässlich. Publikationen erster musikpädagogischer Werke, in der Mehrzahl Liederbücher, werden mit didaktischen Anweisungen eingeleitet, stehen nicht selten unter der Einflussnahme der katholischen Kirche und werden in einschlägigen Publikationsorganen behandelt. Dabei spielt die Bewegung des Cäcilianismus eine herausgehobene Rolle. Der erste spezialisierte Musikunterricht (Instrumentalunterricht und Gesangsunterricht) erfolgt in Privatinitiative, bis im Jahr 1844 der Gemeinderat der Stadt Luxemburg der Gründung der ersten öffentlichen Musikschule im Großherzogtum zustimmt. Die Besetzung von Direktorenposten und Lehrern abwechselnd mit deutsch- und mit französischsprachigen Persönlichkeiten führt zu einem Sonderweg musikpädagogischen Wirkens. Seit dem Jahrhundertwechsel sind die Grundsteine des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts gelegt. Die geographische Nähe zum Pariser bzw. zum Brüsseler Konservatorium führen jedoch überwiegend zur Übernahme der dort vorherrschenden Traditionen. Das Thema des Symposiums 'Das Lehren lernen' bewahrheitet sich hier in der Negation. Angehende Lehrer sind zuerst Musiker, dann Lehrer. Das Erwerben von Expertise erfolgt vielfach durch Lernen in der Praxis. Diese Tendenz setzt sich z.T. bis heute fort. Studiengänge für musikpädagogische Praxis werden in französischsprachigen Ländern sehr spät angeboten und existieren in Luxemburg bis heute nicht. Auf der anderen Seite folgt der Musikunterricht (Gesangunterricht) in Grund- und Sekundarschulen eher der Vorgehensweise in deutschsprachigen Ländern. Die gegenseitige Beeinflussung im Fokus der beiden Traditionen ist in diesem Bereich weniger ausgeprägt. Für meinen Vortrag schlage ich einen historischen Überblick über die Entwicklung der Musikpädagogik in Luxemburg anhand von der Organisation des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts vor. Die Ausbildung der Lehrenden im Bereich der Kirchenmusik gehört als integrativer Bestandteil in den Vortrag mit einbezogen. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of vulnerabilities in the international protection procedure
Petry, Ralph UL; Osburg, Mathis UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Article for general public (2021)

The vulnerability of applicants for international protection is a key component of the EU acquis on asylum, with both the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU) and the Recast Reception ... [more ▼]

The vulnerability of applicants for international protection is a key component of the EU acquis on asylum, with both the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU) and the Recast Reception Conditions Directive (2013/33/EU) providing special provisions for vulnerable persons with regard to the procedure for international protection (i.e. special procedural guarantees) and reception (i.e. special reception needs), respectively. Hence, in order for Member States to be able to provide and guarantee these special provisions for vulnerable applicants, it is essential that a potential vulnerability is detected and identified at an early stage in the international protection procedure. It is in this context that EMN Luxembourg decided, in consultation with the Luxembourgish authorities and national stakeholders, to launch a request for information to Member States via the EMN ad-hoc query system. As a consequence, the aim of this Inform is to map how vulnerabilities of applicants for international protection are detected in the international protection procedure in EU Member States and how the follow-up of this detection is guaranteed by the authorities and stakeholders involved, including special procedural guarantees. [less ▲]

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See detailEphemeriShield - Defence Against Cyber-Antisatellite Weapons
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Volp, Marcus UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 14)

Mitigating the risks associated with space system operations, especially in Low Earth Orbit, requires a holistic approach, which addresses, in particular, cybersecurity challenges, in addition to meeting ... [more ▼]

Mitigating the risks associated with space system operations, especially in Low Earth Orbit, requires a holistic approach, which addresses, in particular, cybersecurity challenges, in addition to meeting the data acquisition requirements the mission needs. Space traffic management systems form no exception to this rule, but are further constrained by backward compatibility requirements that sometimes are based on decades old foundations. As a result, some space situational awareness systems continue to operate with object catalogues and data dissemination architectures that are prone to failures, not to mention adversarial actions. Proof-of-Concept papers, demonstrating this vulnerability in example attacks on space object ephemerides distribution channels have already been published and show the urgency in rethinking the way we build such high-critical infrastructure. Leveraging recent developments of distributed systems theory and concepts from multi-party consensus in limited-trust environments and in the presence of malicious actors, we designed a more secure system for orbital object ephemerides distribution, ultimately targeting at increasing the safety of satellite operations. This paper presents EphemeriShield, a distributed ephemerides storage and distribution system, aiming at maintaining safety and security guarantees in presence of active attacker or unfortunate fault. Using our EphemeriShield prototype setup, we were able to prove its ability to mask attacks and local faults that otherwise would lead to unnecessary maneuvers. Wide adoption of EphemeriShield may help satellite system operations to become safer and less vulnerable to intentionally adversarial activities, which improves the overall sustainability of space. [less ▲]

