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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailLSPnet: A 2D Localization-oriented Spacecraft Pose Estimation Neural Network
Garcia Sanchez, Albert UL; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Adel UL; Gaudilliere, Vincent UL et al

in Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops. Proceedings (in press)

Being capable of estimating the pose of uncooperative objects in space has been proposed as a key asset for enabling safe close-proximity operations such as space rendezvous, in-orbit servicing and active ... [more ▼]

Being capable of estimating the pose of uncooperative objects in space has been proposed as a key asset for enabling safe close-proximity operations such as space rendezvous, in-orbit servicing and active debris removal. Usual approaches for pose estimation involve classical computer vision-based solutions or the application of Deep Learning (DL) techniques. This work explores a novel DL-based methodology, using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), for estimating the pose of uncooperative spacecrafts. Contrary to other approaches, the proposed CNN directly regresses poses without needing any prior 3D information. Moreover, bounding boxes of the spacecraft in the image are predicted in a simple, yet efficient manner. The performed experiments show how this work competes with the state-of-the-art in uncooperative spacecraft pose estimation, including works which require 3D information as well as works which predict bounding boxes through sophisticated CNNs. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of Pre-Trained Language Models for Multi-Class Text Classification in the Financial Domain
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Veiber, Lisa UL et al

in Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21 Companion), April 19--23, 2021, Ljubljana, Slovenia (in press)

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See detailCan Offline Testing of Deep Neural Networks Replace Their Online Testing?
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (in press)

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test ... [more ▼]

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application environment and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. Typically, DNNs are subjected to both types of testing during their development life cycle where offline testing is applied immediately after DNN training and online testing follows after offline testing and once a DNN is deployed within a specific application environment. In this paper, we study the relationship between offline and online testing. Our goal is to determine how offline testing and online testing differ or complement one another and if offline testing results can be used to help reduce the cost of online testing? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end controls of steering functions of self-driving vehicles. Our results show that offline testing is less effective than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. Further, we cannot exploit offline testing results to reduce the cost of online testing in practice since we are not able to identify specific situations where offline testing could be as accurate as online testing in identifying safety requirement violations. [less ▲]

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See detailSpelling patterns of plural marking and learning trajectories in French taught as a foreign language
Weth, Constanze UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Fayol, Michel et al

in Written Language and Literacy (in press), 24

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and ... [more ▼]

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and verbal plural. This study investigates spelling profiles of French plural markers of 228 multilingual grade 5 pupils with French taught as a foreign language. Three analyses on the learner performances of plural spelling in nouns, verbs and pre- and postnominal attributive adjectives were conducted (1) to detect the pupils’ spelling profiles of plural marking on the basis of the performances in the pretest, (2) to test the profiles against two psycholinguistic theories, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the training on each spelling profile in the posttest. The first analysis confirms the existing literature that pupils’ learning of French plural is not random but ordered and emphasizes the role of the position for adjectives (pre- or postnominal) on correct plural spelling. The second analysis reveals the theoretical difficulties of predicting spelling of adjectival and verbal plural. The third analysis shows that strong and poor spellers both benefit from a morphosyntactic training and provides transparency and traceability of the learning trajectories. Together, the descriptive analyses reveal clear patterns of intra-individual spelling profiles. They point to a need for further research in those areas that have empirically provided the most inconsistent results to date and that are not supported by the theories: verbs and adjectives. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la naissance de l’État luxembourgeois. Analyse et historique de la problématique
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Actes de la Section des sciences morales et politiques, Institut grand-ducal (in press)

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See detailVirtual Agent Representation for Critical Transactions
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Proceedings of the 12th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys) (in press)

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See detailIntegrated STEAM Approach in Outdoor Trails with Elementary School Pre-service Teachers in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Journal of Educational Technology and Society (in press), 24(4),

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer ... [more ▼]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer term of 2019/2020. Therefore, we moved our on-campus STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) related courses to schooling at home. For their course examination, students designed outdoor trails in groups with the educational technology MathCityMap based on an integrated STEAM approach. Hence, they combined STEAM with real-world situations (e.g., monuments, marketplaces, playgrounds). The tasks within the trails required the use of technologies such as augmented reality (AR), digital modelling (e.g., GeoGebra 3D Graphing Calculator), and GPS. Analogue measuring tools (e.g., triangle ruler) were also used in the task designs. We collected data from 21 trails with 259 tasks from 49 pre-service teachers to analyse the effects on professional growth in STEAM education. Through hierarchical cluster analysis we identified three different clusters with patterns regarding STEAM in outdoor trails. This paper will describe a pedagogical framework for the integrated STEAM approach to designing and evaluating outdoor trails. Furthermore, we will explain patterns pre-service teachers developed during this professional development. [less ▲]

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See detailLes transformations d'un recueil hagiographique monumental: le grand légendier de Saint-Maximin de Trèves aux XVe-XVIe siècles
Dubuisson, Bastien UL

in Peloux, Fernand (Ed.) Des saints et des livres: Christianisme flamboyant et manuscrits hagiographiques du Nord à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIIIe-XVIe siècles) (in press)

