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See detailE Brandstëfter an seng historesch Rezepter
Scuto, Denis UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

Historian Denis Scuto, vice-director of Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History discusses the frontal attack by Trump and his supporters against democratic institutions and historical ... [more ▼]

Historian Denis Scuto, vice-director of Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History discusses the frontal attack by Trump and his supporters against democratic institutions and historical traditions. [less ▲]

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See detailUn incendiaire et ses recettes historiques
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2021)

Historian Denis Scuto, Vice-Director of Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History discusses the frontal attack by Trump and his supporters against democratic institutions and historical ... [more ▼]

Historian Denis Scuto, Vice-Director of Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History discusses the frontal attack by Trump and his supporters against democratic institutions and historical traditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool-Related Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: Building an Evidence Base for Stronger Schools
Chávez, Cirenia; Cebotari, Victor UL; José Benítez, Maria et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailRound table: Jewish Studies in the Digital Age
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2021, January 14)

The international virtual conference “#DHJewish - Jewish Studies in the Digital Age” took place from 11 to 14 January 2021 and brought together more than sixty scholars and heritage practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The international virtual conference “#DHJewish - Jewish Studies in the Digital Age” took place from 11 to 14 January 2021 and brought together more than sixty scholars and heritage practitioners to discuss how the digital turn affects the field of Jewish Studies. The conference ended with a closing round table, which was introduced and moderated by Gerben Zaagsma, and featured Miriam Rürup, Sinai Rusinek, Daniel Stoekl Ben Ezra, Rachel Deblinger and Jeffrey Shandler. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial intelligence in personalized medicine
Glaab, Enrico UL

Presentation (2021, January 13)

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See detailRegards sur 25 ans de travail frontalier au Luxembourg : Evolutions, Profils et Défis
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

Ils furent quelques 50 000 en 1996 pour dépasser les 200 000 aujourd’hui, les travailleurs frontaliers représentent près de la moitié des emplois salariés. Une situation unique parmi toutes les ... [more ▼]

Ils furent quelques 50 000 en 1996 pour dépasser les 200 000 aujourd’hui, les travailleurs frontaliers représentent près de la moitié des emplois salariés. Une situation unique parmi toutes les démocraties. Au-delà de la caricature et du cliché, qui sont ces frontaliers? A travers leurs travaux, Isabelle Pigeron-Piroth (Université du Luxembourg – Center for Border Studies) et Rachid Belkacem (Université de Lorraine – Center for Border Studies) illustreront les principales évolutions du travail frontalier, la grande hétérogénéité de leurs profils et les défis auxquels le Luxembourg va devoir faire face dans les années à venir. La communication des chercheurs sera complétée par la présentation d’un sondage sur le vivre ensemble au Luxembourg vu par les frontaliers . La parole sera également donnée à PwC, acteur économique et grand employeur de main-d’œuvre transfrontalière, qui partagera ses expériences. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysically Active and Healthy School, Role of Primary Physical Education Teacher
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2021)

In times when sedentary lifestyles become more prevalent due to societal changes, establishing physically active and healthy lifestyles is gaining increasing importance. By creating early positive ... [more ▼]

In times when sedentary lifestyles become more prevalent due to societal changes, establishing physically active and healthy lifestyles is gaining increasing importance. By creating early positive experiences for children, especially prior to the age of ten, special attention should be paid to primary schools in order to have a strong influence on the integration of physical activity into the everyday life of every student. Thus, an active school, in which physical activity is placed at its heart, can help establish active and healthy lifestyles and behavior, based on the idea that the best way to increase children’s physical activity is to give them more opportunities to be physically active. This is shown in conceptual frameworks for an Active School, including components such as active breaks and recess; active classroom learning; schoolhouse, schoolyard, and classroom design; active and dynamic sitting; active transport to school; active homework; physical activity-related school events; preschool and after-school clubs and activities; physical education as a learning subject (Scheuer and Bailey 2021). While teacher engagement in general – along with other relevant stakeholders, such as school headteachers, students and their parents – is critical to the successful promotion of physical activity and healthy lifestyle in school settings, teachers teaching physical education should take greater responsibility in this regard for supporting the development of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values associated with physically active and healthy lifestyles. As a result, these important aspects should also be considered in physical education teacher education. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical conductivity of triple point fermions
Habibi, Alireza UL; Farajollahpour, Tohid; Jafari, S A

in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021), 33

As a low-energy effective theory on non-symmorphic lattices, we consider a generic triple point fermion Hamiltonian, which is parameterized by an angular parameter λ. We find strong λ dependence in both ... [more ▼]

