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See detailExperimental Studies on Subjective Views of Aging: Overview, Challenges, and Future Directions
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Diehl, Manfred; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit (Eds.) Subjective Views of Aging: Theory, Research, and Practice (in press)

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from ... [more ▼]

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from longitudinal studies, research on VoA has also been strongly experimental since its inception. Our chapter aims to provide an overview about the major lines of prior experimental research on VoA and by this means derive its role for present and future VoA research overall. We first offer an organizing scheme for the existing body of experimental work on VoA. We arrive at the conclusion that previous experimental research on VoA with older adults has been conducted in a broad range of studies with different dependent variables and experimental manipulations, showing the importance of VoA and their impact on a wide range on phenomena. We then go into more detail of VoA research that has been done in the past decade. Here, our conclusion is that recent experimental research on VoA is taking up societal challenges, such as the aging workforce, older people in the health care system, and stereotype threat elicited by digital technologies. At the same time, current VoA research is adding to the differentiation of established effects in the prior literature as well as helped to identify moderating and contextual conditions not considered previously. We end with a set of recommendations for future experimental VoA research including strengthening the needed liaison with other research formats. [less ▲]

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See detailZur Ausbildung pädagogischer Fachkräfte und Studierender der Sozialen Arbeit an der Universität Luxemburg im Bereich der Sexuellen Bildung für Menschen mit Beeinträchtigungen
de Silva, Adrian UL; Weist, Andreas

in Khamis, Celina; Urban, Maria; Wienholz, Sabine (Eds.) Sexuelle Bildung für das Lehramt (in press)

Since the winter semester 2020/21, the Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (FHSE) has been offering the curriculum resulting from the ERASMUS+ project "TRASE - Training in Sex Education ... [more ▼]

Since the winter semester 2020/21, the Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (FHSE) has been offering the curriculum resulting from the ERASMUS+ project "TRASE - Training in Sex Education for People with Disabilities" as a course on sex education in a modified form for educational professionals who care for people with disabilities and for students studying for the Bachelor in Social Science and Education (BSSE). This offer is intended to contribute to meeting the need for sound knowledge and professional competence in this field. The purpose of this paper is, after a brief introduction of the TRASE project, to outline the organisational anchoring and structure of the TRASE course at the University of Luxembourg and to reflect on its implementation. We argue that the heterogeneity of the participants in the development phase and in the implementation as a seminar is a particular strength of the course. [less ▲]

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See detailThe quizzing effect depends on hope of success and can be optimized by cognitive load-based adaptation
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Instruction (in press)

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to ... [more ▼]

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Genetic Programming and Model Checking to Generate Environment Assumptions
Gaaloul, Khouloud UL; Menghi, Claudio UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Software verification may yield spurious failures when environment assumptions are not accounted for. Environment assumptions are the expectations that a system or a component makes about its operational ... [more ▼]

Software verification may yield spurious failures when environment assumptions are not accounted for. Environment assumptions are the expectations that a system or a component makes about its operational environment and are often specified in terms of conditions over the inputs of that system or component. In this article, we propose an approach to automatically infer environment assumptions for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Our approach improves the state-of-the-art in three different ways: First, we learn assumptions for complex CPS models involving signal and numeric variables; second, the learned assumptions include arithmetic expressions defined over multiple variables; third, we identify the trade-off between soundness and coverage of environment assumptions and demonstrate the flexibility of our approach in prioritizing either of these criteria. We evaluate our approach using a public domain benchmark of CPS models from Lockheed Martin and a component of a satellite control system from LuxSpace, a satellite system provider. The results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art techniques on learning assumptions for CPS models, and further, when applied to our industrial CPS model, our approach is able to learn assumptions that are sufficiently close to the assumptions manually developed by engineers to be of practical value. [less ▲]

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See detailA look into the future of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe: an expert consultation
Iftekhar, E. N.; Priesemann, V.; Balling, Rudolf UL et al

in The Lancet Regional Health Europe (in press)

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in ... [more ▼]

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. The challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread of variants of concern (VOCs), and public responses to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In the short term, many people remain unvaccinated, VOCs continue to emerge and spread, and mobility and population mixing are expected to increase. Therefore, lifting restrictions too much and too early risk another damaging wave. This challenge remains despite the reduced opportunities for transmission given vaccination progress and reduced indoor mixing in summer 2021. In autumn 2021, increased indoor activity might accelerate the spread again, whilst a necessary reintroduction of NPIs might be too slow. The incidence may strongly rise again, possibly filling intensive care units, if vaccination levels are not high enough. A moderate, adaptive level of NPIs will thus remain necessary. These epidemiological aspects combined with economic, social, and health-related consequences provide a more holistic perspective on the future of the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting correlated outcomes from molecular data
Rauschenberger, Armin UL; Glaab, Enrico UL

in Bioinformatics (in press)