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See detailThe Ends of the Humanities
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL; Dembeck, Till UL; Mein, Georg UL

Book published by Melusina Press (in press)

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See detailBorderscapes
Wille, Christian UL

in Fellner, Astrid; Nossem, Eva (Eds.) Glossary Border Studies (in press)

Der Beitrag arbeitet das in der Grenzforschung am weitesten verbreitete Verständnis von ‚borderscapes‘ heraus und gibt den Ansatz in seinen Grundzügen wieder. Dafür werden zu-nächst die Verwendungen des ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag arbeitet das in der Grenzforschung am weitesten verbreitete Verständnis von ‚borderscapes‘ heraus und gibt den Ansatz in seinen Grundzügen wieder. Dafür werden zu-nächst die Verwendungen des Begriffs und die damit implizierten Verständnisse dargelegt. Darauf aufbauend wird ‚borderscapes’ als relationale, diffundierte, episodische, perspektivi-sche und umkämpfte Formationen systematisiert, die mit nationalen Grenzen in Beziehung stehen. Darüber wird gezeigt, inwiefern ‚borderscapes‘ mit der ‚traditionellen‘ Idee von Grenze als (territoriale) Binarität bricht und einen alternativen Grenzbegriff stark macht: Grenze wird hier in eine Vielzahl gesellschaftlicher Prozesse eingelagert, die wandelbar und gestaltbar sind, sich transskalar und in umkämpfter Weise aufeinander beziehen und in ih-rem komplexen Zusammenspiel Effekte der Einsetzung oder (De-)Stabilisierung von natio-nalen Grenzen hervorbringen. ‚Borderscapes‘ überführt Grenzen also analytisch in die Land-schaften ihrer multiplen Wirksamkeiten und Aushandlungen, die durchaus an ‚territorialen Ränder‘ stattfinden können, aber nicht zwangsläufig. Damit macht der Ansatz ein analyti-sches Angebot, das der „territorial trap“ (Agnew 1994) entkommt, für die Komplexität von Grenzen sensibilisiert und diese außerdem als Ressourcen betrachtet. Trotz der Bemühung ‚borderscapes‘ näher zu umreißen, kann der Ansatz nur schwer auf den Begriff gebracht werden. Die dargelegten Grundzüge stecken vielmehr einen theoretisch-konzeptionellen Rahmen ab, der komplexitätssensible Grenzforscher*innen orientiert und Spielräume für spezifische Aneignungen lässt. Solche werden abschließend anhand von Beispielen der kul-turwissenschaftlichen Grenzforschung vorgestellt und die konzeptionelle Offenheit des An-satzes, die sich besonders in method(ologi)schen Mehrdeutigkeiten widerspiegelt, kritisch gewürdigt. [less ▲]

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See detailSchöne Digitale Welt: Analysen und Einsprüche (Rezension)
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in MEDIENwissenschaft: Rezensionen, Reviews (in press)

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See detailManaging talent in mission-driven organizations: A qualitative exploration
Usanova, Ksenia UL; Geraudel, Mickaël UL; D'Armagnac, Sophie et al

in International Journal of Human Resource Management (in press)

Although there is fruitful talent management (TM) literature on large private companies, little of the TM research examines mission-driven organizations (MDOs). This study addresses this gap by presenting ... [more ▼]

Although there is fruitful talent management (TM) literature on large private companies, little of the TM research examines mission-driven organizations (MDOs). This study addresses this gap by presenting TM in the context of the not-for-profit sector in Russia. Using grounded theory, we interviewed 34 top managers to understand how they define talent and how they manage such talent. The research highlights the crucial role of social values in this context. It generates a perspective on the definition of talent that differs from that of the traditional TM literature. The variety of talent definitions creates the following three different paths for TM: community-based, innovation and learning-based, and security and status-based. Then, we derive from these paths three patterns of TM practices (“managerial”, “entrepreneurial” and “amateur”) that describe the TM practices among Russian MDOs. This study contributes to the TM literature by challenging the traditional approach to TM that focuses on large private companies in Western countries. This paper links TM with social and moral values and presents three different TM patterns, which might be helpful for CEOs, executives and TM managers. [less ▲]

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See detailA Pharmacophore Model for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Small Molecule Inhibitors and in Vitro Experimental Validation of Computationally Screened Inhibitors
Glaab, Enrico UL; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (in press)

Among the biomedical efforts in response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, pharmacological strategies to reduce viral load in patients with severe forms of the disease are being studied ... [more ▼]