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See detailESSAYS ON THE ECONOMICS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Montes Viñas, Ana Cecilia UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The present dissertation consists of three main chapters of self-contained works about international human migration and migrant's integration in the host society. The first chapter introduces the general ... [more ▼]

The present dissertation consists of three main chapters of self-contained works about international human migration and migrant's integration in the host society. The first chapter introduces the general outline of the dissertation and briefly explains the research questions explored in each chapter. The second chapter studies the effect of migration networks and long-term cultural distance on migration flows. The main research question is whether the diaspora effect on migration flows is larger when the cultural distance between the country of origin and destination is large. We use an unbalanced panel database of bilateral migration flows data from 1960 to 2009 for about 175 sending countries to 32 destination countries. We proxy long-term cultural distance using ancestral distance, also called genetic distance. Based on the micro-founded gravity model for migration, we estimate the interaction between the diaspora size and ancestral distance using the Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (Santos Silva \& Tenreyro, 2006). We find evidence of a positive and significant interaction effect between the network effect and ancestral distance on international migration flows, however, this effect is small once we control for omitted unobserved determinants of migration flows. The third chapter studies the educational performance of the children of migrants in the United States of America. It pushes forward the hypothesis that misalignment between expectations and aspirations crucially affects the educational outcomes of immigrant young adults. It shows that the difference in school performance between migrant children and natives lies within the aspirations and expectations that migrant children form. This chapter uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a longitudinal database representative of American high schools that surveys adolescents between the grades 7-12 collected by the Carolina Population Center. The chapter shows that a positive difference between aspirations and expectations is a driving force for higher effort and better education outcomes of immigrant teenagers. This force resolves the well-known immigrant paradox. This result is specific to migrant children and does not hold for second-generation migrant pupils who appear quite acculturated to the USA context. In the fourth chapter, the relationship between financial aid and foreign education at the postgraduate level is evaluated. I use a sample of Colombian graduates who applied to a financial aid program that sponsors the completion of master's degrees abroad. It studies the case of a Scholarship-Loan program provided by the Colfuturo Foundation and the Administrative Department of Science, Technology, and Innovation (Colciencias). Students with an undergraduate degree can apply to receipt a fund of 50000 dollars to finance their post-graduate studies in any country in the world, with the condition to come back to Columbia. The characteristics of the selection process of the program allow the implementation of a Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) to estimate the causal effect of the scholarship-loan program on the probability of completing studies abroad. Given Colfuturo’s selection process, the assignment of the fund is expected to be distributed quasi-randomly for the applicants around the vicinity of a cut-off point. This methodology allows for the estimation of the local average treatment effect (LATE) of the program. I employ the administrative records from the scholarship provider combined with internet sources. The results show that the scholarship-loan program is an effective tool to increase the probability of completing studies abroad by approximately 30 percentage points. The results are extremely robust across estimation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailLes soldats de la Wehrmacht d'Eupen-Malmedy
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 14)

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See detailJudicial Education and Judicial Independence: Paper given at the 2021 Commonwealth Law Conference
Happold, Matthew UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The link between judicial education and an efficient judiciary is, one hopes, obvious. But in order to ensure judicial independence, contemporary wisdom has it, judicial education should also be in the ... [more ▼]

The link between judicial education and an efficient judiciary is, one hopes, obvious. But in order to ensure judicial independence, contemporary wisdom has it, judicial education should also be in the hands of the judiciary. Absent such control, there is a risk that judges may be indoctrinated by interested actors and their independence compromised. Some critics, however, have been sceptical about judicial control of judicial education. Judicial control of education often justified on basis of expertise as well as need to protect independence. But judges are not pedagogues (and their view of what judging does, or should, entail are often untheorized). Nor are they particularly representative of society. In addition, a danger unmitigated by judicial control of judicial education is regulatory capture, defined as ‘the result or process by which regulation, in law or application, is consistently or repeatedly directed away from the public interest and toward the interests of the regulated industry, by the intent and action of the industry itself'. Even if other voices are integrated into discussions, the danger exists that they might seek to subvert the process to privilege their interests over the general interest. Such concerns have recently been raised in England and Wales with regard to the Equal Treatment Bench Book. The paper examines the relationship between judicial education and judicial independence through the lens of this controversy. It concludes that when judicial education trespass on the independence of the individual judge is not an easy question to answer (not least because education is always about socialization) but, crucially, it is not one answered by putting judicial education in the hands of the judiciary. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Urban Mining Automation and Digitalisation for a Closed- Loop Circular Construction
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL et al