As a low-energy effective theory on non-symmorphic lattices, we consider a generic triple point fermion Hamiltonian, which is parameterized by an angular parameter λ. We find strong λ dependence in both Drude and interband optical absorption of these systems. The deviation of the T2 coefficient of the Drude weight from Dirac/Weyl fermions can be used as a quick way to optically distinguish the triple point degeneracies from the Dirac/Weyl degeneracies. At the particular λ = π/6 point, we find that the 'helicity' reversal optical transition matrix element is identically zero. Nevertheless, deviating from this point, the helicity reversal emerges as an absorption channel. [less ▲]

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See detailRewealthization in twenty-first century Western countries: the defining trend of the socioeconomic squeeze of the middle class
Chauvel, Louis UL; Bar Haim, Eyal; Hartung, Anne et al

in Journal of Chinese Sociology (2021), 8

The wealth-to-income ratio (WIR) in many Western countries, particularly in Europe and North America, increased by a factor of two in the last three decades. This represents a defining empirical trend: a ... [more ▼]

The wealth-to-income ratio (WIR) in many Western countries, particularly in Europe and North America, increased by a factor of two in the last three decades. This represents a defining empirical trend: a rewealthization (from the French repatrimonialisation)—or the comeback of (inherited) wealth primacy since the mid-1990s. For the sociology of social stratification, “occupational classes” based on jobs worked must now be understood within a context of wealth-based domination. This paper first illustrates important empirical features of an era of rising WIR. We then outline the theory of rewealthization as a major factor of class transformations in relation to regimes stabilized in the post-WWII industrial area. Compared to the period where wealth became secondary to education and earnings for middle-class lifestyles, rewealthization steepens society's vertical structure; the "olive-shaped" Western society is replaced by a new one where wealth "abundance" at the top masks social reproduction and frustrations below. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipath Routing on Anonymous Communication Systems: Enhancing Privacy and Performance
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

We live in an era where mass surveillance and online tracking against civilians and organizations have reached alarming levels. This has resulted in more and more users relying on anonymous communications ... [more ▼]

We live in an era where mass surveillance and online tracking against civilians and organizations have reached alarming levels. This has resulted in more and more users relying on anonymous communications tools for their daily online activities. Nowadays, Tor is the most popular and widely deployed anonymization network, serving millions of daily users in the entire world. Tor promises to hide the identity of users (i.e., IP addresses) and prevents that external agents disclose relationships between the communicating parties. However, the benefit of privacy protection comes at the cost of severe performance loss. This performance loss degrades the user experience to such an extent that many users do not use anonymization networks and forgo the privacy protection offered. On the other hand, the popularity of Tor has captured the attention of attackers wishing to deanonymize their users. As a response, this dissertation presents a set of multipath routing techniques, both at transport and circuit level, to improve the privacy and performance offered to Tor users. To this end, we first present a comprehensive taxonomy to identify the implications of integrating multipath on each design aspect of Tor. Then, we present a novel transport design to address the existing performance unfairness of the Tor traffic.In Tor, traffic from multiple users is multiplexed in a single TCP connection between two relays. While this has positive effects on privacy, it negatively influences performance and is characterized by unfairness as TCP congestion control gives all the multiplexed Tor traffic as little of the available bandwidth as it gives to every single TCP connection that competes for the same resource. To counter this, we propose to use multipath TCP (MPTCP) to allow for better resource utilization, which, in turn, increases throughput of the Tor traffic to a fairer extend. Our evaluation in real-world settings shows that using out-of-the-box MPTCP leads to 15% performance gain. We analyze the privacy implications of MPTCP in Tor settings and discuss potential threats and mitigation strategies. Regarding privacy, in Tor, a malicious entry node can mount website fingerprinting (WFP) attacks to disclose the identities of Tor users by only observing patterns of data flows.In response to this, we propose splitting traffic over multiple entry nodes to limit the observable patterns that an adversary has access to. We demonstrate that our sophisticated splitting strategy reduces the accuracy from more than 98% to less than 16% for all state-of-the-art WFP attacks without adding any artificial delays or dummy traffic. Additionally, we show that this defense, initially designed against WFP, can also be used to mitigate end-to-end correlation attacks. The contributions presented in this thesis are orthogonal to each other and their synergy comprises a boosted system in terms of both privacy and performance. This results in a more attractive anonymization network for new and existing users, which, in turn, increases the security of all users as a result of enlarging the anonymity set. [less ▲]

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See detailZoom in den Gerichtssaal? Über das Für und Wider digitaler Gerichtsprozesse
Becker, Katrin UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailCoulomb interactions between dipolar quantum fluctuations in van der Waals bound molecules and materials
Stoehr, Martin UL; Sadhukhan, Mainak; Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S. et al

in Nature Communications (2021), 12(1), 137

Mutual Coulomb interactions between electrons lead to a plethora of interesting physical and chemical effects, especially if those interactions involve many fluctuating electrons over large spatial scales ... [more ▼]

