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See detailEmpowering Large Chemical Knowledge Bases for Exposomics: PubChemLite Meets MetFrag
Schymanski, Emma UL; Kondic, Todor UL; Neumann, Steffen et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailUpdate on NORMAN-SLE / SusDat for NORMAN-CWG-NTS Meeting (17 Nov 2020)
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 17)

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See detailPeers als Quelle aktueller Motivation? Wie Jugendliche mit heterogenen Verhaltensweisen Peerinteraktionen in Abhängigkeit des behavioralen Klassenumfeldes erleben
Knickenberg, Margarita; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Schmidt, Philipp

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie (2020)

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings ... [more ▼]

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings of stress during social interactions with classmates compared to indi- vidual work settings. However, it turned out that adolescents with behavioural problems have difficulties in making and maintaining social contacts and friendships. While in previous studies behaviour was investigated as dichotomous variable, this study chose a dimensional, person-centered approach to identify adolescents with heterogeneous behaviour. Therefore, this paper aims at analysing effects of social inter- actions at school on emotional experiences of adolescents with heterogeneous behavioural profiles. In addition, a potential moderating effect of the classroom environment regarding behaviour will be tested. The sample comprised N = 719 students of grade five and six. Data were collected using the experience sampling method. In detail, the students completed a short questionnaire concerning their momentary emo- tional experience and their social context two to three times a day on five consecutive days at school. Thus, 8870 snapshots of the adolescents' emotional experiences and situations in class were available. Using teacher ratings regarding the students' behaviour, latent profile analyses were calculated and three different profiles within the sample were identified: students with adaptive, with internalising and with externalising behaviour. Findings of multilevel structural equation models show, first, that students are more motivated and less stressed while interacting with others during lessons (e.g. in partner or group activities) compared to individual working situations. This effect is more pronounced for students with internalising and externalising behavioural profiles. Second, the small differential moderating, but not significant effects indi- cate that the relation between adolescents' emotional experiences and peer interactions is not moderated by the classroom environment regarding prosocial or problem behaviour. The results will be discussed from methodological and content-related perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: mind ideologies!
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 14)

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See detailProfessional development to promote innovative language teaching: examples from multilingual Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language ... [more ▼]

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. There is a need for professional development (PD) which can influence the practitioners’ attitudes, knowledge and skills, and the quality of their teaching (Egert et al., 2018; Peleman et al., 2017). This presentation begins with an outline of several theoretical models of PD and explains why integrated models that are collaborative, inquiry-based, and performance-based are the most effective in contributing to change. I will then present a PD used in Luxembourg to help early childhood practitioners develop and implement multilingual pedagogies. The model, which comprised training sessions, network meetings, and coaching, aimed to deepen the practitioners’ understanding of multilingualism and language learning, familiarize them with translanguaging (García & Reid, 2019) and enable them to implement language and literacy activities in Luxembourgish, French and children’s home languages (Kirsch et al. forthcoming). Finally, I provide insights into the professional learning of two preschool teachers. The PD, the experience of engaging in multilingual activities, and the reflection on teaching and learning, enabled the teachers to develop a positive stance to multilingual education, design productive leaning environments based on social-constructivist theories, and monitor language use to guarantee responsible translanguaging (Kirsch 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailEND-TO-END SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR PRECODED SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
Krivochiza, Jevgenij UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The benefits of full frequency reuse in satellite communications consist of increased spectral efficiency, physical layer security, enhanced coverage, and improved Quality of Service. This is possible due ... [more ▼]

