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See detailEvaluation of the Molecular Pathogenesis of Adrenocortical Tumors by Whole-Genome Sequencing
Neininger, Kerstin UL; May, Patrick UL; Altieri, Barbara et al

in Journal of the Endocrine Society (2021, May 03), 5(Issue Supplement_1), 68

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic ... [more ▼]

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic mutations in known driver genes. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 26 ACA/blood-derived DNA pairs without driver mutations in PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1 genes at previous WES (ENSAT study JCEM 2016). These included 12 cortisol-producing adenomas with Cushing syndrome (CS-CPAs), 7 with mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS-CPAs), and 7 endocrine-inactive ACAs (EIAs). Seven adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) were added to the cohort. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for a comprehensive genome analysis and to reveal differences in variant distribution. Strelka, VarScan2 and ANNOVAR software and an in-house confidence score were used for variant calling and functional annotation. Combined Annotation-Dependent-Depletion (CADD) values were used to prioritize pathogenic variants. Additional focus relied on variants in pathogenically known pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, cAMP/PKA pathway). NovoBreak algorithm was applied to discover structural variations. Two hypermutated CS-CPA samples were excluded from further analysis. Using different filters, we detected variants in driver genes not observed at WES (one p.S45P in CTNNB1 and one p.R206L in PRKACA in two different CS-CPAs). In total, we report 179,830 variations (179,598 SNVs; 232 indels) throughout all samples, being more abundant in ACC (88,954) compared to ACA (CS-CPAs: 31,821; MACS-CPAs: 35,008; EIAs: 29,963). Most alterations were in intergenic (>50%), followed by intronic and ncRNA intronic regions. A total of 32 predicted pathogenic variants were found in both coding (CADD values ≥ 15) and non-coding (CADD values ≥ 5) regions. We found 3,301 possibly damaging and recurrent variants (intergenic mutations removed) (CS-CPAs: 1,463; MACS-CPAs: 1,549; EIAs: 1,268; ACC: 1,660), mostly accumulated in intronic regions. Some of these were detected in members of the Wnt/β-catenin (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 2; EIA: 1) and cAMP/PKA (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 7; EIA: 4) pathways (e.g. ADCY1, ADCY2, GNA13, PDE11A). We also found a slightly higher number of structural variations in EIA (3,620) and ACC (3,486) compared to CS-CPAs (977) and MACS-CPAs (2,119). In conclusion, still unrevealed genetic alterations, especially in intronic regions, may accompany early adrenal tumorigenesis and/or autonomous cortisol secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dangers de pastebin
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailEvaluation of TPMS Signal Propagation in a Heavy Commercial Vehicle Environement
Rida, Ahmad UL; Ridha, Soua; Engel, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLes dimensions spatiales et socioprofessionnelles du travail frontalier aux frontières franco-suisse et franco-luxembourgeoise
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Géo-Regards: Revue Neuchâteloise de Géographie (2021), 13(2020), 147-177

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel and Luxembourg. It is based on data from the French population census, supplemented by data from the countries where cross-border workers work. While cross-border workers have socio-demographic characteristics that are relatively common to the different cross-border employment centres (mostly men, relatively young, etc.), the article highlights the territorial specificity of socio-professional profiles according to the different cross-border spaces observed. Cross-border work thus constitutes a modality of territorial management of labor and skills. [less ▲]

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See detailANN-aided incremental multiscale-remodelling-based finite strain poroelasticity
Dehghani, Hamidreza UL; Zilian, Andreas UL

in Computational Mechanics (2021)

Mechanical modelling of poroelastic media under finite strain is usually carried out via phenomenological models neglecting complex micro-macro scales interdependency. One reason is that the mathematical ... [more ▼]

Mechanical modelling of poroelastic media under finite strain is usually carried out via phenomenological models neglecting complex micro-macro scales interdependency. One reason is that the mathematical two-scale analysis is only straightforward assuming infinitesimal strain theory. Exploiting the potential of ANNs for fast and reliable upscaling and localisation procedures, we propose an incremental numerical approach that considers rearrangement of the cell properties based on its current deformation, which leads to the remodelling of the macroscopic model after each time increment. This computational framework is valid for finite strain and large deformation problems while it ensures infinitesimal strain increments within time steps. The full effects of the interdependency between the properties and response of macro and micro scales are considered for the first time providing a more accurate predictive analysis of fluid-saturated porous media which is studied via a numerical consolidation example. Furthermore, the (nonlinear) deviation from Darcy’s law is captured in fluid filtration numerical analyses. Finally, the brain tissue mechanical response under the uniaxial cyclic test is simulated and studied. [less ▲]

