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See detailAutomatic Test Suite Generation for Key-points Detection DNNs Using Many-Objective Search
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]

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See detailSpelling patterns of plural marking and learning trajectories in French taught as a foreign language
Weth, Constanze UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Fayol, Michel et al

in Written Language and Literacy (in press), 24

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and ... [more ▼]

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and verbal plural. This study investigates spelling profiles of French plural markers of 228 multilingual grade 5 pupils with French taught as a foreign language. Three analyses on the learner performances of plural spelling in nouns, verbs and pre- and postnominal attributive adjectives were conducted (1) to detect the pupils’ spelling profiles of plural marking on the basis of the performances in the pretest, (2) to test the profiles against two psycholinguistic theories, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the training on each spelling profile in the posttest. The first analysis confirms the existing literature that pupils’ learning of French plural is not random but ordered and emphasizes the role of the position for adjectives (pre- or postnominal) on correct plural spelling. The second analysis reveals the theoretical difficulties of predicting spelling of adjectival and verbal plural. The third analysis shows that strong and poor spellers both benefit from a morphosyntactic training and provides transparency and traceability of the learning trajectories. Together, the descriptive analyses reveal clear patterns of intra-individual spelling profiles. They point to a need for further research in those areas that have empirically provided the most inconsistent results to date and that are not supported by the theories: verbs and adjectives. [less ▲]

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See detailCan Offline Testing of Deep Neural Networks Replace Their Online Testing?
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (in press)

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test ... [more ▼]

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application environment and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. Typically, DNNs are subjected to both types of testing during their development life cycle where offline testing is applied immediately after DNN training and online testing follows after offline testing and once a DNN is deployed within a specific application environment. In this paper, we study the relationship between offline and online testing. Our goal is to determine how offline testing and online testing differ or complement one another and if offline testing results can be used to help reduce the cost of online testing? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end controls of steering functions of self-driving vehicles. Our results show that offline testing is less effective than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. Further, we cannot exploit offline testing results to reduce the cost of online testing in practice since we are not able to identify specific situations where offline testing could be as accurate as online testing in identifying safety requirement violations. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la naissance de l’État luxembourgeois. Analyse et historique de la problématique
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Actes de la Section des sciences morales et politiques, Institut grand-ducal (in press)

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See detailEuropean Embeddedness and the Founding of Luxembourg’s 21st Century Research University
Braband, Gangolf; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Higher Education (in press)

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in “The Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries developed higher education (HE) primarily via international student mobility, not its own national ... [more ▼]

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in “The Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries developed higher education (HE) primarily via international student mobility, not its own national university. Evolving provisions of tertiary education after WWII followed construction of several teaching and research institutes that did not offer full-fledged higher education certification. The critical juncture—the founding of the national flagship University of Luxembourg (uni.lu)—occurred in 2003, since leading to an extraordinary case of university institutional¬ization. Traditions were explicitly maintained, but reshaped, in the new university, with student mobility continuing to bolster the national elite’s pan-European networks and internationalization. Reflecting its hyper-diversity, its multilingual culture, and its porous national borders, Luxembourg’s investments in higher education capacity-building have been thoroughly European. Today, Luxembourg has the highest proportion of HE graduates and of internationally mobile students, testament to its outgoing mobility tradition and national policy change facilitated by Europeanization. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailA quasicontinuum approach towards mechanical simulations of periodic lattice structures
Chen, Li UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Thanks to the advancement of additive manufacturing, periodic metallic lattice structures are gaining more and more attention. A major attraction of them is that their design can be tailored to specific ... [more ▼]

Thanks to the advancement of additive manufacturing, periodic metallic lattice structures are gaining more and more attention. A major attraction of them is that their design can be tailored to specific applications by changing the basic repetitive pattern of the lattice, called the unit cell. This may involve the selection of optimal strut diameters and orientations, as well as the connectivity and strut lengths. Numerical simulation plays a vital role in understanding the mechanical behavior of metallic lattices and it enables the optimization of design parameters. However, conventional numerical modeling strategies in which each strut is represented by one or more beam finite elements yield prohibitively time­consuming simulations for metallic lattices in engineering­scale applications. The reasons are that millions of struts are involved, as well as that geometrical and material nonlinearities at the strut level need to be incorporated. The aim of this thesis is the development of multi­scale quasicontinuum (QC) frameworks to substantially reduce the simulation time of nonlinear mechanical models of metallic lattices. For this purpose, this thesis generalizes the QC method by a multi­field interpolation enabling amongst others the representation of varying diameters in the struts’ axial directions (as a consequence of the manufacturing process). The efficiency is further increased by a new adaptive scheme that automatically adjusts the model reduction whilst controlling the (elastic or elastoplastic) model’s accuracy. The capabilities of the proposed methodology are demonstrated using numerical examples, such as indentation tests and scratch tests, in which the lattice is modeled using geometrically nonlinear elastic and elastoplastic beam finite elements. They show that the multi­scale framework combines a high accuracy with substantial model reduction that are out of reach of direct numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of ERA5 integrated water vapor trends for climate change analysis in continental Europe: An evaluation with GPS (1994–2019) by considering statistical significance
Yuan, Peng; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Alshawaf, Fadwa et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2021), 260(112416),