Motivation: Multivariate (multi-target) regression has the potential to outperform univariate (single-target) regression at predicting correlated outcomes, which frequently occur in biomedical and ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Multivariate (multi-target) regression has the potential to outperform univariate (single-target) regression at predicting correlated outcomes, which frequently occur in biomedical and clinical research. Here we implement multivariate lasso and ridge regression using stacked generalisation. Results: Our flexible approach leads to predictive and interpretable models in high-dimensional settings, with a single estimate for each input-output effect. In the simulation, we compare the predictive performance of several state-of-the-art methods for multivariate regression. In the application, we use clinical and genomic data to predict multiple motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients. We conclude that stacked multivariate regression, with our adaptations, is a competitive method for predicting correlated outcomes. Availability and Implementation: The R package joinet is available on GitHub (https://github.com/rauschenberger/joinet) and CRAN (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=joinet). [less ▲]

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See detailThe fall in income inequality during COVID-19 in four European countries
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (in press)

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among ... [more ▼]

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among individuals changed in a hump-shaped way between January 2020 and January 2021, with an initial rise from January to May 2020 being more than reversed by September 2020. Absolute inequality also fell over this period. Due to the pandemic some households lost more than others, and government compensation schemes were targeted towards the poorest, implying that on average income differences decreased. Generalized Lorenz domination reveals that these distributive changes reduced welfare in Italy. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Protection and Multidimensional Poverty: Lessons from Ethiopia, India and Peru
Borga, Liyousew UL; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in World Development: the Multi-Disciplinary International Journal Devoted to the Study and Promotion of World Development (in press)

We investigate the impact of three large-scale social-protection schemes in Ethiopia, India, and Peru on multidimensional poverty. Using data from the Young Lives cohort study, we show the trend, changes ... [more ▼]

We investigate the impact of three large-scale social-protection schemes in Ethiopia, India, and Peru on multidimensional poverty. Using data from the Young Lives cohort study, we show the trend, changes and evolution of multidimensional poverty for individuals in program participant households. We follow a number of strategies to produce estimates that deal with non-random program placement. Our findings show that both the incidence and intensity of multidimensional poverty declined in all three countries over the period 2006 - 2016, more so for program participants than non-participants. We find positive short-term impact on asset formation, livestock holding, and some living standard indicators. In all three countries these positive impacts are sustained even in the medium and longer-term. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a European strategy to address the COVID-19 pandemic
Priesemann, V.; Balling, Rudolf UL; Bauer, S. et al

in The Lancet (in press)

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in ... [more ▼]

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. The challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread of variants of concern (VOCs), and public responses to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In the short term, many people remain unvaccinated, VOCs continue to emerge and spread, and mobility and population mixing are expected to increase. Therefore, lifting restrictions too much and too early risk another damaging wave. This challenge remains despite the reduced opportunities for transmission given vaccination progress and reduced indoor mixing in summer 2021. In autumn 2021, increased indoor activity might accelerate the spread again, whilst a necessary reintroduction of NPIs might be too slow. The incidence may strongly rise again, possibly filling intensive care units, if vaccination levels are not high enough. A moderate, adaptive level of NPIs will thus remain necessary. These epidemiological aspects combined with economic, social, and health-related consequences provide a more holistic perspective on the future of the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Log Parsing and Anomaly Detection
Shin, Donghwan UL; Khan, Zanis Ali UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (in press)

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an ... [more ▼]

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an essential pre-processing step called log parsing. This step is needed because automated log analysis requires structured input logs, whereas original logs contain semi-structured text printed by logging statements. Log parsing bridges this gap by converting the original logs into structured input logs fit for anomaly detection. Despite the intrinsic dependency between log parsing and anomaly detection, no existing work has investigated the impact of the "quality" of log parsing results on anomaly detection. In particular, the concept of "ideal" log parsing results with respect to anomaly detection has not been formalized yet. This makes it difficult to determine, upon obtaining inaccurate results from anomaly detection, if (and why) the root cause for such results lies in the log parsing step. In this short paper, we lay the theoretical foundations for defining the concept of "ideal" log parsing results for anomaly detection. Based on these foundations, we discuss practical implications regarding the identification and localization of root causes, when dealing with inaccurate anomaly detection, and the identification of irrelevant log messages. [less ▲]

