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See detailGlobal Mega-Science: Universities Scientize the World
Baker, David UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Book published by Stanford University Press (2023)

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See detailSoK: Secure E-Voting with Everlasting Privacy
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Mosaheb, Rafieh UL et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (2023)

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting ... [more ▼]

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting) protocols have been proposed to address this challenge, striving for everlasting privacy. This property guarantees that even computationally unbounded adversaries cannot break privacy of past elections. The broad interest in secure e-voting with everlasting privacy has spawned a large variety of protocols over the last three decades. These protocols differ in many aspects, in particular the precise security properties they aim for, the threat scenarios they consider, and the privacy-preserving techniques they employ. Unfortunately, these differences are often opaque, making analysis and comparison cumbersome. In order to overcome this non-transparent state of affairs, we systematically analyze all e-voting protocols designed to provide everlasting privacy. First, we illustrate the relations and dependencies between all these different protocols. Next, we analyze in depth which protocols do provide secure and efficient approaches to e-voting with everlasting privacy under realistic assumptions, and which ones do not. Eventually, based on our extensive and detailed treatment, we identify which research problems in this field have already been solved, and which ones are still open. Altogether, our work offers a well-founded reference point for conducting research on secure e-voting with everlasting privacy as well as for future-proofing privacy in real-world electronic elections. [less ▲]

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See detailPower Allocation for Space-Terrestrial Cooperation Systems with Statistical CSI
Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL; Hoang, Tiep M. et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailCoexistence of eMBB and URLLC in Open Radio Access Networks: A Distributed Learning Framework
Al-Senwi, Madyan Abdullah Othman UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailTerminal-Aware Multi-Connectivity Scheduler for Uplink Multi-Layer Non-Terrestrial Networks
Dazhi, Michael UL; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December)

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak throughput. MC is a technique initially introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for terrestrial communications in 4G and 5G, it has shown much gain in the terrestrial domain and this paper explores areas where this concept can benefit the satellite domain. MC can increase throughput, but this entails increased power consumption at user terminal for uplink transmissions. The energy efficiency of uplink communications can be improved by designing efficient scheduling schemes, and to this end, we developed a terminal aware multi-connectivity scheduling algorithm. This proposed algorithm uses the available radio resources and propagation information to intelligently define a dynamic resource allocation pattern, that optimally routes traffic so as to maximize uplink data rate while minimizing the energy consumption at the UT. The algorithm operates with the terminal differentiating multi-layer NTN resource scheduling architecture, which has a softwarized dispatcher at the network layer that classifies and differentiates the packets based on terminal type. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with round robin and joint carrier schedulers in terms of uplink data rate and energy efficiency. We also provide architectural design of implementable schedulers for multi-orbital satellite networks that can operate with different classes of terminals. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Managers, Price Noise and the Investment Factor
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Financial Innovation (2022), 8(61),

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See detailRent, sell, and remanufacture: The manufacturer’s choice when remanufacturing can be outsourced
liu, Jian; Mantin, Binyamin UL; Song, Xuefeng

in European Journal of Operational Research (2022), 303(1), 184-200

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do ... [more ▼]

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do with the returned products? One solution is to remanufacture these products and then rent or resell them. Subsequently, should remanufacturing be outsourced to a third-party firm that can remanufacture at a lower cost? Here, we use a multi-period setting and examine the optimal decisions for different selling and renting constellations. Importantly, we allow the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products to differ, as they seem to be critical in determining the manufacturer's renting and selling decisions and remanufacturing strategies. For example, under integrated (i.e. in-house) remanufacturing, when the new rental product's manufacturing cost is sufficiently high, no remanufacturing happens. Under both remanufacturing strategies—integrated and outsourced—the manufacturer does not rent new products in the second period if the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products are identical. If the rental product's manufacturing cost is either sufficiently low or high, then integrated remanufacturing is more profitable; when this manufacturing cost is within a moderate range, the manufacturer outsources remanufacturing to an independent remanufacturer. Surprisingly, in some situations, the production quantity of the new sales product may even increase with its manufacturing cost. This is because the manufacturer may extract an even higher margin compared with the new rental product. Finally, we also consider several extensions such as uncertainty regarding the quality of the returned goods, simultaneous selling and renting of remanufactured goods, and longer horizons and the product's life cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-preserving federated learning for residential short-term load forecasting
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Lee, Chul Min UL et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 326

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these ... [more ▼]

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these forecasts as they provide detailed load data. However, using smart meter data for load forecasting is challenging due to data privacy requirements. This paper investigates how these requirements can be addressed through a combination of federated learning and privacy preserving techniques such as differential privacy and secure aggregation. For our analysis, we employ a large set of residential load data and simulate how different federated learning models and privacy preserving techniques affect performance and privacy. Our simulations reveal that combining federated learning and privacy preserving techniques can secure both high forecasting accuracy and near-complete privacy. Specifically, we find that such combinations enable a high level of information sharing while ensuring privacy of both the processed load data and forecasting models. Moreover, we identify and discuss challenges of applying federated learning, differential privacy and secure aggregation for residential short-term load forecasting. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity powered by blockchain: A review with a European perspective
Roth, Tamara UL; Utz, Manuel; Baumgarte, Felix et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 325

