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See detailChronoPilot – Modulating Time Perception
Botev, Jean UL; Drewing, Knut; Hamann, Heiko et al

in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (2021, November)

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See detailMigration Internationale au Luxembourg: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 habitants (+1,4%), mais d’une manière plus discrète que les années précédentes. La part luxembourgeoise représente 52,8% de la population et les ressortissants étrangers 47,2%. La pandémie a dominé la politique en matière d’immigration et asile pendant l’année 2020 et 2021. Ces politiques ont impacté tous les secteurs au Luxembourg y compris les volets de l’immigration et de l’asile. La fermeture des frontières extérieures de l’Union Européenne, la réintroduction temporaire des contrôles aux frontières internes de l’espace Schengen (décrétées par l’Allemagne, la Belgique et la France) et la perturbation du trafic aérien international ont affecté les mouvements migratoires vers et au départ du Luxembourg. La limitation des mouvements des ressortissants pays tiers (RPT) s’est compliquée suite à la déclaration de l’état de crise entre le 18 mars et le 13 mai 2020 et la fermeture des services d’immigration et asile. Néanmoins, afin d’éviter qu’ils ne tombent dans une situation irrégulière, les autorités luxembourgeoises ont étendu la durée de validité des titres et cartes de séjour et des visas de manière automatique. De même, le traitement des dossiers et la prise de décision par la Direction de l’immigration se sont poursuivis sans interruption. L’interdiction d’entrée des RPT (avec des exceptions pour certaines catégories) a été maintenue jusqu’au 30 juin 2021. Une baisse significative du nombre de titres de séjour délivrés, de demandes d'autorisation temporaire de séjour et de visas de court séjour a été constatée, ainsi qu’une diminution de presque 50% des demandes de protection internationale. Le regroupement familial est resté le principal type de titre de séjour en 2020. Les limitations de mouvements ont aussi une incidence sur les transferts sous le règlement Dublin ainsi que sur les retours vers le pays d’origine. Au cours de l’année 2020, le Luxembourg a continué à maintenir ses engagements de solidarité internationale avec la relocalisation et la réinstallation des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) puisque 25 personnes (dont 16 mineurs) ont été relocalisées et 14 réinstallées. La réception des DPI s’est poursuivie car l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) n’a pas fermé ses guichets. Un défi majeur est constitué par les taux d’occupation élevés dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA. La crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI et/ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantizations and moduli stacks of curves
Kalugin, Alexey UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailStochastic Models of Critical Operations
Drent, Melvin UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailLes armées de la Maison des comtes de Luxembourg. Guerres, société, espaces (XIIIe - premières moitié du XIVe s.)
Sadler, Tom UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In the 13th century, the House of the Counts of Luxembourg experiences an impressive rise. In 1346, Charles IV, son of John of Luxembourg, cumulates the dignities of his predecessors: count of Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

In the 13th century, the House of the Counts of Luxembourg experiences an impressive rise. In 1346, Charles IV, son of John of Luxembourg, cumulates the dignities of his predecessors: count of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, king of the Romans and emperor. The army is a major support in this evolution. The study of the armies, the wars, the warfare, but also of the diplomatic relations of the counts of Luxembourg, we seek in this study to highlight the armies as a dynamic phenomenon which is indicative of the transformations affecting the politics of the House of Luxembourg. We must be aware that the house of Luxembourg is not just house of counts. The Luxembourg are sometimes king or emperor. Because of the accumulation of various dignities, several geographical areas must be considered: the county of Luxembourg, northern Italy, the kingdom of Bohemia, Silesia, Tyrol, Brandenburg, the kingdom of France and even Lithuania. The social and political rise of Luxembourg makes it possible to highlight the plurality or diversity as well in the wars as in the armies. Armies and wars are both the product of the transformations and mutations imposed on Luxembourg but also the cause and accelerator of the observed evolution. By providing not only real and material support, but also immaterial support like glory and fame, the armies allow the count house to be eligible for imperial dignity and thus contribute to the journey from the count house to the royal and imperial house. Through their interdependence with society, armies influence the latter. War and society, linked by the tight bond of the economy, shape each other, giving rise to the embryo of a modern state. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards incremental autonomy framework for on-orbit vision-based grasping
Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Dentler, Jan et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC-2021 (2021, October 29)

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and ... [more ▼]

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and built for a narrow time/complexity domain. In domains like On-orbit Servicing Assembly and Manufacturing (OSAM), this prevents scalability and generalizability, motivating a more consistent approach for the incremental development of robotic autonomy. For this purpose, the problem of vision-based grasping is described as a building block for high autonomy of dexterous space robots. Subsequently, the need for a framework is highlighted to enable bottom-up development of general autonomy with vision-based grasping as the starting point. The preliminary framework presented here comprises three components. First, an autonomy level classification provides a clear description of the autonomous behavior of the system. The stack abstraction provides a general classification of the development layers. Finally, the generic execution architecture condenses the flow of translating a high-level task description into real-world sense-planact routines. Overall, this work lays down foundational elements towards development of general robotic autonomy for scalablity in space application domains like OSAM. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsvortrag: Evaluierung und Standardisierung des "Sproochentests"
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL

Presentation (2021, October 27)

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See detailGenome Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 Allows Monitoring of Variants of Concern through Wastewater
Herold, Malte; Fouquier d'herouël, Aymeric UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Water (2021), 13(21 3018),

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection ... [more ▼]

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection dynamics within the population. However, the surveillance of individual lineages circulating in the population based on genomic sequencing of wastewater samples is challenging, as the genetic material constitutes a mixture of different viral haplotypes. Here, we identify specific signature mutations from individual SARS-CoV-2 lineages in wastewater samples to estimate lineages circulating in Luxembourg. We compare circulating lineages and mutations to those detected in clinical samples amongst infected individuals. We show that especially for dominant lineages, the allele frequencies of signature mutations correspond to the occurrence of particular lineages in the population. In addition, we provide evidence that regional clusters can also be discerned. We focused on the time period between November 2020 and March 2021 in which several variants of concern emerged and specifically traced the lineage B.1.1.7, which became dominant in Luxembourg during that time. During the subsequent time points, we were able to reconstruct short haplotypes, highlighting the co-occurrence of several signature mutations. Our results highlight the potential of genomic surveillance in wastewater samples based on amplicon short-read data. By extension, our work provides the basis for the early detection of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Socioeconomic gradient in child health and noncognitive skills: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Borga, Liyousew UL; Munich, Daniel; Kukla, Lubomir

in Economics and Human Biology (2021)

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We ... [more ▼]

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We show that family SES are positively associated with better child health. These effects start to emerge at age 3 and are persistent for all subsequent ages. We find a modest strengthening of the gradient as the children grow older. Similarly, at the lowest distribution of average family income, children lag in their noncognitive skills. We find evidence that children enter school with substantial differences in noncognitive skill endowments based on family SES. This correlation persists when controlling for poor health at birth, the roles of specific and chronic health problems, housing conditions, and partner characteristics. Maternal health status explains some of the association between family income and child noncognitive skills. We account for the endogeniety of SES and non-linearities in measures. [less ▲]

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See detailPROCESS INNOVATION FOR SENSORS IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS BASED ON LASER ASSISTED METAL-POLYMER JOINING
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The laser joining of metals to polymers is currently an interesting research area thanks to the capability of developing lightweight structures. Considering their miscellaneous applications in the ... [more ▼]

The laser joining of metals to polymers is currently an interesting research area thanks to the capability of developing lightweight structures. Considering their miscellaneous applications in the automotive industry, aluminum and polyamide are chosen as the material combination for this study. There are three main challenges regarding laser joining of metals to polymers in general: significant difference between the melting points of the materials, adhesion at the interface, and the mechanical properties of the assembly. The first challenge is addressed by in-situ heating observation and temperature measurement during the joining process. Therefore, polyamide thermal pyrolysis is effectively avoided by optimizing the laser joining parameters and employing power modulation. The second one is studied by applying different surface treatments on the materials (laser-based and abrasive-based). The surfaces were tested by several characterization techniques before and after each surface treatment. The modification of the surface structure through an appropriate surface treatment leads to the improvement of wetting and adhesion between the melted polyamide and aluminum surface. Therefore, the alteration of a mixed failure (adhesive/cohesive) to a fully cohesive failure is the major step to enhance the mechanical properties of the assemblies. However, in the absence of bubbles, the structural modification of polyamide during the joining process is responsible for the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray1 mapping and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry2 shows the physicochemical bonding between aluminum oxide and the polyamide at the interface. To further enhance the mechanical properties of the assemblies, the structure of the polyamide near the interface of metal/polymer is addressed. For this purpose, laser treatment of polyamide, post-heat treatment, and joining with different feed rates were implemented. Finally, the shear strength of approximately 45 MPa on average is achieved for the assembly of laser-polished aluminum laser-joined to the polyamide with 2 and 5 mm/s feed rate. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology and Phase Transitions: A First Analytical Step towards the Definition of Sufficient Conditions
di Cairano, Loris UL; Gori, Matteo UL; Pettini, Marco

in Entropy (2021), 23(11),

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical ... [more ▼]

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical system. An important step forward for this approach was achieved with two theorems stating that, for a wide class of physical systems, phase transitions should necessarily stem from topological changes of energy level submanifolds of the phase space. However, the sufficiency conditions are still a wide open question. In this study, a first important step forward was performed in this direction; in fact, a differential equation was worked out which describes how entropy varies as a function of total energy, and this variation is driven by the total energy dependence of a topology-related quantity of the relevant submanifolds of the phase space. Hence, general conditions can be in principle defined for topology-driven loss of differentiability of the entropy [less ▲]

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See detailPräsentation der Fallstudie: Handlungswissen für eine Verbesserung des Gewässerzustands im Syrtal
Hondrila, Kristina UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