The benefits of full frequency reuse in satellite communications consist of increased spectral efficiency, physical layer security, enhanced coverage, and improved Quality of Service. This is possible due to novel digital signal processing techniques for interference mitigation as well as signal predistortion in non-linear high-performance amplifiers. Advanced linear precoding and symbol-level precoding can jointly address the signal processing demands in the next-generation satellite communications. The real-time signal precoding increases the computational complexity handled at the gateway, thus requiring low-complexity high-performance algorithms to be developed. Additionally, extensive in-lab and field tests are required to increase the technology readiness level and industrial adaption rate. In this thesis, we focus on low-complexity precoding design and in-lab validations. We study the state-of-the-art linear and symbol-level precoding techniques and multi-user MIMO test-beds available in the literature. First, we present a novel low-complexity algorithm for sum power minimization precoding design. This technique allows to reduce transmitted power in a multi-beam satellite system and improves the quality of the received signal at user terminals. Next, we demonstrate an FPGA accelerated high-throughput precoding design. The FPGA precoding design is scalable for a different number of beams in the systems and operates in a real-time processing regime using a commercially available software defined radio platform. One of the highlights of this research is the creation of a real-time in-lab precoding test-bed. The test-bed consists of a DVB-S2X precoding enabled gateway prototype, a MIMO channel emulator, and user terminals. By using the radio frequency for transmitting and receiving the precoded signals, we can test the performance of different precoding techniques in realistic scenarios and channel impairments. We demonstrate an end-to-end symbol-level precoded real-time transmission, in which user terminals can acquire and decode the precoded signals showing an increase in performance and throughput. The in-lab validations confirm numerical results conducted alongside in this work. [less ▲]

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See detailThe health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before the COVID-19 pandemic and during deconfinement
Residori, Caroline UL; Schomaker, Léa UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that confinement (so-called “lockdowns”) affect health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the current situation in many countries is not confinement but prolonged deconfinement with less strict but still considerable measures and recommendations. Objectives: The possible effects of this deconfinement on the health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people is the focus of this oral presentation, which is based on the YAC-Young Adults and COVID-19 study (see Residori et al., 2020). Methods: The study relies on data collected from a random sample of residents of Luxembourg for the Youth Survey Luxembourg in Mai-July 2019 (age-range: 16-29, n=2.800) and in July 2020 (age-range: 12-29, n=3768, preliminary data). The data was gathered via online survey and using the same items as the HBSC study (self-rated health, life satisfaction (Cantril ladder) and the WHO-5 Well-being Index) (Sozio et al., 2020). Results: The cross-sectional comparison of this representative data, explores the health, wellbeing and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are presented for the overall population and detailed by socio-demographic groups. For the 12-15-year-olds, the observed proportion reporting a low life satisfaction (<6) was, for example, 31.3% in 2020. This proportion has increased from 19.9% in 2019 to 25.5 % in 2020 for the 16-20-year-olds, from 23.9% to 35.3 % for the 21-25-year-olds and from 20.2% to 32.8% for the 26-29-year-olds. Conclusion: The presentation will conclude on a reflection of the links between the observed differences and the measures implemented to during deconfinement as well as the scientific and political relevance of the observed differences for Luxembourg and other countries. Literature: Residori, Caroline; Sozio, Maria E.; Schomaker, Lea; Samuel, Robin (2020): YAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg. University of Luxembourg: Esch-sur-Alzette Sozio, M., Procopio, A., & Samuel, R. (2020). Youth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019. Esch-sur-Alzette: University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailScalable Control of Asynchronous Boolean Networks
Su, Cui UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Direct cell reprogramming has been garnering attention for its therapeutic potential for treating the most devastating diseases characterised by defective cells or a deficiency of certain cells. It is ... [more ▼]

