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See detailFinancial performance and safety in the aviation industry
Farnia, Pedram; Kaspereit, Thomas UL; Walker, Thomas et al

in International Journal of Managerial Finance (in press)

This paper investigates whether financial factors, which are presumed to influence an airline's maintenance, purchasing, and training policies, are associated with the air carrier's safety performance.

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See detailOlder adults show a higher heartbeat-evoked potential than young adults and a negative association with everyday metacognition
Kamp, Siri-Maria; Schulz, André UL; Forester, Glen et al

in Brain Research (in press)

The ability to monitor internal bodily and cognitive processes is essential for everyday functioning and independence in older adults, because it allows for adjustments when lapses in performance are ... [more ▼]

The ability to monitor internal bodily and cognitive processes is essential for everyday functioning and independence in older adults, because it allows for adjustments when lapses in performance are imminent. In the present study, age-related morphological changes to the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an electrophysiological cortical representation of cardiac signals, and its association with self-reported everyday cognition were examined. A community sample of older adults showed an increased HEP amplitude, which could reflect a stronger representation of early stages of cardiac interoception, and a more anterior scalp distribution of the HEP, suggesting a more widespread configuration of the underlying neural generators, compared to a group of young adults. Furthermore, in older adults, HEP amplitude was negatively correlated with self-estimated everyday cognitive functioning. Older adults with pronounced cortical representations of peripheral signals may thus be more likely to take note of lapses in their own bodily and cognitive function, leading to lower estimates of their cognitive abilities. These results provide novel insights into age-related changes in interoceptive processing and their association with metacognitive judgments, with potentially far-reaching implications for cognitive aging and age-related cognitive decline. [less ▲]

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See detailThe distribution of rational numbers on Cantor's middle thirds set
Trauthwein, Tara UL; Rahm, Alexander; Solomon, Noam et al

in Uniform distribution theory (in press)

We give a heuristic argument predicting that the number N*(T) of rationals p/q on Cantor’s middle thirds set C such that gcd(p, q) = 1 and q ≤ T, has asymptotic growth O(T^{d+ε}), for d = dim C. Our ... [more ▼]

We give a heuristic argument predicting that the number N*(T) of rationals p/q on Cantor’s middle thirds set C such that gcd(p, q) = 1 and q ≤ T, has asymptotic growth O(T^{d+ε}), for d = dim C. Our heuristic is related to similar heuristics and conjectures proposed by Fishman and Simmons. We also describe extensive numerical computations supporting this heuristic. Our heuristic predicts a similar asymptotic if C is replaced with any similar fractal with a description in terms of missing digits in a base expansion. Interest in the growth of N*(T) is motivated by a problem of Mahler on intrinsic Diophantine approximation on C. [less ▲]

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See detailMarked Surfaces: Analog and Digital Re-inscriptions of a Portrait
Camarda, Sandra UL

in Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)

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See detailThe capital market impact of Blackrock’s thermal coal divestment announcement
Bassen, Alexander; Kaspereit, Thomas UL; Buchholz, Daniel UL

in Finance Research Letters (in press)

This study examines how coal companies were affected by the announcement of thermal coal divestment made by Blackrock, a large institutional asset manager. Following the announcement, the largest thermal ... [more ▼]

This study examines how coal companies were affected by the announcement of thermal coal divestment made by Blackrock, a large institutional asset manager. Following the announcement, the largest thermal coal mining companies exhibited negative abnormal returns. However, the stock prices of other firms were not affected. Blackrock’s own share price increased following the announcement. We provide additional evidence that Blackrock protected its clients by lowering its exposure towards affected companies before the announcement. Overall, our results show that divestment has significant impacts on the companies in question and that the capital market sees divestment as value-enhancing for the divesting institution. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy Experimentation in Committees: A Case Against Veto Rights Under Redistributive Constraints
Anesi, Vincent UL; Bowen, Renee

in American Economic Journal. Microeconomics (in press)

We study optimal policy experimentation by a committee. We consider a dynamic bargaining game in which committee members choose either a risky reform or a safe alternative each period. When no ... [more ▼]