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify the reasons for this slow progress, we reviewed the recent energy literature regarding the use of blockchain, analyzed industry reports, and interviewed experts who have conducted blockchain projects in Europe’s energy systems. Our analysis reveals eight common use cases, their expected benefits, and the challenges encountered. We find that the expected benefits are often little more than generic hopes, largely outweighed by technological, organizational, and regulatory challenges. The identified challenges are significant and numerous, especially for peer-to-peer trading and microgrid use cases. The fact that few projects have yet provided robust evidence for profitable use suggests there is still a rocky road ahead. Moreover, many use cases appear to require more than just blockchain technology to succeed. In particular, privacy and scalability requirements often call for systems in which blockchains only take a backseat. This realization may be essential for the future use of blockchain technology in energy systems – in Europe and beyond. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure and Distributed Assessment of Privacy-Preserving Releases of GWAS
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie; Volp, Marcus UL

in ACM/IFIP International Middleware Conference (2022, November)

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify correlations between the genetic variants and an observable characteristic such as a disease. Previous works presented privacy-preserving distributed ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify correlations between the genetic variants and an observable characteristic such as a disease. Previous works presented privacy-preserving distributed algorithms for a federation of genome data holders that spans multiple institutional and legislative domains to securely compute GWAS results. However, these algorithms have limited applicability, since they still require a centralized instance to decide whether GWAS results can be safely disclosed, which is in violation to privacy regulations, such as GDPR. In this work, we introduce GenDPR, a distributed middleware that leverages Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) to securely determine a subset of the potential GWAS statistics that can be safely released. GenDPR achieves the same accuracy as centralized solutions, but requires transferring significantly less data because TEEs only exchange intermediary results but no genomes. Additionally, GenDPR can be configured to tolerate all-but-one honest-but-curious federation members colluding with the aim to expose genomes of correct members. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Source Code and Signal-based Behaviour of CPS Components
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Dawes, Joshua; Bianculli, Domenico (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software (2022, November)

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour ... [more ▼]

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour of the cyber components implicit. There have been some attempts to provide specification languages that enable more explicit reference to the behaviour of cyber components, but it remains awkward to directly express the behaviour of both cyber and physical components in the same specification, using one formalism. In this paper, we introduce a new specification language, Source Code and Signal Logic (SCSL), that 1) provides syntax specific to both signals and events originating in source code; and 2) does not require source code events to be abstracted into signals. We introduce SCSL by giving its syntax and semantics, along with examples. We then provide a comparison between SCSL and existing specification languages, using an example property, to show the benefit of using SCSL to capture certain types of properties. [less ▲]

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See detailBetting Against Noisy Beta
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Journal of Finance and Data Science (2022), 8(-), 55-68

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (4 UL)
See detailAustralian Indigenous Life Writing: Analysing Discourses with Word Embedding Modelling
Kamlovskaya, Ekaterina UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The genre of Australian Aboriginal autobiography is a literature of significant socio-political importance, with authors sharing a history different to the one previously asserted by the European settlers ... [more ▼]

The genre of Australian Aboriginal autobiography is a literature of significant socio-political importance, with authors sharing a history different to the one previously asserted by the European settlers which ignored or misrepresented Australia's First People. While there has been a number of studies looking at the works belonging to this genre from various perspectives, Australian Indigenous life writing has never been approached from the digital humanities point of view which, given the constant development of computer technologies and growing availability of digital sources, offers humanities researchers many opportunities for exploring textual collections from various angles. With this research work I contribute to closing the above-mentioned research gap and discuss the results of the interdisciplinary research project within the scope of which I created a bibliography of published Australian Indigenous life writing works, designed and assembled a corpus and created word embedding models of this corpus which I then used to explore the discourses of identity, land, sport, and foodways, as well as gender biases present in the texts in the context of postcolonial literary studies and Australian history. Studying these discourses is crucial for gaining a better understanding of the contemporary Australian society as well as the nation's history. Word embeddings modelling has recently been used in digital humanities as an exploratory technique to complement and guide traditional close reading approaches, which is justified by their potential to identify word use patterns in a collection of texts. In this dissertation, I provide a case study of how word embedding modelling can be used to investigate humanities research questions and reflect on the issues which researchers may face while working with such models, approaching various aspects of the research project from the perspectives of digital source and tool criticism. I demonstrate how word embedding model of the analysed corpus represents discourses through relationships between word vectors that reflect the historical, political, and cultural environment of the authors and some unique experiences and perspectives related to their racial and gender identities. I show how the narrators reconstruct the analysed discourses to achieve the main goals of Australian Indigenous life writing as a genre - reclaiming identity and rewriting history. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to Grasp on the Moon from 3D Octree Observations with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Orsula, Andrej UL; Bøgh, Simon; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 24)

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time ... [more ▼]

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time that rovers can spend gathering scientific data and collecting samples. This work investigates the applicability of deep reinforcement learning for vision-based robotic grasping of objects on the Moon. A novel simulation environment with procedurally-generated datasets is created to train agents under challenging conditions in unstructured scenes with uneven terrain and harsh illumination. A model-free off-policy actor-critic algorithm is then employed for end-to-end learning of a policy that directly maps compact octree observations to continuous actions in Cartesian space. Experimental evaluation indicates that 3D data representations enable more effective learning of manipulation skills when compared to traditionally used image-based observations. Domain randomization improves the generalization of learned policies to novel scenes with previously unseen objects and different illumination conditions. To this end, we demonstrate zero-shot sim-to-real transfer by evaluating trained agents on a real robot in a Moon-analogue facility. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Aesthetics of Smoke in Interwar Luxembourgish Literature
Millim, Anne-Marie UL

Presentation (2022, October 19)

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

in Journal of Derivatives (2022), (Fall),

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See detailAus den Fehlern von Belval lernen
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 UL)