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See detailApproaches for completing metabolic networks through metabolite damage and repair discovery
Griffith, Corey UL; Walvekar, Adhish UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2021), 28

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites ... [more ▼]

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites that can be toxic, are mended by dedicated “metabolite repair enzymes.” Deficiencies in the latter can cause severe disease in humans, whereas inclusion of repair enzymes in metabolically engineered systems can improve the production yield of value-added chemicals. The metabolite damage and repair loops are typically not yet included in metabolic reconstructions and it is likely that many remain to be discovered. Here, we review strategies and associated challenges for unveiling non-canonical metabolites and metabolite repair enzymes, including systematic approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolome-wide side-activity prediction, as well as high-throughput substrate and phenotypic screens. [less ▲]

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See detailTumour immune evasion is promoted by actin cytoskeleton-driven polarization of inhibitory signals to the immunological synapse
Wurzer, Hannah Gertrud Andrea UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that are the first line of defence against infection and malignant transformation. They have the ability to recognize and destroy virally infected or ... [more ▼]

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that are the first line of defence against infection and malignant transformation. They have the ability to recognize and destroy virally infected or cancerous cells without the need for priming or activation and therefore represent a promising target for new immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer. For their anti-tumour function, NK cells rely on actin cytoskeleton remodelling, in particular during the formation of the lytic immunological synapse (IS) with prospective target cells. The IS is characterized by an extensive assembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) and polarization of the NK cell for directed delivery of lytic granules. However, the IS allows bi-directional exchange of information, and anti-tumour effector functions of NK cells are often impaired through inhibitory signals that are transmitted through killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) or the CD94/NK group 2 member A (NKG2A) heterodimeric receptor. Moreover, resistant tumour cells can polarize their own actin cytoskeleton to the IS in a process called actin response, enforcing the formation of an evasion IS or actin response-IS (AR-IS). This PhD thesis focuses on the evaluation of associated resistance mechanisms that occur at the AR-IS, the conservation of these processes and their translation to in vivo models of cancer. For this purpose, individual cancer-NK cell conjugates were analysed by high-throughput imaging flow cytometry (IFC) to investigate the accumulation of F-actin at the IS and the distribution of inhibitory and activating ligands in relation to the IS. The AR was associated with a wider synaptic cleft, prominent recruitment of predominantly inhibitory ligands and inhibition of NK cell-induced target cell death. Further, the AR could also be applied to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) attack during antigen specific IS formation. To explore the in vivo relevance of the AR, modified murine cancer cell lines were established that allowed for the evaluation of impact of the AR on tumour progression, the tumour immune landscape, immune cell activation and exhaustion. Reduction of the actin response was associated with a reduction of tumour volume, enhanced infiltration of CTLs and NK cells and higher numbers of effector T cells. In summary, this study reports a novel, highly conserved immune-escape mechanism that exploits fast remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton of cancer cells to induce clustering of inhibitory ligands at the AR-IS and prevent NK cell activation. This AR is characterized by fine synaptic filopodia-like protrusions (SFPs) that are decorated with inhibitory ligands and probe the surface of the NK cell in addition to providing a steric hindrance for NK cell attachment to target cells. In our pre-clinical mouse model, we could demonstrate that a reduction of the AR results in the restoration of anti-tumour immunity. Understanding the mechanism that enables or initiates the AR and finding new ways to target this mechanism has the potential to improve cancer immunotherapy, especially for NK cell-based approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cybersecurity come bene pubblico: alcune riflessioni normative a partire dai recenti sviluppi nel diritto UE
Brighi, Raffaella; Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in Federalismi.it (2021), 21

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account ... [more ▼]

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account systems’ robustness. The doctrine of the public good, which is typically an economic concept, in its normative dimension reveals a framework of shared responsibilities, in view of the common interest in having a satisfactory level of security of the information systems at the basis of our societies. Improving cybersecurity is essential, on the one hand, to trust and benefit from innovation, connectivity and automation; on the other hand, for safeguarding fundamental rights and freedoms, including the rights to privacy and to the protection of personal data, and the freedom of expression and information. Against this background, the new strategy of the European Commission on cybersecurity, the proposal for an NIS 2.0 Directive and, at a lower level of abstraction, the inclusion of minimum cybersecurity requirements for connected devices in the Directives and Regulations of the “New Legislative Framework” (NLF), testify the firm will of the Commission to outline a clear, coherent and inclusive regulatory framework, in order to increase the global level of security within the Union. [less ▲]