Direct cell reprogramming has been garnering attention for its therapeutic potential for treating the most devastating diseases characterised by defective cells or a deficiency of certain cells. It is capable of reprogramming any kind of abundant cells in the body into the desired cells to restore functions of the diseased organ. It has shown promising benefits for clinical applications, such as cell and tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery. A major obstacle in the application of direct cell reprogramming lies in the identification of effective reprogramming factors. Experimental approaches are usually laborious, time-consuming and enormously expensive. Mathematical modelling of biological systems paves the way to study mechanisms of biological processes and identify therapeutic targets with computational reasoning and tools. Among several modelling frameworks, Boolean networks have apparent advantages. They provide a qualitative description of biological systems and thus evade the parametrisation problem, which often occurs in quantitative models. In this thesis, we focus on the identification of reprogramming factors based on asynchronous Boolean networks. This problem is equivalent to the control of asynchronous Boolean networks: finding a subset of nodes, whose perturbations can drive the dynamics of the network from the source state (the initial cell type) to the target attractor (the desired cell type). Before diving into the control problems, we first develop a near-optimal decomposition method and use this method to improve the scalability of the decomposition-based method for attractor detection. The new decomposition-based attractor detection method can identify all the exact attractors of the network efficiently, such that we can select the proper attractors corresponding to the initial cell type and the desired cell type as the source and target attractors and predict the key nodes for the conversion. Depending on whether the source state is given or not, we can have two control problems: source-target control and target control. We develop several methods to solve the two problems using different control strategies. All the methods are implemented in our software CABEAN. Given a control problem, CABEAN can provide a rich set of realistic solutions that manipulate the dynamics in different ways, such that biologists can select suitable ones to validate with biological experiments. We believe our works can contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of biological processes and greatly facilitate the development of direct cell reprogramming. [less ▲]

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See detailLLC INTERVIEWS SERIES: Luca Ratti interviews Ewan Mc Gaughey
Ratti, Luca UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailEuroregion
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Wassenberg, Birte; Reitel, Bernard (Eds.) Critical Dictionary on Cross-Border Cooperation in Europe (2020)

Euroregion (also Euregio, Euroregion, Europaregion) designates a category of territorial organisations gathering subnational public authorities along adjacent national border(s). This community of ... [more ▼]

Euroregion (also Euregio, Euroregion, Europaregion) designates a category of territorial organisations gathering subnational public authorities along adjacent national border(s). This community of interest provides a platform for cross-border exchange along with dialogue and projects between local and/or regional authorities. Its geographical coverage is defined by its members, either based on the extent of cross-border, socio-economic integration or on administrative units. A Euroregion is oriented towards the interests of the cross-border community rather than the interests of each individual member. Its activities are circumscribed to the field of competencies held by its members. A Euroregion therefore does not represent a genuine administrative level. Fields of cooperation cover mostly planning, environment, transport, education, culture. [less ▲]

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See detailEGTC: A tool for fostering spatial justice in EUropean borderlands
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Ocskay, Gyula (Ed.) 15 years of the EGTCs. Lessons learnt and future perspectives. (2020)

Border areas are peripheries whose functions have been transformed under the impetus of the European integration process. From former frontlines, they have become interfaces, so that they are often ... [more ▼]

Border areas are peripheries whose functions have been transformed under the impetus of the European integration process. From former frontlines, they have become interfaces, so that they are often portrayed as “laboratories of European integration”. Yet, as their spatiality is shaped by sometimes two contradictory forms of territorialities; that of Member States and of the European Union (EU), they are unequally able to shape their own future. This contribution uses legal geography and spatial justice to discuss three main manifestations of this situation. Firstly, as Member States use the border as a resource and a marker of sovereignty, EUropean borderlands’ own interests are often given lesser priority. Secondly, as demonstrated by the Cross-Border Review (EC, 2017), they face a number of legal obstacles hindering their effective access to EU law. Thirdly, multi-level mismatch limits borderlands’ effective capacity to steer their own development. This contribution outlines the extent to which the EGTC instrument partially tackles these challenges and enhances procedural justice for EUropean borderlands; also shedding light on the interrelations between law and space in EUropean borderlands. It reveals that law dedicated to EUropean borderlands is paramount for them to have effective capacity to shape their own future and for the EU to develop an integration process that is more just towards EUropean borderlands. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive Physical Layer Security Analysis of FSO Communications over Malaga Channels
Ai, Yun; Mathur, Aashish; Verma, Gyan Deep et al

in IEEE Photonics Journal (2020)