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See detailTOrPEDO: Witnessing Model Correctness with Topological Proofs
Menghi, Claudio UL; Rizzi, Alessandro Maria; Bernasconi, Anna et al

in Formal Aspects of Computing (in press)

Model design is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To effectively support developers in generating model refinements and revisions, it is desirable to have some ... [more ▼]

Model design is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To effectively support developers in generating model refinements and revisions, it is desirable to have some automated-support to verify evolvable models. To address this problem, we recently proposed to adopt topological proofs, which are slices of the original model that witness property satisfaction. We implemented TOrPEDO, a framework that provides automated support for using topological proofs during model design. Our results showed that topological proofs are significantly smaller than the original models, and that, in most of the cases, they allow the property to be re-verified by relying only on a simple syntactic check. However, our results also show that the procedure that computes topological proofs, which requires extracting unsatisfiable cores of LTL formulae, is computationally expensive. For this reason, TOrPEDO currently handles models with a small dimension. With the intent of providing practical and efficient support for flexible model design and wider adoption of our framework, in this paper, we propose an enhanced – re-engineered – version of TOrPEDO. The new version of TOrPEDO relies on a novel procedure to extract topological proofs, which has so far represented the bottleneck of TOrPEDO performances. We implemented our procedure within TOrPEDO by considering Partial Kripke Structures (PKSs) and Linear-time Temporal Logic (LTL): two widely used formalisms to express models with uncertain parts and their properties. To extract topological proofs, the new version of TOrPEDO converts the LTL formulae into an SMT instance and reuses an existing SMT solver (e.g., Microsoft Z3) to compute an unsatisfiable core. Then, the unsatisfiable core returned by the SMT solver is automatically processed to generate the topological proof. We evaluated TOrPEDO by assessing (i) how does the size of the proofs generated by TOrPEDO compares to the size of the models being analyzed; and (ii) how frequently the use of the topological proof returned by TOrPEDO avoids re-executing the model checker. Our results show that TOrPEDO provides proofs that are smaller (≈60%) than their respective initial models effectively supporting designers in creating model revisions. In a significant number of cases (≈79%), the topological proofs returned by TOrPEDO enable assessing the property satisfaction without re-running the model checker. We evaluated our new version of TOrPEDO by assessing (i) how it compares to the previous one; and (ii) how useful it is in supporting the evaluation of alternative design choices of (small) model instances in applied domains. The results show that the new version of TOrPEDO is significantly more efficient than the previous one and can compute topological proofs for models with less than 40 states within two hours. The topological proofs and counterexamples provided by TOrPEDO are useful to support the development of alternative design choices of (small) model instances in applied domains. [less ▲]

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See detailValues-Based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN): An overarching concept representing the diverse perspectives of sustainable and ethical transitions of Alternative Food Networks – be they Local Food Systems, Civic Food Networks or Short Food Supply Chains
Reckinger, Rachel UL

in Sociologia Ruralis (in press)

This article proposes a comparative literature review of the concepts Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSC), Civic Food Networks (CFN) and Alternative Food Networks (AFN) – converging ... [more ▼]

This article proposes a comparative literature review of the concepts Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSC), Civic Food Networks (CFN) and Alternative Food Networks (AFN) – converging into the umbrella-term Values-Based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN). Based on the analysis of the specificities and shortcomings in the four concepts, VTFN aims to enhance conceptual clarity. The current coexistence of the concepts conceals their structural and systemic commonalities – relevant for understanding pathways to ethical and sustainable food system transformations. Taking a closer look at unsolved issues and ambiguities of AFNs (subdivided into LFS, SFSC and CFNs), VTFN offers a more overarching, and pragmatic, concept. It qualifies the claimed ‘alternativeness’ of AFNs affirmatively through the dimensions of social, economic, environmental and governance ‘sustainability values’ and through varying constellations of ‘territoriality’. Thus, it fosters integrated scientific dialogue about a conceptual determination of emerging networks of food system transitions worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos de l'évêque Marus de Trèves
Dubuisson, Bastien UL

in Analecta Bollandiana: Revue Critique d'Hagiographie (in press)

The life of Bishop Marus of Trier (5th century) is little known, apart from a few snippets of information transmitted in the Gesta Treverorum (ca. 1100). Only a brief miraculous account from the beginning ... [more ▼]