We study optimal policy experimentation by a committee. We consider a dynamic bargaining game in which committee members choose either a risky reform or a safe alternative each period. When no redistribution is allowed the unique equilibrium outcome is generically inefficient. When redistribution is allowed (even small amounts), there always exists an equilibrium that supports optimal experimentation for any voting rule without veto players. With veto players, however, optimal policy experimentation is possible only with a sufficient amount of redistribution. We conclude that veto rights are more of an obstacle to optimal policy experimentation than the constraints on redistribution themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailKennen, Können, Wissen. Zur Konstruktion von Expertise
Kasper, Simon; Purschke, Christoph UL

in Hoffmeister, Toke; Hundt, Markus; Naths, Saskia (Eds.) LaienWissenSprache. Konzepte, Anwendungsfelder und Perspektiven der Folk Linguistics im deutschsprachigen Raum (in press)

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See detailExtreme values, means, and inequality measurement
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Kamaga, Kohei

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

We examine some ordinal measures of inequality that are familiar from the literature. These measures have a quite simple structure in that their values are determined by combinations of specific summary ... [more ▼]

We examine some ordinal measures of inequality that are familiar from the literature. These measures have a quite simple structure in that their values are determined by combinations of specific summary statistics such as the extreme values and the arithmetic mean of a distribution. In spite of their common appearance, there seem to be no axiomatizations available so far, and this paper is intended to fill that gap. In particular, we consider the absolute and relative variants of the range; the max-mean and the mean-min orderings; and quantile-based measures. In addition, we provide some empirical observations that are intended to illustrate that, although these orderings are straightforward to define, some of them display a surprisingly high correlation with alternative (more complex) measures. [less ▲]

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See detailChancen für Luxemburgs (Finanz-)Wirtschaft in und nach der Krise
Dörry, Sabine; Schulz, Christian UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis (in press)

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See detailThe "failure" of cooperatives in Kyrgyzstan? A postcapitalist critique of a biased narrative
Cima, Ottavia UL

in Geographica Augustana (in press)

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See detailSignal-Based Properties of Cyber-Physical Systems: Taxonomy and Logic-based Characterization
Boufaied, Chaima UL; Jukss, Maris; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (in press)

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed ... [more ▼]

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed using signal-based temporal properties. Expressing such requirements is challenging, because of (1) the many features that can be used to characterize a signal behavior; (2) the broad variation in expressiveness of the specification languages (i.e., temporal logics) used for defining signal-based temporal properties. Thus, system and software engineers need effective guidance on selecting appropriate signal behavior types and an adequate specification language, based on the type of requirements they have to define. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of the various types of signal-based properties and provide, for each type, a comprehensive and detailed description as well as a formalization in a temporal logic. Furthermore, we review the expressiveness of state-of-the-art signal-based temporal logics in terms of the property types identified in the taxonomy. Moreover, we report on the application of our taxonomy to classify the requirements specifications of an industrial case study in the aerospace domain, in order to assess the feasibility of using the property types included in our taxonomy and the completeness of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Teachers in Students’ Social Inclusion in the Classroom
Gasser, Luciano; Cillessen, Antonius H.N.; Huber, Christian et al

in Frontiers in Education (in press)

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See detailSISTA: Learning Optimal Transport Costs under Sparsity Constraints
Dupuy, Arnaud UL; Carlier, Guillaume; Galichon, Alfred et al

in Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics (in press)

In this paper, we describe a novel iterative procedure called SISTA to learn the underlying cost in optimal transport problems. SISTA is a hybrid between two classical methods, coordinate descent (“S” ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we describe a novel iterative procedure called SISTA to learn the underlying cost in optimal transport problems. SISTA is a hybrid between two classical methods, coordinate descent (“S”-inkhorn) and proximal gradient descent (“ISTA”). It alternates between a phase of exact minimization over the transport potentials and a phase of proximal gradient descent over the parameters of the transport cost. We prove that this method converges linearly, and we illustrate on simulated examples that it is significantly faster than both coordinate descent and ISTA. We apply it to estimating a model of migration, which predicts the flow of migrants using country-specific characteristics and pairwise measures of dissimilarity between countries. This application demonstrates the effectiveness of machine learning in quantitative social sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailInputs from Hell: Learning Input Distributions for Grammar-Based Test Generation
Soremekun, Ezekiel UL; Pavese, Esteban; Havrikov, Nikolas et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Grammars can serve as producers for structured test inputs that are syntactically correct by construction. A probabilistic grammar assigns probabilities to individual productions, thus controlling the ... [more ▼]

