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See detail"I Personally Relate It to the Traffic Light": A User Study on Security & Privacy Indicators in a Secure Email System Committed to Privacy by Default
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2021)

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of ... [more ▼]

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of information that should be communicated to users to inform them of the security and privacy properties with respect to different messages or correspondents. Contributing to the ongoing discussion on the usability and effectiveness of security and privacy indicators, particularly in the context of systems targeting non-expert users, this paper sheds light on users' evaluation of traffic light-inspired indicators, as a metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees, provided by a new system for email end-to-end encryption called p≡p. Using a mixed-methods approach, based on input gathered from 150 participants in three online studies, we highlight the pros and cons of the traffic light semantic in p≡p's context and beyond, and discuss the potential implications on the perceived security and use of such systems. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial life of shape-shifters
Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Hołobut, Paweł

Diverse speeches and writings (2021)

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See detailFindings of the VarDial Evaluation Campaign 2021
Chakravarthi, Bharathi Raja; Găman, Mihaela; Ionescu, Radu Tudor et al

in Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects (2021)

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See detailSztuczne życie zmiennokształtnych
Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Hołobut, Paweł

Diverse speeches and writings (2021)

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See detailHigh-Frequency Trading on Decentralized On-Chain Exchanges
Zhou, Liyi; Qin, Kaihua; Ferreira Torres, Christof UL et al

in IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 23-27 May 2021 (2021)

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) allow parties to participate in financial markets while retaining full custody of their funds. However, the transparency of blockchain-based DEX in combination with the ... [more ▼]

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) allow parties to participate in financial markets while retaining full custody of their funds. However, the transparency of blockchain-based DEX in combination with the latency for transactions to be processed, makes market-manipulation feasible. For instance, adversaries could perform front-running — the practice of exploiting (typically non-public) information that may change the price of an asset for financial gain. In this work we formalize, analytically exposit and empirically evaluate an augmented variant of front- running: sandwich attacks, which involve front- and back-running victim transactions on a blockchain-based DEX. We quantify the probability of an adversarial trader being able to undertake the attack, based on the relative positioning of a transaction within a blockchain block. We find that a single adversarial trader can earn a daily revenue of over several thousand USD when performing sandwich attacks on one particular DEX — Uniswap, an exchange with over 5M USD daily trading volume by June 2020. In addition to a single-adversary game, we simulate the outcome of sandwich attacks under multiple competing adversaries, to account for the real-world trading environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Question of One Million Dollars: Financial Rewards or not for the whistle-blowers?
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL

in Journal of International Banking Law and Regulation (2021), 36(4),

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See detailVoting and winning: perceptions of electoral integrity in consolidating democracies
Mochtak, Michal UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL

in Democratization (2021), Online

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an ... [more ▼]

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an election as free and fair? Building on the theory of the winner-loser gap, we answer these questions using original two-wave panel surveys we conducted before and after three parliamentary elections in Southeast Europe in 2018 and 2020. The article focuses on changes of perception of electoral integrity as a function of satisfaction with the electoral results in contexts where the quality of elections has always been at the centre of political conflict. We specifically explore the socialization effect of elections in environments with notoriously low trust in political institutions and high electoral stakes. The article goes beyond the “sore loser” hypothesis and examines voters’ both political preferences and personal characteristics potentially responsible for the change in perception of electoral integrity over the course of electoral cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Mask of Evil : Moriarty, Fu-Manchu, Mabuse
Kohns, Oliver UL

in Cultural Express (2021), 6

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See detailIntegrated likelihood based inference for nonlinear panel data models with unobserved effects
Schumann, Martin; Severini, Thomas A.; Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Journal of Econometrics (2021), 223

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See detailConversations with GUIs
Todi, Kashyap; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Buschek, Daniel et al

in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) (2021)

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See detailWhen Choice Happens: A Systematic Examination of Mouse Movement Length for Decision Making in Web Search
Brückner, Lukas; Arapakis, Ioannis; Leiva, Luis A. UL

in Proceedings of the International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) (2021)

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See detailGlimpse: A Gaze-Based Measure of Temporal Salience
Traver, V. Javier; Zorío, Judith; Leiva, Luis A. UL

in Sensors (2021), 21(9),

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining Pretrial Detention by Algorithm: The Lesser of Two Evils?
Blount, Kelly UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailSynergies in Cybersecurity Incident Reporting – The NIS Cooperation Group Publication 04/20 in Context
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Anheier, Fabian UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(1), 101-107

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See detailEditorial: Small States and the ‘Corona Crisis’
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Sarapuu, Külli; Trimikliniotis, Nicos

in Small States & Territories, (2021), 4(1), 3-12

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See detailNational isolation or regional cooperation? The media debate on border closures during the Covid-19 crisis in Luxembourg
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Small States & Territories (2021), 4(1), 61-74

Having been initially confined largely to China, East Asia and Italy, the Covid-19 crisis swept quickly over Europe in March 2020. Luxembourg was among the many small continental European states with high ... [more ▼]

Having been initially confined largely to China, East Asia and Italy, the Covid-19 crisis swept quickly over Europe in March 2020. Luxembourg was among the many small continental European states with high rates of infection. In the absence of a common European Union response, national responses to the crisis varied strongly. Decisions on the closing of borders and the limiting of cross-border movements have become a symbol of a newly found unilateralism. Luxembourg took the rare decision not to close its borders and disapproved of the restriction of cross-border movements by neighbouring states. The paper argues that this is the result of its size and economic policy which, in the context of EU integration, has led to strong interdependencies and social networks within the cross-border region. This argument is based on an analysis of the pre-Covid-19 situation in Luxembourg as a cross-border metropolitan region and how local newspaper articles can open a window to understand how the disruption caused by the pandemic reconfigured Luxembourg’s borders with its neighbouring European states of Belgium, France and Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailSociétés civiles, associations et autres groupements
Hiez, David UL

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et de Droit Economique (2021), 1

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See detail1918, 1945, 1989: Childhood in Times of Political Transformation: Part I
Kind-Kovács, Friederike; Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Modern European History (2021), 19(2),

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See detailActive control of ultrafast electron dynamics in plasmonic gaps using an applied bias
Ludwig, Markus; K. Kazansky, Andrey; Aguirregabiria, Garikoitz et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2020)

In this joint experimental and theoretical study we demonstrate coherent control of the optical field emission and electron transport in plasmonic gaps subjected to intense single-cycle laser pulses. Our ... [more ▼]

In this joint experimental and theoretical study we demonstrate coherent control of the optical field emission and electron transport in plasmonic gaps subjected to intense single-cycle laser pulses. Our results show that an external THz field or a minor dc bias, orders of magnitude smaller than the optical bias owing to the laser field, allows one to modulate and direct the electron photocurrents in the gap of a connected nanoantenna operating as an ultrafast nanoscale vacuum diode for lightwave electronics. Using time-dependent density functional theory calculations we elucidate the main physical mechanisms behind the observed effects and show that an applied dc field significantly modifies the optical field emission and quiver motion of photoemitted electrons within the gap. The quantum many-body theory reproduces the measured net electron transport in the experimental device, which allows us to establish a paradigm for controlling nanocircuits at petahertz frequencies [less ▲]

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