The life of Bishop Marus of Trier (5th century) is little known, apart from a few snippets of information transmitted in the Gesta Treverorum (ca. 1100). Only a brief miraculous account from the beginning of the 16th century provides some additional details on the character, limited however to his qualities as an intercessor. The discovery of an older witness to this work in the Sanctilogium of Jean Gielemans of the Abbey of Rouge-Cloître makes it possible to re-evaluate its dating. The investigation into the genesis and transmission of this text (the edition of which is given in the appendix) is an opportunity to deal with a lesser-known period of the hagiography of Trier and to address the question of the existence of a Vita of the bishop. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Properties over Inter-Procedural, Source Code Level Behaviour of Programs
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (in press)

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level ... [more ▼]

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level of abstraction and provide sophisticated modal operators, giving a high level of expressiveness. In particular, this makes it possible to express properties concerning the source code level behaviour of programs. However, for many languages, the correspondence between events generated at the source code level and parts of the specification in question would have to be carefully defined. To enable expressing — using a temporal logic — properties over source code level behaviour without the need for this correspondence, previous work introduced Control-Flow Temporal Logic (CFTL), a specification language with a low level of abstraction with respect to the source code of programs. However, this work focused solely on the intra-procedural setting. In this paper, we address this limitation by introducing Inter-procedural CFTL, a language for expressing source code level, inter-procedural properties of program runs. We evaluate the new language, iCFTL, via application to a real-world case study. [less ▲]

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See detailDBS Imaging Methods II: Electrode Localization
Husch, Andreas UL; Hertel, Frank

in Horn, Andreas (Ed.) Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation (in press)

Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) covers this highly efficacious treatment option for movement disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease, Essential Tremor and Dystonia. The book examines its impact on ... [more ▼]

Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) covers this highly efficacious treatment option for movement disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease, Essential Tremor and Dystonia. The book examines its impact on distributed brain networks that span across the human brain in parallel with modern-day neuroimaging concepts and the connectomics of the brain. It asks several questions, including which cortical areas should DBS electrodes be connected in order to generate the highest possible clinical improvement? Which connections should be avoided? Could these connectomic insights be used to better understand the mechanism of action of DBS? How can they be transferred to individual patients, and more. This book is suitable for neuroscientists, neurologists and functional surgeons studying DBS. It provides practical advice on processing strategies and theoretical background, highlighting and reviewing the current state-of-the-art in connectomic surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailNIKE from Affine Determinant Programs
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the ... [more ▼]

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work, we revisit the original, iO-based, provably-secure NIKE construction by Boneh and Zhandry, aiming to simplify it. The core idea behind our protocol is to replace the functionality of the obfuscator with the one of an affine determinant program (ADP). Although ADPs have been designed with the purpose of attaining indistinguishability obfuscation, such implication is left open for general circuits. The ingredients enabling to prove the security of our scheme stem into a more careful analysis of the branching programs needed to build ADPs. In particular, we show: 1) An intuitive indistinguishability notion defined for ADPs of puncturable pseudorandom functions (PRFs) is sufficient to prove security for NIKE. 2) A set of simple conditions based on ADP's branching program topology that are sufficient for proving indistinguishability of ADPs. We leave open the question of finding ADPs satisfying them. [less ▲]

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See detailPartitioned Searchable Encryption
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Beunardeau, Marc; Rosie, Razvan et al

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the ... [more ▼]

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the search/update queries. In this work we put forth a new flavour of symmetric searchable encryption (SSE): Partitioned SSE is meant to capture the cases where the search rights must be partitioned among multiple individuals. We motivate through compelling examples the practical need for such a notion and discuss instantiations based on functional encryption and trapdoor permutations. First we leverage the power of functional encryption (FE). Our construction follows the general technique of encrypting the set of keywords and the presumably larger datafiles separately, a keyword acting as a ``pointer'' to datafiles it belongs to. To improve on the constraint factors (large ciphertext, slow encryption/decryption procedures) that are inherent in FE schemes, the keyword check is done with the help of a Bloom filter -- one per datafile: the crux idea is to split the filter into buckets, and encrypt each bucket separately under an FE scheme. Functional keys are given for binary \masks checking if relevant positions are set to 1 inside the underlying bit-vector of the Bloom filter. The second construction we present achieves forward security and stems from the scheme by Bost in CCS'16. We show that a simple tweak of the original construction gives rise to a scheme supporting updates in the partitioned setting. Moreover, the constructions take into account the possibility that some specific users are malicious while declaring their search results. [less ▲]

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See detailA Note on the Estimation of Job Amenities and Labor Productivity
Dupuy, Arnaud UL; Galichon, Alfred

in Quantitative Economics (in press)

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