Poster (2021, October 13)

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance ... [more ▼]

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance of the circular economy, construction actors are aligning their practices to be more circular and sustainable. The concept of material banks is born out of this awareness in order to document the lifecycle information of materials and facilitate re-using them. The introduction of new cycles before individual materials reach their final lifecycle stages results in reduced negative environmental impacts. This paper presents a workflow by positioning different digital technologies to automate the procedures for reuse assessment: from the deconstructed building to M/C bank to new construction projects. This automation supports a practical material and component reuse, while it provides the necessary infrastructure to digitise and digitalise the post-deconstruction materials to be visualised, selected and used by future designers in Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based design and management environments. To this aim, the coupling of BIM, reality capturing technologies, additive manufacturing techniques, IoT and RFID sensors is also anticipated. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Tool to Experience: Establishing a User Experience Perspective on Digital Concept Mapping
Rohles, Björn UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Education today faces difficult challenges, particularly because the complexity of topics or problems is rising and requires that learners see connections across different domain boundaries. Consequently ... [more ▼]

Education today faces difficult challenges, particularly because the complexity of topics or problems is rising and requires that learners see connections across different domain boundaries. Consequently, learners and instructors need a systematic approach to build and assess structural knowledge, supporting them to work with complexity in the 21st century. Digital concept mapping is a promising method to address these challenges. Concept maps are graphical networks of concepts and links with a particular emphasis on explicit semantic relations. Digitalization of concept mapping offers a range of capabilities but also adds challenges of its own. As learners take on a simultaneous role of users, the question of how to purposefully design positive experiences in digital concept mapping becomes a key concern. A digital tool needs to be optimized to allow learners to focus on task-relevant aspects instead of investing cognitive resources into operating the tool. Furthermore, a digital tool can itself be a source of positive experiences, contributing to motivation and reaching the overall educational goals. With an insufficient focus on users, designers and researchers risk creating tools that do not adequately acknowledge the aforementioned impacts on education. The present dissertation argues that the notion of user experience (UX) is adequate for investigating and purposefully shaping learner experiences with concept maps. The dissertation addresses the following research question: How does a user experience-driven approach contribute to digital concept mapping? After a general introduction (Part I), the dissertation builds on eight studies in four main parts: defining objectives of user experience design for digital concept mapping (Part II), investigating user experience design for a digital concept mapping tool (Part III), identifying scoring approaches for concept map-based assessment (Part IV), and investigating the impact of user experience on digital concept mapping (Part V). It concludes with a general discussion (Part VI). Part II presents three studies. Chapter 2 describes a co-design study in four classes. It combined functionality-driven and experience-driven design and identified a requirements profile for a digital concept mapping tool. Chapter 3 describes a storytelling focus group study that identified the role, desired outcomes, and pain points of digital concept mapping in Luxembourgish secondary education. Chapter 4 describes an interview study that identified how digital concept mapping contributes to fulfilling psychological needs. Part III describes the user experience design of a digital concept mapping tool. Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 investigate and optimize user experience with a concept mapping tool, building on a combination of critical incidents, think-aloud, card-driven investigation of psychological needs, and interviews. In summary, these studies were able to optimize user experience in digital concept mapping. Part IV addresses the scoring of concept maps which was identified as a key challenge for instructors and researchers in Part II. Chapter 10 is a systematic literature review of criteria used to score concept maps, resulting in a comprehensive framework with three dimensions that define concept map scoring. Finally, Part V presents two studies measuring the impact of a user experience perspective on digital concept mapping. Chapter 11 investigates user experience, psychological needs, intention to use, and concept map scores. Psychological needs strongly determined positive user experience, but not universally across all needs. User experience strongly impacted intention to use. Furthermore, our results indicated the need for further research into the relation between user experience and scores. Chapter 12 presents work in progress on guidelines and a scoring rubric for the meaningful use of multimodal features (like color, shape, or line type) in digital concept mapping. The present dissertation contributes empirical results to establishing a user experience perspective by identifying functional and non-functional goals, contextual factors, desired outcomes, pain points, and functionalities and characteristics of digital concept mapping tools. Furthermore, it outlines how these requirements can be achieved with UX design. The dissertation also contributes theoretical and meta-analytical findings by proposing a profile of psychological needs for concept mapping and deriving a comprehensive framework of criteria used to score concept maps. Finally, the dissertation makes methodological contributions by demonstrating how humans can be systematically involved in shaping their experiences with digital concept maps. The dissertation also provides recommendations for future design and instruction. [less ▲]