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See detailX25, une norme pour le transport de données
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Encyclopédie d'histoire numérique EHNE (2021)

L’avis X25, adopté en 1976 par le Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique (CCITT) dans le domaine des réseaux de données permet d’explorer des enjeux nationaux et internationaux de ... [more ▼]

L’avis X25, adopté en 1976 par le Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique (CCITT) dans le domaine des réseaux de données permet d’explorer des enjeux nationaux et internationaux de normalisation. Son histoire témoigne de la convergence entre télécommunications et informatique dans les années 1970, des débats liés au développement des réseaux de données, en particulier autour de la commutation de paquets, mais aussi de choix techniques, industriels et politiques complexes, et ce à plusieurs échelles. En revenant sur le passage du projet de norme à l’avis X25, à valeur non contraignante, son implémentation et développement dans des réseaux, puis sa postérité, cette étude permet d’explorer les acteurs, motivations et choix effectués à plusieurs moments charnières de l’histoire des réseaux de données. [less ▲]

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See detailSCHOOL FUTURES - using scenario approaches to inform transformation initiatives in the Luxembourg school system
König, Ariane UL; Raber, Bo Manuel UL; Drenth, Gerard et al

in ECA Journal (2021), (1), 194

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ... [more ▼]

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ability to address the uncertainties of tomorrow. This anticipation competency, that also includes a capacity for systemsthinking and making normative judgements, isparticularly important for younger generations still at school. In Luxembourg, the Education Scenarios Project served to develop a set of nationalscenarios for education, andthe sequel Schol Futures Project helped to leverage these scenarios in school development processes that engaged students as well as teachers in futureoriented systems thinking. Ariane König, Senior Research Scientist at the University of Luxembourg, Ciaran McGinley, Senior Associate at NormannPartners, Bo ManuelRaber of the University of Luxembourg, Francis Schartz, former president of the Luxembourg National Council for Sustainability, and Gerard Drenth, Senior Associate at Normann Partners, worked with in collaboration with diverse stakeholders in the Luxembourg education system, including with students and teachers from three different schools in Luxembourg. Below they share insights and experiences relating to the scenario approaches used. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 in the migration area (EMN OECD UMBRELLA INFORM)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Sheridan, Anne

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts such as border closures, travel restrictions, and the need to introduce sanitary measures. Beginning with the pandemic’s impact on permits and entry conditions, the Inform reports on contingency measures to keep systems operational and to mitigate the impacts on migrants and citizens to the extent possible. For instance, the reduction of in-person immigration related services was largely replaced by electronic or postal communication to ensure continuity in processes. In EU Member States and Norway, the automatic extension of residence permits or the removal of the obligation to leave in some cases, were some of the measures taken to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Most EU Member States provided financial support for migrant workers affected by the pandemic, either due to unemployment or loss of income, and made COVID-19 related healthcare services available to all migrants. Although restrictions were imposed on the admission of migrants, continued admission was granted for jobs deemed essential to meet labour market needs, notably in areas of health, agriculture, and transport. New digital tools have been critical in providing asylum and migration services, although the Inform notes that it has also raised new challenges. In the area of asylum, for instance, providing effective and fair application and appeals processes has become more complicated by having remote interviews, and depends largely on the applicants’ ability to use and access electronic means. Both the requests for asylum and the number of returns carried out have reduced in 2020 as a result of the pandemic. The landscape also changed for international students, where in-person attendance was discouraged if not suspended altogether. Many students returned home, and in some cases, were able to continue their studies remotely, while processes to renew residence permits were moved online. The joint research shows that public authorities have acted swiftly to introduce new measures or adapt their systems to confront the migration challenges caused by the pandemic, or in some cases, to simply continue to use pre-existing on-line systems. While the long-term impacts are hard to predict, the last chapter of the inform looks towards future migration policies and how these might be shaped in the context of the digitalisation of migration management, the need for bio-secure borders, and the expansion of teleworking digital nomads. The European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) provided inputs to the publication. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 in the migration area in EU and OECD countries
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Sheridan, Anne