Mutual Coulomb interactions between electrons lead to a plethora of interesting physical and chemical effects, especially if those interactions involve many fluctuating electrons over large spatial scales. Here, we identify and study in detail the Coulomb interaction between dipolar quantum fluctuations in the context of van der Waals complexes and materials. Up to now, the interaction arising from the modification of the electron density due to quantum van der Waals interactions was considered to be vanishingly small. We demonstrate that in supramolecular systems and for molecules embedded in nanostructures, such contributions can amount to up to 6 kJ/mol and can even lead to qualitative changes in the long-range van der Waals interaction. Taking into account these broad implications, we advocate for the systematic assessment of so-called Dipole-Correlated Coulomb Singles in large molecular systems and discuss their relevance for explaining several recent puzzling experimental observations of collective behavior in nanostructured materials. [less ▲]

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE JOINT BASED ON DIFFERENT SURFACE CONDITIONS FOR ALUMINUM-POLYAMIDE LASER WELDING
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Koch, Marcus; Plapper, Peter UL

in Journal of Laser Applications (2021)

Laser welding is one of the most promising joining techniques to realize hybrid joints between metals and polymers in order to achieve weight reduction and functionalization of the parts. The surface ... [more ▼]

Laser welding is one of the most promising joining techniques to realize hybrid joints between metals and polymers in order to achieve weight reduction and functionalization of the parts. The surface treatment of the metal has a decisive effect on the joint quality and thus on the mechanical properties. In the present study, different mechanical and laser-based surface treatments have been investigated to develop diverse surface conditions on aluminum. Abrasive blasting and laser ablation were used to increase the surface roughness, while abrasive polishing and laser polishing were applied to minimize the surface roughness. In contrast to abrasive surface treatments, laser-based ones were implemented to create artificial oxide layers on the aluminum surface. The surface structures of pretreated samples have been studied with scanning electron microscopy and roughness test. The laser welding of pretreated aluminum with polyamide was achieved with the heat conduction joining technique. To enlarge the welding area and control the heat input, spatial and temporal modulations of the laser beam were implemented. Finally, a single lap tensile-shear test, microscopic analysis of fractured surfaces, and welding cross sections were employed to evaluate the joints. Results show that the presence of an artificial aluminum oxide layer and low roughness are essential to achieve a superior joint between aluminum and polyamide (improvement of approximately 58% in the shear load of the joint compared to as-received welded samples). The cross section of the superior joint which is the laser-polished aluminum welded to polyamide is studied with transmission electron microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailStrain effects on band structure and Dirac nodal-line morphology of ZrSiSe
Bernardus, Rendy; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in Journal of Applied Physics (2021), 129(1), 014306

The Dirac nodal-line semimetals are new promising materials for technological applications due to their exotic properties, which originate from band structure dispersion and nodal-line behavior. We report ... [more ▼]

The Dirac nodal-line semimetals are new promising materials for technological applications due to their exotic properties, which originate from band structure dispersion and nodal-line behavior. We report strain effects on the band structure of ZrSiSe Dirac nodal-line semimetal through the density functional theory calculations. We found that the kz=0 Dirac nodal-line of ZrSiSe is robust to all strains under reasonable magnitude although there are significant changes in the band oscillation amplitude, bandgap, and band occupancy due to orbital interactions and the Fermi energy shift upon strains. We also found that the effective strains to tune the nodal-line and band structure are equi-biaxial tensile, uniaxial (100) tensile, and xz-plane shear strains. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasible Point Pursuit and Successive Convex Approximation for Transmit Power Minimization in SWIPT-Multigroup Multicasting Systems
Gautam, Sumit UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021)

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures ... [more ▼]

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures, energy harvesting (EH) only users with non-linear EH module, and users with joint ID and EH capabilities having separate units for the two operations, respectively. Each user is categorized under unique group(s), which can be of MC type specifically meant for ID users, and/or an energy group consisting of EH explicit users. The joint ID and EH users are a part of both EH group and single MC group. We formulate an optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power with optimal precoder designs for the three aforementioned scenarios, under certain quality-of-service constraints. The problem may be adapted to the well-known semidefinite program and solved via relaxation of rank-1 constraint. However, this process leads to performance degradation in some cases, which increases with the rank of solution obtained from the relaxed problem. Hence, we develop a novel technique motivated by the feasible-point pursuit successive convex approximation method in order to address the rank-related issue. The benefits of proposed method are illustrated under various operating conditions and parameter values, with comparison between the three above-mentioned scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Economics Letters (2021), 199

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper ... [more ▼]

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Stem Cell Biology: Open Questions and Guiding Principles
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Cell Stem Cell (2021)

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See detailThe impact of economic complexity on the formation of environmental culture
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Sustainability (2021), 1(1),

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