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See detailNational Justice vs. Occupiers’ Justice? A conflict of competence in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg during World War I
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 08)

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German ... [more ▼]

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German authorities saw this act as an occupatio pacifica and the violation of its neutrality as a necessity in order to respond to a state of emergency, the Luxembourgish government and its justice administration had to cope with a new set of problems. The government, led by state minister Paul Eyschen, and the country’s monarchical leader Marie-Adélaïde pursued a strategy of appeasement towards the occupier, but also attempted to guard the sovereignty of their state as well as of their justice system. With the establishment of German military justice and a central police office in Luxembourg, the sovereignty of Luxembourg’s French-inspired justice was curtailed. However, German authorities made clear that they do not intend to challenge the spheres of local justice, unless cases of military relevance would arise. After all, Luxembourg was a country with close links to the Kaiserreich and an important industrial partner and therefore had to receive a privileged treatment compared to other occupied territories. However, with Luxembourgers being arrested by the German military and German soldiers committing crimes on Luxembourgish ground, the two justice systems, military and local, clashed. Since the status of the “friendly occupation” created legal misunderstandings, local judges, magistrates of the high court (cour supérieure) and German authorities stood in constant correspondence regarding a large amount of court cases and competence disputes. Consequently, in 1915, members of the high magistrate made their way to Frankfurt and Berlin to discuss the status of Luxembourgish justice. These discussions would eventually lead back to the question whether the country was truly to be considered a theater of war (Kriegsschauplatz). Overall, the discussion about the spheres of national and occupier justice became part of a much larger question: What is the legal nature of German occupation in Luxemburg? This paper explores how the two justice systems interacted and highlights court cases where their competences intertwined. These observations show how the local administration had to apply a mix of compromise and pertinacity in order to avoid open conflict but at the same time tried to keep Luxembourgish civilians out of the reach of German military justice. In doing so, several interesting observations can be made regarding the legal discussions between lawyers and prosecutors of both sides. Additionally, the paper offers an insight into a variety of local cases ranging from German soldiers marauding drunkenly on Luxemburgish streets to the arrest of a Luxembourgish judge and amateur historian. Overall, the presented paper attempts to show that while the local justice system was not altered by the occupier, it suffered a cut in its competence in certain spheres of civil justice. However, in comparison to the later Nazi occupation of Luxembourg, local justice administration and its personnel were kept in their place, but had to constantly negotiate certain aspects of civil and international law with the German authorities – often to their own disadvantage. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Active-and-Passive Relaying Model for 6G-IoT Greencom Networks with SWIPT
Gautam, Sumit UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy ... [more ▼]

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy-efficient manner while incorporating suitable network coverage expansion methodologies. To this end, this paper proposes a novel two-hop hybrid active-and-passive relaying scheme to facilitate simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) considering both time-switching (TS) and power-splitting (PS) receiver architectures, while dynamically modelling the involved dual-hop time-period (TP) metric. An optimization problem is formulated to jointly optimize the throughput, harvested energy, and transmit power of a SWIPT-enabled system with the proposed hybrid scheme. In this regard, we provide two distinct ways to obtain suitable solutions based on the Lagrange dual technique and Dinkelbach method assisted convex programming, respectively, where both the approaches yield an appreciable solution within polynomial computational time. The experimental results are obtained by directly solving the primal problem using a non-linear optimizer. Our numerical results in terms of weighted utility function show the superior performance of the proposed hybrid scheme over passive repeater-only and active relay-only schemes, while also depicting their individual performance benefits over the corresponding benchmark SWIPT systems with the fixed-TP. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Pricing Strategies in the Carsharing Business, Profit Maximization and Equity Considerations
Giorgione, Giulio UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In the last two decades the development of mobile technology and the ease of access to an internet connection helped the consolidation of the sharing economy paradigm. This new way of purchasing goods and ... [more ▼]