Scientific Conference (2021, April 30)

The European Migration Network (EMN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have published updated information on the impact of COVID-19 in the migration area. The new ... [more ▼]

The European Migration Network (EMN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have published updated information on the impact of COVID-19 in the migration area. The new Umbrella Inform completes the joint EMN and OECD Inform series between on the impact of COVID-19 on migration and asylum in the EU Member States and non-EU OECD countries throughout 2020. Updates include changes in border procedures, provision of COVID-19 related healthcare services to migrants, the shifting landscape of the labour market, international protection, international students, and return issues. [less ▲]

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See detailSub-genic intolerance, ClinVar, and the epilepsies: A whole-exome sequencing study of 29,165 individuals
Motelow, Joshua E.; Povysil, Gundula; Dhindsa, Ryan S. et al

in The American Journal of Human Genetics (2021)

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we ... [more ▼]

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we performed a whole-exome sequencing analysis of 13,487 epilepsy-affected individuals and 15,678 control individuals. While prior Epi25 studies focused on gene-based collapsing analyses, we asked how the pattern of variation within genes differs by epilepsy type. Specifically, we compared the genetic architectures of severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) and two generally less severe epilepsies, genetic generalized epilepsy and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE). Our gene-based rare variant collapsing analysis used geographic ancestry-based clustering that included broader ancestries than previously possible and revealed novel associations. Using the missense intolerance ratio (MTR), we found that variants in DEE-affected individuals are in significantly more intolerant genic sub-regions than those in NAFE-affected individuals. Only previously reported pathogenic variants absent in available genomic datasets showed a significant burden in epilepsy-affected individuals compared with control individuals, and the ultra-rare pathogenic variants associated with DEE were located in more intolerant genic sub-regions than variants associated with non-DEE epilepsies. MTR filtering improved the yield of ultra-rare pathogenic variants in affected individuals compared with control individuals. Finally, analysis of variants in genes without a disease association revealed a significant burden of loss-of-function variants in the genes most intolerant to such variation, indicating additional epilepsy-risk genes yet to be discovered. Taken together, our study suggests that genic and sub-genic intolerance are critical characteristics for interpreting the effects of variation in genes that influence epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailDetention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg. Luxembourgish legislation, namely the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on Free Movement of Persons and Immigration (Immigration Law) and the Law of 18 December 2015 on International Protection and Temporary Protection (Asylum Law), foresees three alternatives to detention: - Alternative 1: Reporting obligations, which includes the obligation to surrender a passport, travel document or identity document; - Alternative 2: Home custody (+ electronic monitoring, if necessary); - Alternative 3: Deposition of a financial guarantee of 5.000€. In principle, the assessment between detention or alternatives to detention is made at the same time as when the grounds for detention are considered, as long as the Directorate of Immigration, as the responsible authority, has all the necessary information to decide if an alternative to detention can be ordered. Furthermore, the possibility to impose an alternative to detention is in principle systemically considered, as both relevant laws foresee that the detention decision is ordered in writing by the Minister on the basis of a case-by-case assessment, where necessary and if other less coercive measures cannot be effectively applied. Grounds for detention are generally rejected in favour of an alternative to detention if the person concerned falls within the category of vulnerable groups and if person is able to proof effective guarantees of representation to prevent the risk of absconding. This latter obligation on the third-country national to revert the legal presumption that there is a risk of absconding remains the main challenge because effective guarantees of representation are not defined by law. This is particularly challenging in the context of return procedures, where this legal presumption exists in nearly all cases where a third-country national has no valid identity, travel or residence documents. In the absence of such effective guarantees of representation, the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum generally does not make the decision to apply an alternative to detention. Consequently, the research in the context of this study has shown that alternatives to detention are only rarely used in Luxembourg, with the important exception of home custody in the Emergency Housing Structure of Kirchberg (‘Structure d’hébergement d’urgence Kirchberg’ – SHUK). The SHUK serves as a semi-open return facility for applicants for international protection and irregularly staying third-country nationals whose fingerprints have already been registered in Eurodac by another Member State and are therefore likely to be transferred to that Member State, in accordance with the Dublin III Regulation. A placement at the SHUK corresponds to home custody. The rare use of alternatives to detention also results in the fact that there is generally not much data available in this regard, with the important exception of home custody in the SHUK, which is more widely used. [less ▲]