Grammars can serve as producers for structured test inputs that are syntactically correct by construction. A probabilistic grammar assigns probabilities to individual productions, thus controlling the distribution of input elements. Using the grammars as input parsers, we show how to learn input distributions from input samples, allowing to create inputs that are similar to the sample; by inverting the probabilities, we can create inputs that are dissimilar to the sample. This allows for three test generation strategies: 1) “Common inputs” – by learning from common inputs, we can create inputs that are similar to the sample; this is useful for regression testing. 2) “Uncommon inputs” – learning from common inputs and inverting probabilities yields inputs that are strongly dissimilar to the sample; this is useful for completing a test suite with “inputs from hell” that test uncommon features, yet are syntactically valid. 3) “Failure-inducing inputs” – learning from inputs that caused failures in the past gives us inputs that share similar features and thus also have a high chance of triggering bugs; this is useful for testing the completeness of fixes. Our evaluation on three common input formats (JSON, JavaScript, CSS) shows the effectiveness of these approaches. Results show that “common inputs” reproduced 96% of the methods induced by the samples. In contrast, for almost all subjects (95%), the “uncommon inputs” covered significantly different methods from the samples. Learning from failure-inducing samples reproduced all exceptions (100%) triggered by the failure-inducing samples and discovered new exceptions not found in any of the samples learned from. [less ▲]

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See detailBubble-enriched smoothed finite element methods for nearly-incompressible solids
Lee, Changkye; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences (in press)

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes ... [more ▼]

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes well-known issues of standard finite element methods (FEM) in the incompressible limit: the over-estimation of stiffness and sensitivity to severely distorted meshes. The concepts of cell-based, edge-based and node-based S-FEMs are extended in this paper to three-dimensions. Additionally, a cubic bubble function is utilized to improve accuracy and stability. For the bubble function, an additional displacement degree of freedom is added at the centroid of the element. Several numerical studies are performed demonstrating the stability and validity of the proposed approach. The obtained results are compared with standard FEM and with analytical solutions to show the effectiveness of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailLe voyage de Bartlebooth ou le tour de son Monde
Raus, Tonia UL

in Cahiers Georges Perec (in press), 14

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See detailEmotionen im inklusiven Unterricht
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Schmidt, Philipp

in Gläser-Zikuda, Michaela; Hofmann, Florian; Frederking, Volker (Eds.) Emotionen im Unterricht. Psychologische, pädagogische und fachdidaktische Perspektiven (in press)

Emotionen im inklusiven Unterricht wurden bislang noch selten untersucht. Erste Untersuchungen weisen darauf hin, dass Binnendifferenzierung, Individualisierung und kooperatives Lernen – als zentrale ... [more ▼]

Emotionen im inklusiven Unterricht wurden bislang noch selten untersucht. Erste Untersuchungen weisen darauf hin, dass Binnendifferenzierung, Individualisierung und kooperatives Lernen – als zentrale Merkmale eines inklusiven Unterrichts – sich positiv auf das emotionale Erleben von Schüler*innen auswirken. Implikationen für die Praxis werden aufgezeigt und weiterführend diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailHaben die Frauen die Luxemburger Monarchie gerettet? Diskurse über Frauen im Kontext der Einführung des Frauenwahlrechts
Wagener, Renée UL

in Frieseisen, Claude; Moes, Régis; Polfer, Michel (Eds.) et al Le suffrage universel au Luxembourg et en Europe. Actes du colloque du 27/28 janvier 2020 à la Chambre des Députés (in press)

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See detailPrinzip oder Strategie? Die frühe Einführung des Frauenwahlrechts in Luxemburg
Wagener, Renée UL

in Kaiser, Tobias; Schulz, Andreas (Eds.) Vorhang auf – Frauen in Parlament und Politik. Ein internationaler Vergleich = Entering the Parliamentary Stage – Women in Parliament and Politics in International Comparison (in press)

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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