In the last two decades the development of mobile technology and the ease of access to an internet connection helped the consolidation of the sharing economy paradigm. This new way of purchasing goods and services differs from old traditional business models since it enables a shared use of resources in order to save money and generate profit. As an important player in the sharing economy, sharing mobility continues, nowadays, to shape urban mobility with the introduction of different modes of shared transport such as carsharing, bike sharing, ride sourcing, and other collective mobility services. Different stakeholders participate in the creation and exploitation of these new mobility services: governmental agencies, customers, and private companies. Each of them has a specific purpose that can affect and stir the benefit of sharing platforms. Focusing on the carsharing service, on the business side and on the user side, profit and customer satisfaction are usually the main goals even if, at times, both difficult to pursue together. Competition on today's landscape leaves little room for both established and less established businesses. Opportunities to increase corporate profit become scarcer and more refined systems to better manage carsharing operations are needed to guarantee commercial viability. Evaluating business models for carsharing is no trivial task. Several methods are used for assessing the quality of changes in some operations or to evaluate possible approaches. Combinatorial and stochastic optimization are used to answer decision-making problems in the case of deterministic or uncertain problems. The shortcoming of these approaches is that they are limited at solving problems related to fleet management or service planning as it is more difficult to have an overview in which multiple properties (e.g., demography, territorial distribution, specificity of the fleet, ...) of both supply and demand are considered. This happens because car sharing is a highly complex service that has many interdependent factors. Given this complexity, a more favorable approach to estimate the demand for the service - together with all its peculiarities - and to help operators in the decision-making process, is the simulation one. This criterion allows the interaction of multiple factors which, through functional relationships between the decision-making parameters of the supplier, can introduce indicators to evaluate the quality of the solutions that cannot be easily derived analytically. This dissertation focuses on a simulation-based approach that aims to create a decision support system for carsharing business. This decision support system aims to use demographic and land use data as input, once the provider's needs are known, and to return solutions regarding the optimization of the carsharing service. The development of this thesis is conceived from the point of view of the service provider, even if considerations regarding the equity of the various strategies proposed therein for the service customers constitute an integral and fundamental part of the construction of this system of support for decisions. In this manuscript, we discuss the introduction of different dynamic pricing strategies that aim to increase the profit of the carsharing service, along with other indicators such as the number of bookings and utilization time of vehicles. By developing different price models, the introduction of dynamic prices based on the quantity of vehicles present in the station at the time of booking is evaluated and the output of the implementation of a dynamic price based on the time of the day is examined. In the first part of this thesis, we discuss how it is possible to evaluate the quality of a carsharing service from the point of view of its members, focusing on how different strategies generate or can reduce inequalities due to different wages or purchasing powers. Furthermore, using data collected by a car-sharing company operating in Germany and the United Kingdom, Oply, we implement these same strategies in a scenario calibrated with real data. Finally, we propose a methodology for calibrating carsharing scenarios in an agent-based environment.Moreover, we use these scenarios to demonstrate how it is possible, once there is complete knowledge of the demand and the status of the offer, to attribute a certain price to a single booking that maximizes the profit of the service. The overall results show that the introduction of dynamic pricing strategies does not always benefit all segments of the population and that the goals of a carsharing company are not always compatible with those of its members. Furthermore, they show how it is possible to increase the profit of a carsharing company accordingly to its position on the market, whether it has a total knowledge of the territory or not, whether it is an established company or not yet fully established. As we will also see in the final chapter of this thesis, the product of this work does not consist only in a practical contribution aimed mostly at carsharing companies, but also in a scientific counterpart that outlines new research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailRussian Migration in Luxemburg. A Virtual Museum
Ganschow, Inna UL

Learning material (2021)

This virtual museum is dedicated to Russian migration in Luxembourg since the late 19th century. The basis for the early 20th century is the exhibition on the first Russian migrants in Luxembourg, created ... [more ▼]

This virtual museum is dedicated to Russian migration in Luxembourg since the late 19th century. The basis for the early 20th century is the exhibition on the first Russian migrants in Luxembourg, created by the Center for Documentation of Humane Migration in Dudelange, Luxembourg (CDMH) and the Luxembourg Center for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), which took place in Gare-Usine in Dudelange from March 2020 until August 2021. The online collection of the photographs, objects and texts from the exhibition are presented here on Hypotheses.org. The initiative to create a virtual museum belongs to the Russian Center for Science and Culture (Russkiy Dom) in Luxemburg. This collection will be replenished with additional items and documents, since the history of Forced Labor of Soviet Citizens in Luxembourg during the WII is a research topic of C2DH in 2021-2024. This website is addressed to academic readers (students, researchers, teachers), as well as readers interested in the history of Russia, Luxembourg and the history of migration. [less ▲]