In this paper, we study the physical layer security of free-space optical (FSO) communications under different eavesdropping scenarios. More specifically, the secrecy performance of FSO communication ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the physical layer security of free-space optical (FSO) communications under different eavesdropping scenarios. More specifically, the secrecy performance of FSO communication employing intensity modulation/direct detection detection is analyzed for the well-established Mlaga channels. Three different realistic scenarios of eavesdropping are considered by assuming different placement locations for the eavesdropper in the paper. Novel expressions for the average secrecy capacity (ASC) and secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived for the considered scenarios, and useful insights are also provided through asymptotic analysis. The results show: (i) When the eavesdropper is placed near the transmitter, atmospheric condition imposes a less significant impact on secrecy performance; (ii) Certain level of correlation can potentially enhance the secrecy performance for FSO communications; (iii) The correlation imposes opposite impacts on the ASC and SOP of FSO communications; and the secrecy performance metrics exhibit a non-monotonic impact with the increase of correlation; (v) When the correlation of the FSO links is too small or too large (i.e., the correlation parameter around 0 or 1), the correlation plays a more significant impact on secrecy performance; and (vi) The asymptotic slope of the SOP is 0.5 for all eavesdropping scenarios under practical FSO channels. [less ▲]

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See detailSeparation of Concerns Within Robotic Systems Through Proactive Computing
Frantz, Alexandre; Zampunieris, Denis UL

in Proceeding of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (2020, November)

In this short paper, we first introduce a possible new model for designing and implementing software in robotic systems. This model is based on proactive scenarios, coded through dynamic sets of condition ... [more ▼]

In this short paper, we first introduce a possible new model for designing and implementing software in robotic systems. This model is based on proactive scenarios, coded through dynamic sets of condition-action rules. Each scenario embeds the required rules and can be assembled dynamically with others, allowing the proactive system to achieve a unique objective or behavior and instruct the robot accordingly. Furthermore, a scenario is not aware of the existence of the other scenarios. In fact, it only contains information about a predefined central scenario, which oversees global decision making. In addition, each scenario knows where to enter its suggestions, thus allowing for a high degree in terms of separating concerns and modularity of code. Consequently, allowing easier development, testing and optimization of each scenario independently, possible reuse in different robots, and finally, a faster achievement of robust and scalable robotics software. We then show how to apply this programming model and its functionalities during runtime, by a proof of concept consisting of a virtual robot deployed in the Webots™ simulator. This simulator is controlled with four proactive scenarios (plus the central one), in charge of three different objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in teacher reports on students’ inclusion at school
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Nusser, Lena; Schmitt, M.

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailLa formation dans la Grande Région : réalités et défis
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Les Cahiers de la Grande Région (2020), 3

Inscrit dans la continuité du Cahier n°2 interrogeant les équations du marché du travail, l’objet de ce Cahier n°3 de la Grande Région est la formation sous plusieurs de ses formes (formation continue ... [more ▼]

Inscrit dans la continuité du Cahier n°2 interrogeant les équations du marché du travail, l’objet de ce Cahier n°3 de la Grande Région est la formation sous plusieurs de ses formes (formation continue, apprentissage…), ses réalités et ses défis. A l’heure du déclin démographique et de la transition numérique, mais aussi de la crise sanitaire, cette question s’avère centrale. Difficile jeu d’équilibre entre les besoins des employeurs et les intérêts des individus, la formation dans la Grande Région est également confrontée à la particularité de la situation transfrontalière (questions linguistiques, reconnaissance des diplômes…). En s’appuyant sur les travaux de divers instituts de la Grande Région, ce Cahier de la Grande Région illustrera les problématiques de la formation à résoudre dans les années à venir. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Les Cahiers de la Grande Région (2020), 3

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