Among the biomedical efforts in response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, pharmacological strategies to reduce viral load in patients with severe forms of the disease are being studied intensively. One of the main drug target proteins proposed so far is the SARS-CoV-2 viral protease 3CLpro (also called Mpro), an essential component for viral replication. Ongoing ligand- and receptor-based computational screening efforts would be facilitated by an improved understanding of the electrostatic, hydrophobic and steric features that characterize small molecule inhibitors binding stably to 3CLpro, as well as by an extended collection of known binders. Here, we present combined virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulation, machine learning and in vitro experimental validation analyses which have led to the identification of small molecule inhibitors of 3CLpro with micromolar activity, and to a pharmacophore model that describes functional chemical groups associated with the molecular recognition of ligands by the 3CLpro binding pocket. Experimentally validated inhibitors using a ligand activity assay include natural compounds with available prior knowledge on safety and bioavailability properties, such as the natural compound rottlerin (IC50 = 37 µM), and synthetic compounds previously not characterized (e.g. compound CID 46897844, IC50 = 31 µM). In combination with the developed pharmacophore model, these and other confirmed 3CLpro inhibitors may provide a basis for further similarity-based screening in independent compound databases and structural design optimization efforts, to identify 3CLpro ligands with improved potency and selectivity. Overall, this study suggests that the integration of virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning can facilitate 3CLpro-targeted small molecule screening investigations. Different receptor-, ligand- and machine learning-based screening strategies provided complementary information, helping to increase the number and diversity of identified active compounds. Finally, the resulting pharmacophore model and experimentally validated small molecule inhibitors for 3CLpro provide resources to support follow-up computational screening efforts for this drug target. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Embeddedness and the Founding of Luxembourg’s 21st Century Research University
Braband, Gangolf; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Higher Education (in press)

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving ... [more ▼]

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving provisions of postsecondary education after 1945 followed construction of several teaching and research institutes that did not offer full-fledged tertiary education certification. With global higher education expansion and European developments providing a window of opportunity, the critical juncture occurred in 2003, with the founding of the national flagship University of Luxembourg (uni.lu)—since leading to an extraordinary case of university institutionalization. Traditions were explicitly maintained, but reshaped, in the new university, with student mobility continuing to bolster the national elite’s pan-European networks and internationalization. Reflecting its hyper-diversity and multilingual culture as well as porous national borders, Luxembourg’s investments in higher education capacity-building, via a 21st century research university, have been thoroughly European. Today, Luxembourg has the highest proportion of workers with tertiary attainment and of internationally mobile students, testament to its maintained mobility tradition and national policy change facilitated by global models and European norms. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the Colonizer-Colonized Mindset: Nonconformity of Léonora Miano’s Afrophonie
Nonoa, Koku Gnatuloma UL

in Amoo-Adare, Epifania; Siriwardane-de Zoysa, Rapti (Eds.) An Anthology of Non-Conformism: Rebel Women Words, Ways & Wonders (in press)

In her books Red in blue trilogy (2015) and L'impératif transgressif (The Transgressive Imperative) (2016a), the French-Cameroonian novelist Léonora Miano questions and elucidates, among other things, the ... [more ▼]

In her books Red in blue trilogy (2015) and L'impératif transgressif (The Transgressive Imperative) (2016a), the French-Cameroonian novelist Léonora Miano questions and elucidates, among other things, the repression of the history of “forgotten worlds” in relation to transatlantic human trafficking and colonialism and pleads for reinventing African imaginary by decolonizing the French-speaking world called Francophonie. Therefore, she invites sub-Saharan writers to use their verbs in a non-conformist way: it is about finding oneself beyond and freeing oneself from the colonizer-colonized mindset. In this regard, Miano coins the concept of Afrophonie as a form of countercultural re-examination and reorientation of the politics of perception stemming from the coloniality of the French language and the Francophonie. From a countercultural perspective, this contribution discusses the potentiality of the non-conformity of Léonora Miano´s writings beyond the colonizer-colonized mindset. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge degrees in scale-free inhomogeneous random graphs
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy UL; Schulte, Matthias

in Annals of Applied Probability (in press)

We consider a class of scale-free inhomogeneous random graphs, which includes some long-range percolation models. We study the maximum degree in such graphs in a growing observation window and show that ... [more ▼]

We consider a class of scale-free inhomogeneous random graphs, which includes some long-range percolation models. We study the maximum degree in such graphs in a growing observation window and show that its limiting distribution is Frechet. We achieve this by proving convergence of the underlying point process of the degrees to a certain Poisson process. Estimating the index of the power-law tail for the typical degree distribution is an important question in statistics. We prove consistency of the Hill estimator for the inverse of the tail exponent of the typical degree distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking Elections Work: Accountability with Selection and Control
Anesi, Vincent UL; Buisseret, Peter

in American Economic Journal. Microeconomics (in press)

We study the limits of dynamic electoral accountability when voters are uncertain about politicians’ characteristics (adverse selection) and their actions (moral hazard). Existing work argues that voters ... [more ▼]

We study the limits of dynamic electoral accountability when voters are uncertain about politicians’ characteristics (adverse selection) and their actions (moral hazard). Existing work argues that voters cannot achieve their first-best payoff. This is attributed to inherent deficiencies of the electoral contract, including voters’ inability to pre-commit, and the restriction to a binary retention-replacement decision. We provide conditions under which, despite these constraints, voters can obtain arbitrarily close to the first-best payoff in an equilibrium of the electoral interaction. Our paper resolves that there need not be a trade-off between selection and control. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Test Suite Generation for Key-Points Detection DNNs using Many-Objective Search (Experience Paper)
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]

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