Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMeta-Analytic Structural Equation Models of Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for learning and everyday life. For example, they have shown to be differentially related to the mathematical component of intelligence (i.e., math intelligence) in school students and adults. While researchers suppose these three EFs to become more differentiated from early childhood to adulthood, neither the link of these constructs nor their structure has been conclusively established in preschool children yet. Primary studies on path models connecting EFs and math intelligence diverge in the exact relation of EFs and math intelligence. It remains unclear whether inhibition, shifting, and updating exhibit distinct but correlated constructs with respect to their relation to math intelligence. OBJECTIVES: With our meta-analysis, we aimed to (a) synthesize the relation between the three EFs and math intelligence in preschool children; and (b) compare plausible models of the effects of EFs on math intelligence. METHODS/RESULTS: Synthesizing data from 47 studies (363 effect sizes, 30,481 participants) from the last two decades via novel multilevel and multivariate meta-analytic models (Pustejovsky & Tipton, 2020), we found the three core EFs to be significantly related to math intelligence: Inhibition ("r" ̅ = .30, 95 % CI [.25, .35]), shifting ("r" ̅ = .32, 95 % CI [.25, .38]), and updating ("r" ̅ = .36, 95 % CI [.31, .40]). Looking at the three core EFs as one construct, the correlation was "r" ̅ = .34, 95 % CI [.31, .37]. Utilizing correlation-based, meta-analytic structural equation modeling (Jak & Cheung, 2020), our results exhibited significant relations of all EFs to math intelligence. These relations did not differ between the three core EFs. DISCUSSION: Our findings corroborate the positive link between EFs and math intelligence in preschool children and are similar to other age groups. From the model testing, we learned that representing EFs by a latent variable, thus capturing the covariance among the three core EFs, explained substantially more variation in math intelligence than representing them as distinct constructs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailÉlections fédérales 2021 : l’ère après-Merkel
Miessen, Thomas; Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 UL)
See detailDigital Roots. Historicizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age
Balbi, Gabriele; Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL et al

Book published by De Gruyter (2021)

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a ... [more ▼]

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a historical perspective, showing how many of them have pre-digital roots and how they have changed and still are constantly changing in the digital era. Written by leading authors in media and communication studies, the chapters historicize 16 concepts that have become central in the digital media literature, focusing on three main areas. The first part, Technologies and Connections, historicises concepts like network, media convergence, multimedia, interactivity and artificial intelligence. The second one is related to Agency and Politics and explores global governance, datafication, fake news, echo chambers, digital media activism. The last one, Users and Practices, is finally devoted to telepresence, digital loneliness, amateurism, user generated content, fandom and authenticity. The book aims to shed light on how concepts emerge and are co-shaped, circulated, used and reappropriated in different contexts. It argues for the need for a conceptual media and communication history that will reveal new developments without concealing continuities and it demonstrates how the analogue/digital dichotomy is often a misleading one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdaptive Practice Quizzing in a University Lecture: A Pre-Registered Field Experiment
Heitmann, Svenja; Obergassel, Niklas; Fries, Stefan et al

in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (2021)

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To ... [more ▼]

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To address this question, university students (N = 188; n = 155 female) were randomly assigned to employ either adaptive practice quizzing, nonadaptive practice quizzing, or note-taking following three consecutive sessions of a standard psychology university lecture for undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the adaptive practice quizzing condition, quiz questions were adapted to learners’ expertise via cognitive demand ratings, whereas in the non-adaptive condition quiz questions followed a fixed sequence. Students in the adaptive practice quizzing condition outperformed those in the nonadaptive condition after a two-week delay, but not after a one-week delay. Exploratory mediation analyses show that performance on the quiz questions during the learning phase seems to be partly responsible for this effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Global Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet (2021, September)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMoral Judgment in Video Games: Effects of Medium, Moral Intuitions and Media-Based Empathy
Grohmann, Lara; Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn Integrative Model of Moral Processing for the Video Game Medium
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°24 - Septembre 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 24

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailValue Stream Mapping (VSM) to Evaluate and Visualize Interrelated Process-Chains Regarding Circular Economy
Mangers, Jeff UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Advances in Production Management Systems. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable and Resilient Production Systems (2021, August 31), 633

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers ... [more ▼]