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See detailCitizen Science - Ist das Wissenschaft?
Jaschik, Johanna Maria UL

Presentation (2021, April 29)

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See detailJoint Radio Resource Management and Link Adaptation for Multicasting 802.11ax-based WLAN Systems
Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Kaddoum, Georges; Poitau, Gwenael

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Adopting OFDMA and MU-MIMO techniques for both downlink and uplink IEEE 802.11ax will help next-generation WLANs efficiently cope with large numbers of devices but will also raise some research challenges ... [more ▼]

Adopting OFDMA and MU-MIMO techniques for both downlink and uplink IEEE 802.11ax will help next-generation WLANs efficiently cope with large numbers of devices but will also raise some research challenges. One of these is how to optimize the channelization, resource allocation, beamforming design, and MCS selection jointly for IEEE 802.11ax-based WLANs. In this paper, this technical requirement is formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem maximizing the total system throughput for the WLANs consisting of unicast users with multicast groups. A novel two-stage solution approach is proposed to solve this challenging problem. The first stage aims to determine the precoding vectors under unit-power constraints. These temporary precoders help re-form the main problem into a joint power and radio resource allocation one. Then, two low-complexity algorithms are proposed to cope with the new problem in stage two. The first is developed based on the well-known compressed sensing method while the second seeks to optimize each of the optimizing variables alternatively until reaching converged outcomes. The outcomes corresponding to the two stages are then integrated to achieve the complete solution. Numerical results are provided to confirm the superior performance of the proposed algorithms over benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailLexicometric and Informational Measures in Political and Literary Corpora
Armaselu, Florentina UL

in Studii şi Cercetări Lingvistice (2021), 2(LXXI – 2020, iulie–decembrie (July - December)), 163-178

The paper presents a method for corpus-based informational analysis, using an open source platform for lexicometric processing and a spreadsheet application. This type of study may serve in illustrating ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a method for corpus-based informational analysis, using an open source platform for lexicometric processing and a spreadsheet application. This type of study may serve in illustrating the factors that influence informational measures such as entropy, energy and informativity, and in detecting certain structural or stylistic particularities of the analysed corpora. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping citizens’ reflections and perceptions of place-based experiences in the time of COVID-19
Jones, Catherine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 14)

Using a Citizen Science Approach, the ZesummenMaps project explores the emergent spatial interactions of our towns, cities and rural areas that arise from the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing and ... [more ▼]

Using a Citizen Science Approach, the ZesummenMaps project explores the emergent spatial interactions of our towns, cities and rural areas that arise from the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing and confinement policies in Luxembourg and the Greater Region. Citizens (residents, students, cross-border workers) reflect on their personal experiences of place during the crises. They contribute thoughts and perceptions through a collaborative community-mapping interface. This provides a foundation to explore, evaluate and understand the evolving perceptions and uses of public spaces, infrastructures and physical environments. Thus, creating an evidence-base of emerging spatial interactions to inform understanding of the impact of the "bleift doheem" policy (stay at home, confinement, lockdown) related to our perceptions and uses of our towns, cities and rural areas. [less ▲]

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See detail“Every Student Can Learn, just not on the same Day” -Data Protection and Cybersecurity Challenges for E-Learning Platforms
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Schiffner, Stefan UL

Presentation (2021, April 14)

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period ... [more ▼]