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See detailEssays on the Economics of Forced Displacement and Conflict
Cömertpay, Rana UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In Chapter 1, we analyze the determinants of the internal mobility of refugees in Turkey. We track down this mobility relying on geolocalized mobile phone calls data and bring these measures to a micro ... [more ▼]

In Chapter 1, we analyze the determinants of the internal mobility of refugees in Turkey. We track down this mobility relying on geolocalized mobile phone calls data and bring these measures to a micro-founded gravity model in order to estimate the main drivers of refugee mobility across 26 regions in 2017. Our results show that the movements of refugees are sensitive to income differentials and contribute therefore to a more efficient allocation of labor across space. Comparing these findings with those of individuals with a non-refugee status, we find that refugees are more sensitive to variations of income at origin and to distance, while less responsive to changes in income at destination. These findings are robust to the way mobility is inferred from phone data and to the choice of the geographical unit of investigation. Further, we provide evidence against some alternative explanations of mobility such as the propensity to leave refugee camps, transit through Turkey, social magnet effects and sensitivity to agricultural business cycles. In Chapter 2, we exploit annual variations in the presence of refugees to approximate the resulting changes in diversity in the refugee-hosting areas across 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We then assess the relationship between the refugee-corrected diversity indices and the likelihood of conflict between 2005 and 2016. In line with our theoretical framework, the refugee-corrected polarization exacerbates the risk of conflict. A one standard deviation increase in the polarization index raises the incidence of violent conflict by 5 percentage points. Such an effect corresponds to a 10 percent increase, at the mean. The opposite effect is found for the fractionalization index. Our results should not be interpreted as evidence that refugees per se impact the likelihood of violence. Indeed, we do not find any significant correlation between the number of refugees and the occurrence of conflict. Instead, our results point to the risk of conflict when refugees exacerbate ethnic polarization in the hosting communities. On the contrary, a situation where refugee flows raises the level of ethnic fractionalization is likely to see an attenuated risk of violence. This certainly calls for specific interventions in refugee-hosting and polarized communities. We also conduct additional analysis based on individual data and recent COVID-related protests. Results tend to support aggregate results. Refugee-corrected polarization raises the likelihood of experiencing physical assault and interpersonal crime by 2.7 resp. 4.2 percentage points, while no effect can be found for ethnic attachment and trust. Finally, the relevance of our results in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is explored. In Chapter 3, we study the impact of independent media networks on political accountability during the Arab Spring across the Middle East and North Africa region. The study focuses on two major media networks in the Arab world: Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya. Political accountability is proxied using principally a measure of protests. Data on both political accountability measures and the media networks derive from the Arab Barometer surveys. The regional-level analysis is based on Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine due to data availability. The study uses regional ruggedness as an instrumental variable for the non-random use of independent media among individuals. Results are estimated using a Two-Stage least Squares (2SLS) regression analysis and indicate a positive and significant impact of independent media on political accountability. Several extensions are performed. First, the analysis is replicated for the impact of state media networks and results suggest a significant negative impact on participation to protests. Second, the impact of using independent media for public sector workers' participation to protests is compared with non-public workers. While a significant positive impact of using independent media is found among non-public workers, independent media among public workers seem not to affect their participation to protests. Some channels are tested using additional outcomes such as governmental trust, political alignment, signing petitions and general trust as proxies for political accountability. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers, parents and children working together.
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 04)

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017 ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017). Given that multilingual education is mandatory In Luxembourg, our project aims to (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging to preschool teachers, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We used a mixed-method approach: language portraits, questionnaires, and focus groups with teachers, questionnaires and interviews with parents, and a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language and video observations with children. During the period of six months, we delivered a 22-hour PD course that focused on the development of teachers’ multilingual classroom, home-school collaboration, information about the multilingual brain and cross-linguistic transfer, oracy and multiliteracies. We worked with 40 teachers, children in their preschools, and the children’s parents. In the final focus groups, the teachers shared that they felt more relieved that children’s home languages do not confuse them and do not hinder the learning of Luxembourgish. They saw children’s emergent multilingualism as beneficial for their learning and let them express themselves freely. In addition, they understood that translanguaging is about communication, which invited them to start using languages they did not know to better relate to the children in their class. The effect of the PD course on parents and children was also positive. Some children were more involved in learning activities when their languages were used and some parents were enthusiastic to share their language through storytelling in the classroom. García, O. (2017). Translanguaging in schools: Subiendo y Bajando, Bajando y Subiendo as afterword. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 256-263. doi:10.1080/15348458.2017.1329657 [less ▲]