Although the statistical significances for the trends of integrated water vapor (IWV) are essential for a correct interpretation of climate change signals, obtaining accurate IWV trend estimates with ... [more ▼]

Although the statistical significances for the trends of integrated water vapor (IWV) are essential for a correct interpretation of climate change signals, obtaining accurate IWV trend estimates with realistic uncertainties remains a challenge. This study evaluates the feasibility of the IWV trends derived from the newly released fifth generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5) for climate change analysis in continental Europe. This is achieved by comparing the trends derived from in-situ ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)’s daily IWV series from 1994 to 2019 at 109 stations. The realistic uncertainties and statistical significances of the IWV trends are evaluated with the time series analysis on their noise characteristics and proper noise models. Results show that autoregressive moving average ARMA(1,1) noise model is preferred rather than the commonly assumed white noise (WN) or first-order autoregressive AR(1) noise for about 68% of the ERA5 and GPS IWV series. An improper noise model would misevaluate the trend uncertainty of an IWV time series, compared with its specific preferred noise model. For example, ARMA(1,1) may misevaluate the standard deviations of their trend estimates (0.1–0.3 kg m−2 decade−1) by 10%. Nevertheless, ARMA(1,1) is recommended as the default noise model for the ERA5 and GPS IWV series. However, the preferred noise model for each ERA5 minus GPS (E-G) IWV series should be specifically determined, because the AR(1)-related models can result in an underestimation on its trend uncertainty by 90%. In contrast, power-law (PL) model can lead to an overestimation by up to nine times. The E-G IWV trends are within −0.2–0.4 kg m−2 decade−1, indicating that the ERA5 is a potential data source of IWV trends for climate change analysis in continental Europe. The ERA5 and GPS IWV trends are consistent in their magnitudes and geographical patterns, lower in Northwest Europe (0–0.4 kg m−2 decade−1) but higher around the Mediterranean Sea (0.6–1.4 kg m−2 decade−1). [less ▲]

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See detailChannel Modeling and Analysis of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Assisted Vehicular Networks
Kong, Long UL; He, Jiguang; Ai, Yun et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detail„Place de l’Etoile“/Stäreplaz. Goldgrube mit grünen Dächern
Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2021)

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von ... [more ▼]

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von Grund und Boden ansetzen. Solch ein Blick erklärt, in welche Richtung sich viele Städte gegenwärtig und zukünftig entwickeln werden. [less ▲]

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See detailLove at the Psychiatric Ward
Harion, Dominic UL; Zink, Dominic; Loew, Sarah Francesca et al

in Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Vanderheiden, Elisabeth (Eds.) International Handbook of Love, Transcultural and Transdisciplinary Perspectives (2021)

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See detailEvaluation of the Molecular Pathogenesis of Adrenocortical Tumors by Whole-Genome Sequencing
Neininger, Kerstin UL; May, Patrick UL; Altieri, Barbara et al

in Journal of the Endocrine Society (2021, May 03), 5(Issue Supplement_1), 68

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic ... [more ▼]