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period. With the COVID19 crisis, online learning became an everyday commodity almost overnight; however, not all schools were prepared to swiftly switch from in class to remote teaching. Concerns were raised with regard to data protection and cyber security, which in some cases led to the implementation of “home-made” solutions. Taking the example of the federalist state of Germany, where education is within the sole competence of the Länder, this paper will explore the functioning and technical implementation of a variety of e-learning platforms before data protection concerns are addressed. We will then explore whether the NIS Directive, which foresees similar security requirements as the GDPR, is applicable to the diverse models, and outline the consequences. In light of the acceleration of the revision of the NIS Directive due to the COVID-19 crisis, we take the example of learning platforms to outline the flaws of the 2016 Directive before we critically evaluate selected aspects of the NIS 2.0 proposal of December 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailDes formations hybrides à défaut de mobilité
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Presentation (2021, April 09)

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See detailPopulismes et fabrique des droits économiques et sociaux dans le cadre des droits de l'Homme. Le Front national et l'Union démocratique du centre (1992-2013)
Albert, Frédéric UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Since the 1990’s, with the development of Europeanisation, globalisation and the installation of the neo-liberal paradigm, we observe in Europe the non-application of economic and social rights, despite ... [more ▼]

Since the 1990’s, with the development of Europeanisation, globalisation and the installation of the neo-liberal paradigm, we observe in Europe the non-application of economic and social rights, despite being aspired by the States of the human rights continent after the Second World War. At the same time, "national-populist" parties are gaining more and more support and are establishing themselves in the political landscape as a "right-wing third way", which would provide the answers that the governing parties do not seem to be able to find, in the context of an actual crisis of the welfare state. The aim of our research is to provide a comparative analysis of the discourses of the "Front National" in France, now Rassemblement National ("RN") and the "Union Démocratique du Centre" in Switzerland ("UDC/SVP") on economic and social rights, in order to confront them with the changes and public policies observed in our societies as a result of the neo-liberal paradigm. Using a cross-cutting analytical grid that identifies the characteristics of socio-economic discourse of a "national-populist" nature, this work is made up of numerous sources from both parties, studied over a period of twenty years : work that constitutes the boundaries between 1992, when the Maastricht Treaty developing the "European market" was signed, and 2013, with the start of negotiations for the signing of the transatlantic treaty opening the "European market" to the "US market". The research work is also based on original interviews with key figures from both parties and the creation of an online questionnaire aimed at elected representatives with responsibilities on a smaller scale (at regional level). Thus, the cross-referencing of our qualitative and quantitative data has enabled us to produce original results and to construct a new category of populist parties called : "national-populist parties opposed to human rights". Among other things, the latter develop in their socio-economic approach a will to defend economic and social rights but only for nationals, rejecting the universality of human rights. At the same time, they propose a hybrid form of capitalism with nuances between the "FN/RN" and the "UDC", combining a dose of protectionism but also a more or less sought-after integration into the "market". Furthermore, it is interesting to compare the discourses of a party outside government (the "RN") that has not yet participated in executive authority at the national level and a party associated with federal authority, the "UDC", both "inside and outside". Ultimately, in both cases, it is sovereignism and anchoring in so-called right-wing policies that seem to dominate the socio-economic DNA of the two populist parties studied. With the help of our research work, we can thus ask ourselves in what way does the "national-populist" discourse point to the failure of states on the human rights continent to implement economic and social rights as they intend ? [less ▲]

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See detailRegional Development Banks in the World Economy
Howarth, David UL; Clifton, Judith; Diaz Fuentes, Daniel

in Clifton, Judith; Diaz Fuentes, Daniel; Howarth, David (Eds.) Regional Development Banks in the World Economy (2021)

In this introduction, we present the categories and the analytical framework that we apply to examine Regional Development Banks, and specifically a form of rational choice institutionalism—Principal ... [more ▼]

In this introduction, we present the categories and the analytical framework that we apply to examine Regional Development Banks, and specifically a form of rational choice institutionalism—Principal-Agent analysis. We apply the categories and framework to each Regional Development Bank in its specific political economy context, with a view to setting out and analysing the similarities and differences among Regional Development Bank. We demonstrate and explain an important evolution in the main objectives of Regional Development Bank lending activities over three distinct periods: from regional integration and development, to market promotion and development, and then to geographical expansion—and multi-polarity promotion for some Regional Development Banks—and a more strategic interventionism in the market, that includes market shaping activities including industrial policy. We explain this evolution in terms of the agency of the Regional Development Banks in relation to their multiple principal—the shareholder national governments. [less ▲]

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