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers and business experts to be a convenient solution to move away from the finite linear economy concept to a more sustainable solution. However, this change of paradigm is only possible if we consider systems in a holistic manner and can localize the preventing hurdles. Value stream mapping (VSM) is a commonly known lean method, used to develop current state visualization of product and information flows within organization, helping to seek weaknesses and improve process flows. The motivation of this paper is a new C-VSM model, which enables its users to evaluate and visualize connected process-chains regarding CE on different levels in a holistic manner. For this purpose, the traditional VSM model was adapted towards the needs and requirements of CE through the application of a new representation method, additional indicators, and an appropriated evaluation system. C-VSM is in line with the current political and industrial objectives to apply CE principles by enabling a holistic reflection and consideration of supply-chains (SCs) on different levels. The model itself is validated through an extensive cross-company case study. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHISTORIAE, History of Socio-Cultural Transformation as Linguistic Data Science. A Humanities Use Case
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Apostol, Elena-Simona; Khan, Anas Fahad et al

in Open Access Series in Informatics (2021), 93(2021), 341-3413

The paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach including methods from disciplines such as history of concepts, linguistics, natural language processing (NLP) and Semantic Web, to create a comparative ... [more ▼]

The paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach including methods from disciplines such as history of concepts, linguistics, natural language processing (NLP) and Semantic Web, to create a comparative framework for detecting semantic change in multilingual historical corpora and generating diachronic ontologies as linguistic linked open data (LLOD). Initiated as a use case (UC4.2.1) within the COST Action Nexus Linguarum, European network for Web-centred linguistic data science, the study will explore emerging trends in knowledge extraction, analysis and representation from linguistic data science, and apply the devised methodology to datasets in the humanities to trace the evolution of concepts from the domain of socio-cultural transformation. The paper will describe the main elements of the methodological framework and preliminary planning of the intended workflow. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (5 UL)
Full Text
See detailHessian heat kernel estimates and Calderón-Zygmund inequalities on complete Riemannian manifolds
Cao, Jun; Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We address some fundamental questions concerning geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. It has been asked whether the Lp-Calderón-Zygmund inequalities extend to a reasonable class of non-compact ... [more ▼]

We address some fundamental questions concerning geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. It has been asked whether the Lp-Calderón-Zygmund inequalities extend to a reasonable class of non-compact Riemannian manifolds without the assumption of a positive injectivity radius. In the present paper, we give a positive answer for 1 < p < 2 under the natural assumption of a lower bound on the Ricci curvature. For p > 2, we complement the study in Güneysu-Pigola (2015) and derive sufficient geometric criteria for the validity of the Calderón-Zygmund inequality by adding Kato class bounds on the Riemann curvature tensor and the covariant derivative of Ricci curvature. Probabilistic tools, like Hessian formulas and Bismut type representations for heat semigroups, play a significant role throughout the proofs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStress-induced inflammation evoked by immunogenic cell death is blunted by the IRE1α kinase inhibitor KIRA6 through HSP60 targeting
Rufo, Nicole; Korovesis, Dimitris; Van Eygen, Sofie et al

in Cell Death and Differentiation (2021)

Mounting evidence indicates that immunogenic therapies engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress favor proficient cancer cell-immune interactions, by ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence indicates that immunogenic therapies engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress favor proficient cancer cell-immune interactions, by stimulating the release of immunomodulatory/ proinflammatory factors by stressed or dying cancer cells. UPR-driven transcription of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines exert beneficial or detrimental effects on tumor growth and antitumor immunity, but the cell-autonomous machinery governing the cancer cell inflammatory output in response to immunogenic therapies remains poorly defined. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of cancer cells responding to immunogenic or weakly immunogenic treatments. Bioinformatics-driven pathway analysis indicated that immunogenic treatments instigated a NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress response, which dissociated from both cell death and UPR. This stress-induced inflammation was specifically abolished by the IRE1α-kinase inhibitor KIRA6. Supernatants from immunogenic chemotherapy and KIRA6 co-treated cancer cells were deprived of proinflammatory/chemoattractant factors and failed to mobilize neutrophils and induce dendritic cell maturation. Furthermore, KIRA6 significantly reduced the in vivo vaccination potential of dying cancer cells responding to immunogenic chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we found that the anti-inflammatory effect of KIRA6 was still effective in IRE1α-deficient cells, indicating a hitherto unknown off-target effector of this IRE1α-kinase inhibitor. Generation of a KIRA6-clickable photoaffinity probe, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation analysis identified cytosolic HSP60 as a KIRA6 off-target in the IKK-driven NF-κB pathway. In sum, our study unravels that HSP60 is a KIRA6-inhibitable upstream regulator of the NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress responses evoked by immunogenic treatments. It also urges caution when interpreting the anti-inflammatory action of IRE1α chemical inhibitors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailSome inequalities on Riemannian manifolds linking Entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distance
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

E-print/Working paper (2021)

For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability ... [more ▼]