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic mutations in known driver genes. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 26 ACA/blood-derived DNA pairs without driver mutations in PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1 genes at previous WES (ENSAT study JCEM 2016). These included 12 cortisol-producing adenomas with Cushing syndrome (CS-CPAs), 7 with mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS-CPAs), and 7 endocrine-inactive ACAs (EIAs). Seven adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) were added to the cohort. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for a comprehensive genome analysis and to reveal differences in variant distribution. Strelka, VarScan2 and ANNOVAR software and an in-house confidence score were used for variant calling and functional annotation. Combined Annotation-Dependent-Depletion (CADD) values were used to prioritize pathogenic variants. Additional focus relied on variants in pathogenically known pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, cAMP/PKA pathway). NovoBreak algorithm was applied to discover structural variations. Two hypermutated CS-CPA samples were excluded from further analysis. Using different filters, we detected variants in driver genes not observed at WES (one p.S45P in CTNNB1 and one p.R206L in PRKACA in two different CS-CPAs). In total, we report 179,830 variations (179,598 SNVs; 232 indels) throughout all samples, being more abundant in ACC (88,954) compared to ACA (CS-CPAs: 31,821; MACS-CPAs: 35,008; EIAs: 29,963). Most alterations were in intergenic (>50%), followed by intronic and ncRNA intronic regions. A total of 32 predicted pathogenic variants were found in both coding (CADD values ≥ 15) and non-coding (CADD values ≥ 5) regions. We found 3,301 possibly damaging and recurrent variants (intergenic mutations removed) (CS-CPAs: 1,463; MACS-CPAs: 1,549; EIAs: 1,268; ACC: 1,660), mostly accumulated in intronic regions. Some of these were detected in members of the Wnt/β-catenin (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 2; EIA: 1) and cAMP/PKA (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 7; EIA: 4) pathways (e.g. ADCY1, ADCY2, GNA13, PDE11A). We also found a slightly higher number of structural variations in EIA (3,620) and ACC (3,486) compared to CS-CPAs (977) and MACS-CPAs (2,119). In conclusion, still unrevealed genetic alterations, especially in intronic regions, may accompany early adrenal tumorigenesis and/or autonomous cortisol secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dangers de pastebin
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 in the migration area (EMN OECD UMBRELLA INFORM)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Sheridan, Anne

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts such as border closures, travel restrictions, and the need to introduce sanitary measures. Beginning with the pandemic’s impact on permits and entry conditions, the Inform reports on contingency measures to keep systems operational and to mitigate the impacts on migrants and citizens to the extent possible. For instance, the reduction of in-person immigration related services was largely replaced by electronic or postal communication to ensure continuity in processes. In EU Member States and Norway, the automatic extension of residence permits or the removal of the obligation to leave in some cases, were some of the measures taken to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Most EU Member States provided financial support for migrant workers affected by the pandemic, either due to unemployment or loss of income, and made COVID-19 related healthcare services available to all migrants. Although restrictions were imposed on the admission of migrants, continued admission was granted for jobs deemed essential to meet labour market needs, notably in areas of health, agriculture, and transport. New digital tools have been critical in providing asylum and migration services, although the Inform notes that it has also raised new challenges. In the area of asylum, for instance, providing effective and fair application and appeals processes has become more complicated by having remote interviews, and depends largely on the applicants’ ability to use and access electronic means. Both the requests for asylum and the number of returns carried out have reduced in 2020 as a result of the pandemic. The landscape also changed for international students, where in-person attendance was discouraged if not suspended altogether. Many students returned home, and in some cases, were able to continue their studies remotely, while processes to renew residence permits were moved online. The joint research shows that public authorities have acted swiftly to introduce new measures or adapt their systems to confront the migration challenges caused by the pandemic, or in some cases, to simply continue to use pre-existing on-line systems. While the long-term impacts are hard to predict, the last chapter of the inform looks towards future migration policies and how these might be shaped in the context of the digitalisation of migration management, the need for bio-secure borders, and the expansion of teleworking digital nomads. The European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) provided inputs to the publication. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 in the migration area in EU and OECD countries
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Sheridan, Anne

Scientific Conference (2021, April 30)

The European Migration Network (EMN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have published updated information on the impact of COVID-19 in the migration area. The new ... [more ▼]

The European Migration Network (EMN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have published updated information on the impact of COVID-19 in the migration area. The new Umbrella Inform completes the joint EMN and OECD Inform series between on the impact of COVID-19 on migration and asylum in the EU Member States and non-EU OECD countries throughout 2020. Updates include changes in border procedures, provision of COVID-19 related healthcare services to migrants, the shifting landscape of the labour market, international protection, international students, and return issues. [less ▲]

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See detailSub-genic intolerance, ClinVar, and the epilepsies: A whole-exome sequencing study of 29,165 individuals
Motelow, Joshua E.; Povysil, Gundula; Dhindsa, Ryan S. et al

in The American Journal of Human Genetics (2021)

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we ... [more ▼]