Den Zustand der Gewässer in Luxemburg zu verbessern ist eine große Herausforderung. Die Präsentation fasst Lerneffekte zusammen, die aus Governance-Prozessen im Flussgebiet der Syr im Zeitraum 2012-2019 ... [more ▼]

Den Zustand der Gewässer in Luxemburg zu verbessern ist eine große Herausforderung. Die Präsentation fasst Lerneffekte zusammen, die aus Governance-Prozessen im Flussgebiet der Syr im Zeitraum 2012-2019 hervorgegangen sind. Sie zeigt, welche Faktoren dazu beitragen können, dass Akteure in Wasserwirtschaft, Umweltschutz und Landwirtschaft zusammenarbeiten und gemeinsames Handlungswissen schaffen, um den Zustand von Flüssen und Bächen trotz zahlreicher Hürden zu verbessern. [less ▲]

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See detailRoadmap on organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite semiconductors and devices
Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Olthof, Selina et al

in APL Materials (2021)

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite ... [more ▼]

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite semiconductors have reported breakthroughs in various optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting and memory devices, and so on. Until now, perovskite semiconductors face challenges regarding their stability, reproducibility, and toxicity. In this Roadmap, we combine the expertise of chemistry, physics, and device engineering from leading experts in the perovskite research community to focus on the fundamental material properties, the fabrication methods, characterization and photophysical properties, perovskite devices, and current challenges in this field. We develop a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art and offer readers an informed perspective of where this field is heading and what challenges we have to overcome to get to successful commercialization. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point du contact national luxembourgeois du Réseau européen des migrations
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL

Presentation (2021, October 26)

The presentation describes the structure, aims and objectives of the European Migration Network and the structure, aim and activities of EMN Luxembourg.

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See detailEmerging Contaminants, Cheminformatics, Mass Spectrometry and the Exposome
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, October 26)

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See detailAnalyse critique: les images de la guerre froide à la loupe
Mouton, Victoria UL; Duval, Cécile UL; Gabellini, Marco UL

Presentation (2021, October 26)

Ce séminaire s’est focalisé sur l’analyse critique d’images de la guerre froide. Dans une première partie, il a été question du pouvoir des images et de leur manipulation à des fins de propagande. Ensuite ... [more ▼]

Ce séminaire s’est focalisé sur l’analyse critique d’images de la guerre froide. Dans une première partie, il a été question du pouvoir des images et de leur manipulation à des fins de propagande. Ensuite, à travers des exemples concrets, l’outil numérique StoryMap a été présenté, invitant les étudiants à décrypter des caricatures afin de construire leur propre analyse critique. [less ▲]

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See detailSecurity in an evolving European HPC Ecosystem
Pleiter, Dirk; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Krishnasamy, Ezhilmathi UL et al

Report (2021)

The goal of this technical report is to analyse challenges and requirements related to security in the context of an evolving European HPC ecosystem, to provide selected strategies on how to address them ... [more ▼]

The goal of this technical report is to analyse challenges and requirements related to security in the context of an evolving European HPC ecosystem, to provide selected strategies on how to address them, and to come up with a set of forward-looking recommendations. A key assumption made in this technical report is that we are in a transition period from a setup, where HPC resources are operated in a rather independent manner, to centres providing a variety of e-infrastructure services, which are not exclusively based on HPC resources and are increasingly part of federated infrastructures. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies implicates distinct disease subgroups
Kaivola, Karri; Shah, Zalak; Chia, Ruth et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2021), awab402

The APOE locus is strongly associated with risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In particular, the role of the APOE ε4 allele as a putative driver of α-synuclein ... [more ▼]

The APOE locus is strongly associated with risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In particular, the role of the APOE ε4 allele as a putative driver of α-synuclein pathology is a topic of intense debate. Here, we performed a comprehensive evaluation in 2,466 DLB cases versus 2,928 neurologically healthy, aged controls. Using an APOE-stratified genome-wide association study approach, we found that GBA is associated with risk for DLB in patients without APOE ε4 (p = 6.58 x 10−9, OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.25–5.17), but not with DLB with APOE ε4 (p = 0.034, OR = 1.87, 95%, 95% CI = 1.05–3.37). We then divided 495 neuropathologically examined DLB cases into three groups based on the extent of concomitant Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology: pure DLB (n = 88), DLB with intermediate Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology (DLB + iAD, n = 66), and DLB with high Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology (DLB + AD, n = 341). In each group, we tested the association of the APOE ε4 against the 2,928 neurologically healthy controls. Our examination found that APOE ε4 was associated with DLB + AD (p = 1.29x10−32, OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 3.35–5.39) and DLB + iAD (p = 0.0011, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.40–3.83), but not with pure DLB (p = 0.31, OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43–1.30). In conclusion, though deep clinical data were not available for these samples, our findings do not support the notion that APOE ε4 is an independent driver of α-synuclein pathology in pure DLB, but rather implicate GBA as the main risk gene for the pure DLB subgroup. [less ▲]

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