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See detailA new edge in global stability: What does space security entail for states?
Zarkan, Laetitia UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailOZONE GAS SENSORS BASED ON OFF-STOICHIOMETRIC COPPER-CHROMIUM-OXIDE THIN FILMS
Antunes Afonso, João Ricardo UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Ozone is a major concern for indoor office pollution. Recurring exposure to low levels of ozone (in ppb range) can be associated with several cardiopulmonary diseases. As such, there is a need for cheap ... [more ▼]

Ozone is a major concern for indoor office pollution. Recurring exposure to low levels of ozone (in ppb range) can be associated with several cardiopulmonary diseases. As such, there is a need for cheap, easy-to-integrate ozone gas sensors that can achieve good performance and work as an alarm for dangerous ozone concentrations. In this work, we propose the use of off-stoichiometric copper-chromium-oxide, that has shown great reversible measurements at low temperature for ozone detection, as low as 50 ppb. The selectivity compared with molecular oxygen is shown. Near-Atmospheric Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy led to the understanding of the ozone - delafossite surface reaction. This work discloses pioneering results in the fabrication of low cost, high sensitivity ozone sensors based on a p-type material. [less ▲]

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See detailJugend aus der UdSSR als ZwangsarbeiterInnen in Luxemburg 1942-1944
Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

At the center of the conversation about young people of the same age in the same city as today's high school students from Esch, were Soviet girls and guys who were taken by the Nazis to work in the steel ... [more ▼]

At the center of the conversation about young people of the same age in the same city as today's high school students from Esch, were Soviet girls and guys who were taken by the Nazis to work in the steel industry in Luxembourg. Luxembourg schoolchildren participate in the design of the monument to their peers 80 years ago, together with a sculpture from Russia. [less ▲]

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See detailNear surface defects: Cause of deficit between internal and external open-circuit voltage in solar cells
Sood, Mohit UL; Urbanaik, Aleksander; Kameni Boumenou, Christian UL et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2021)

Interface recombination in a complex multilayered thin-film solar structure causes a disparity between the internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in), measured by photoluminescence, and the external open ... [more ▼]

Interface recombination in a complex multilayered thin-film solar structure causes a disparity between the internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in), measured by photoluminescence, and the external open-circuit voltage (VOC,ex), that is, a VOC deficit. Aspirations to reach higher VOC,ex values require a comprehensive knowledge of the connection between VOC deficit and interface recombination. Here, a near-surface defect model is developed for copper indium di-selenide solar cells grown under Cu-excess conditions. These cell show the typical signatures of interface recombination: a strong disparity between VOC,in and VOC,ex, and extrapolation of the temperature dependent q·VOC,ex to a value below the bandgap energy. Yet, these cells do not suffer from reduced interface bandgap or from Fermi-level pinning. The model presented is based on experimental analysis of admittance and deep-level transient spectroscopy, which show the signature of an acceptor defect. Numerical simulations using the near-surface defects model show the signatures of interface recombination without the need for a reduced interface bandgap or Fermi-level pinning. These findings demonstrate that the VOC,in measurements alone can be inconclusive and might conceal the information on interface recombination pathways, establishing the need for complementary techniques like temperature dependent current–voltage measurements to identify the cause of interface recombination in the devices. [less ▲]

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See detailParental migration and psychological well-being of children. Longitudinal evidence from Ghana
Raturi, Radhika; Cebotari, Victor UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailRecension d' European Drama and Performance Studies n° 16 : « Percevoir et transmettre le spectacle vivant »
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 11)

Cette recension, divisée en trois temps, va suivre les différents points de vue adoptés par les participants au seizième numéro de la revue European Drama and Performance Studies, consacré à la perception ... [more ▼]

Cette recension, divisée en trois temps, va suivre les différents points de vue adoptés par les participants au seizième numéro de la revue European Drama and Performance Studies, consacré à la perception et à la transmission du spectacle vivant et dirigé par Françoise Gomez et Daniel Loayza : 1. Le regard du chercheur (Florence Naugrette, Julia Gros de Gasquet et Patrice Pavis) ; 2. Le regard du praticien de la scène (Emmanuel Demarcy-Mota et Don Kent) ; 3. L’archivage mémoriel (Sandrine Siméon et Daniel Loayza). [less ▲]

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