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See detailTest Case Selection and Prioritization Using Machine Learning: A Systematic Literature Review
Pan, Rongqi; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ghaleb, Taher et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021)

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects, which increases the frequency of running software builds, running all tests can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. To alleviate that problem, Test case Selection and Prioritiza- tion (TSP) techniques have been proposed to improve regression testing by selecting and prioritizing test cases in order to provide early feedback to developers. In recent years, researchers have relied on Machine Learning (ML) techniques to achieve e ective TSP (ML-based TSP). Such techniques help combine information about test cases, from partial and imperfect sources, into accurate prediction models. This work conducts a systematic literature review focused on ML-based TSP techniques, aiming to perform an in-depth analysis of the state of the art, thus gaining insights regarding fu- ture avenues of research. To that end, we analyze 29 primary studies published from 2006 to 2020, which have been identi ed through a systematic and documented process. This paper addresses ve research questions addressing variations in ML-based TSP techniques and feature sets for training and testing ML models, alternative metrics used for evaluating the techniques, the performance of techniques, and the reproducibility of the published studies. We summarize the results related to our research questions in a high-level summary that can be used as a taxonomy for classifying future TSP studies. [less ▲]

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See detailWarrior candidates: Do voters value combat experience in postwar elections?
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe

in Political Research Quarterly (2021)

Electoral competition in postwar societies is often dominated by war veterans. The question whether voters actually reward candidates’ records of war service, however, remains open. We answer it using a ... [more ▼]

Electoral competition in postwar societies is often dominated by war veterans. The question whether voters actually reward candidates’ records of war service, however, remains open. We answer it using a unique dataset with detailed information on the records of combat service of nearly four thousand candidates in two cycles of parliamentary elections held under proportional representation rules with preferential voting in Croatia. Our analysis shows war veterans’ electoral performance to be conditional on the voters’ communities’ exposure to war violence: combat veterans receive a sizeable electoral bonus in areas whose populations were more exposed to war violence, but are penalized in areas whose populations avoided destruction. This divergence is particularly pronounced for candidates of nationalist rightwing parties, demonstrating the importance of the interaction between lived war experiences and political ideology in postwar societies. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of Value-Added Models: Comparing Classical and Machine Learning Approaches
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical ... [more ▼]

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical actions on students’ achievement, independent of students’ backgrounds (e.g., Braun, 2005). A plethora of VA models exist, and several outcome measures are in use to estimate VA scores, yet without consensus on the model specification (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019). Furthermore, it is unclear whether the most frequently used VA models (i.e., multi-level, linear regression, and random forest models) and outcome measures (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) indicate a similar stability of VA scores over time. Objectives: Drawing from the data of a highly diverse and multilingual school setting, where leveling out the influence of students’ backgrounds is of special interest, we aim to (a) clarify the stability of school VA scores over time; (b) shed light on the sensitivity toward different statistical models and outcome variables; and (c) evaluate the practical implications of (in)stable VA scores for individual schools. Method: Utilizing the representative, longitudinal data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021), we examined the stability of school VA scores. We drew on two longitudinal data sets of students who participated in the standardized achievement tests in Grade 1 in 2014 or 2016 and then again in Grade 3 two years later (i.e., 2016 and 2018, respectively), with a total of 5875 students in 146 schools. School VA scores were calculated using classical approaches (i.e., linear regression and multilevel models) and one of the most commonly used machine learning approaches in educational research (i.e., random forests). Results and Discussion: The overall stability over time across the VA models was moderate, with multilevel models showing greater stability than linear regression models and random forests. Stability differed across outcome measures and was higher for VA models with language achievement as an outcome variable as compared to those with mathematics achievement. Practical implications for schools and teachers will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailÉlections fédérales 2021 : l’ère après-Merkel
Miessen, Thomas; Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailDigital Roots. Historicizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age
Schwarzenegger, Christian; Balbi, Gabriele; Ribeiro, Nelson et al

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Chapter Global Governance (2021)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for atleast two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Global Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet (2021, September)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailMoral Judgment in Video Games: Effects of Medium, Moral Intuitions and Media-Based Empathy
Grohmann, Lara; Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailAn Integrative Model of Moral Processing for the Video Game Medium
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°24 - Septembre 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 24

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