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we performed a whole-exome sequencing analysis of 13,487 epilepsy-affected individuals and 15,678 control individuals. While prior Epi25 studies focused on gene-based collapsing analyses, we asked how the pattern of variation within genes differs by epilepsy type. Specifically, we compared the genetic architectures of severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) and two generally less severe epilepsies, genetic generalized epilepsy and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE). Our gene-based rare variant collapsing analysis used geographic ancestry-based clustering that included broader ancestries than previously possible and revealed novel associations. Using the missense intolerance ratio (MTR), we found that variants in DEE-affected individuals are in significantly more intolerant genic sub-regions than those in NAFE-affected individuals. Only previously reported pathogenic variants absent in available genomic datasets showed a significant burden in epilepsy-affected individuals compared with control individuals, and the ultra-rare pathogenic variants associated with DEE were located in more intolerant genic sub-regions than variants associated with non-DEE epilepsies. MTR filtering improved the yield of ultra-rare pathogenic variants in affected individuals compared with control individuals. Finally, analysis of variants in genes without a disease association revealed a significant burden of loss-of-function variants in the genes most intolerant to such variation, indicating additional epilepsy-risk genes yet to be discovered. Taken together, our study suggests that genic and sub-genic intolerance are critical characteristics for interpreting the effects of variation in genes that influence epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailSCHOOL FUTURES - using scenario approaches to inform transformation initiatives in the Luxembourg school system
König, Ariane UL; Raber, Bo Manuel UL; Drenth, Gerard et al

in ECA Journal (2021), (1), 194

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ... [more ▼]

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ability to address the uncertainties of tomorrow. This anticipation competency, that also includes a capacity for systemsthinking and making normative judgements, isparticularly important for younger generations still at school. In Luxembourg, the Education Scenarios Project served to develop a set of nationalscenarios for education, andthe sequel Schol Futures Project helped to leverage these scenarios in school development processes that engaged students as well as teachers in futureoriented systems thinking. Ariane König, Senior Research Scientist at the University of Luxembourg, Ciaran McGinley, Senior Associate at NormannPartners, Bo ManuelRaber of the University of Luxembourg, Francis Schartz, former president of the Luxembourg National Council for Sustainability, and Gerard Drenth, Senior Associate at Normann Partners, worked with in collaboration with diverse stakeholders in the Luxembourg education system, including with students and teachers from three different schools in Luxembourg. Below they share insights and experiences relating to the scenario approaches used. [less ▲]

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See detailDetention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg. Luxembourgish legislation, namely the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on Free Movement of Persons and Immigration (Immigration Law) and the Law of 18 December 2015 on International Protection and Temporary Protection (Asylum Law), foresees three alternatives to detention: - Alternative 1: Reporting obligations, which includes the obligation to surrender a passport, travel document or identity document; - Alternative 2: Home custody (+ electronic monitoring, if necessary); - Alternative 3: Deposition of a financial guarantee of 5.000€. In principle, the assessment between detention or alternatives to detention is made at the same time as when the grounds for detention are considered, as long as the Directorate of Immigration, as the responsible authority, has all the necessary information to decide if an alternative to detention can be ordered. Furthermore, the possibility to impose an alternative to detention is in principle systemically considered, as both relevant laws foresee that the detention decision is ordered in writing by the Minister on the basis of a case-by-case assessment, where necessary and if other less coercive measures cannot be effectively applied. Grounds for detention are generally rejected in favour of an alternative to detention if the person concerned falls within the category of vulnerable groups and if person is able to proof effective guarantees of representation to prevent the risk of absconding. This latter obligation on the third-country national to revert the legal presumption that there is a risk of absconding remains the main challenge because effective guarantees of representation are not defined by law. This is particularly challenging in the context of return procedures, where this legal presumption exists in nearly all cases where a third-country national has no valid identity, travel or residence documents. In the absence of such effective guarantees of representation, the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum generally does not make the decision to apply an alternative to detention. Consequently, the research in the context of this study has shown that alternatives to detention are only rarely used in Luxembourg, with the important exception of home custody in the Emergency Housing Structure of Kirchberg (‘Structure d’hébergement d’urgence Kirchberg’ – SHUK). The SHUK serves as a semi-open return facility for applicants for international protection and irregularly staying third-country nationals whose fingerprints have already been registered in Eurodac by another Member State and are therefore likely to be transferred to that Member State, in accordance with the Dublin III Regulation. A placement at the SHUK corresponds to home custody. The rare use of alternatives to detention also results in the fact that there is generally not much data available in this regard, with the important exception of home custody in the SHUK, which is more widely used. [less ▲]

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See detailCitizen Science - Ist das Wissenschaft?
Jaschik, Johanna Maria UL

Presentation (2021, April 29)

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