For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability measures on M linking relative entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distance. These inequalities strengthen in particular the famous log-Sobolev and transportation-cost inequality and extend the so-called Entropy/Stein-discrepancy/Information (HSI) inequality established by Ledoux, Nourdin and Peccati (2015) for the standard Gaussian measure on Euclidean space to the setting of Riemannian manifolds. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUAV Relay-Assisted Emergency Communications in IoT Networks: Resource Allocation and Trajectory Optimization
Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication hasemerged as a prominent technology for emergency communi-cations (e.g., natural disaster) in the Internet of Things (IoT)networks to enhance the ability of ... [more ▼]

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication hasemerged as a prominent technology for emergency communi-cations (e.g., natural disaster) in the Internet of Things (IoT)networks to enhance the ability of disaster prediction, damageassessment, and rescue operations promptly. A UAV can bedeployed as a flying base station (BS) to collect data from time-constrained IoT devices and then transfer it to a ground gateway(GW). In general, the latency constraint at IoT devices and UAV’slimited storage capacity highly hinder practical applicationsof UAV-assisted IoT networks. In this paper, full-duplex (FD)radio is adopted at the UAV to overcome these challenges. Inaddition, half-duplex (HD) scheme for UAV-based relaying isalso considered to provide a comparative study between twomodes (viz., FD and HD). Herein, a device is considered tobe successfully served iff its data is collected by the UAV andconveyed to GW timely during flight time. In this context,we aim to maximize the number of served IoT devices byjointly optimizing bandwidth, power allocation, and the UAVtrajectory while satisfying each device’s requirement and theUAV’s limited storage capacity. The formulated optimizationproblem is troublesome to solve due to its non-convexity andcombinatorial nature. Towards appealing applications, we firstrelax binary variables into continuous ones and transform theoriginal problem into a more computationally tractable form.By leveraging inner approximation framework, we derive newlyapproximated functions for non-convex parts and then develop asimple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solutions. Next,we attempt to maximize the total throughput subject to thenumber of served IoT devices. Finally, numerical results showthat the proposed algorithms significantly outperform benchmarkapproaches in terms of the number of served IoT devices andsystem throughput. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications
Johannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Koko, Mahmoud et al

in Brain (2021)

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of ... [more ▼]

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of describing clinical phenotypes related to functional effects. Six different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n = 15, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n = 33, mild ID, partially pharmaco-responsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n = 177, severe ID, majority pharmaco-resistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), 5) unclassifiable epilepsy (n = 127), and 6) neurodevelopmental disorder without epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1–3 presented with focal or multifocal seizures (median age of onset: four months) and focal epileptiform discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 42 months) with generalized epileptiform discharges. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin-insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch-clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 170 individuals. All 136 individuals carrying a functionally tested GOF variant had either focal (97, groups 1–3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (39), whereas 34 with a LOF variant had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (6) epilepsy; only three had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1–3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a treatment option in SCN8A-related focal epilepsy with onset in the first year of life. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNormative coherence for development – What relevance for responsive regionalism?
Koff, Harlan UL; Häbel, Sandra UL

in Development Policy Review (2021)

Without a normative dimension, transformative development risks reproducing traditional economic development. In this special issue we focus on norm implementation in different world regions through the ... [more ▼]

Without a normative dimension, transformative development risks reproducing traditional economic development. In this special issue we focus on norm implementation in different world regions through the lens of normative coherence for development. This special issue indicates that regions are an important interlocutor between the global, national, and sub-national level and, as such, are crucial for implementing the sustainable development agenda. The articles show, however, that to date normative coherence for development has not been achieved due to overriding priorities and technical approaches to policy coherence for development. With this special issue we aim to draw more attention to the topic of normative coherence for development and show that policies need to be adjusted in order to reflect the normative dimension of sustainable development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRole of higher-order effects in spin-misalignment small-angle neutron scattering of high-pressure torsion nickel
Oba, Yojiro; Bersweiler, Mathias UL; Titov, Ivan et al

in Physical Review Materials (2021), 5

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTeacher expectations and emotions concerning students with special needs or immigrant background
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 23)

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a ... [more ▼]

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a multifaceted construct with cognitive, affective and conative components. In the current study we investigated to what extent teachers´ expectations concerning students´ academic performance - reflecting the cognitive component of attitudes - varied as a function of specific student characteristics (special educational needs and immigrant background). In addition, we assessed teachers´ emotions - reflecting the affective component of attitudes - concerning the inclusion of these students in mainstream education. Result confirmed previous findings that teachers´ expectations and emotions vary as a function of student characteristics. Teachers had lower expectations of the academic performance of students with learning difficulties than students with challenging behaviour, whereby the estimates of German proficiency were also affected by the immigrant background of the student. Teachers felt however less positive about the inclusion of students with challenging behaviour than of students with learning difficulties, regardless of the immigrant background of the student. Results will be discussed in relation to theory and their practical implications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)