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See detailTalk for Russian school students: Luxembourg
Ganschow, Inna UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

Presentation of the Grand Duchy and the life of Luxembourgers and Russians here.

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See detailBubble-Enriched Smoothed Finite Element Methods for Nearly-Incompressible Solids
Lee, Changkye; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences (2021), 127(2), 411-436

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes ... [more ▼]

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes well-known issues of standard finite element methods (FEM) in the incompressible limit: the over-estimation of stiffness and sensitivity to severely distorted meshes. The concepts of cell-based, edge-based and node-based S-FEMs are extended in this paper to three-dimensions. Additionally, a cubic bubble function is utilized to improve accuracy and stability. For the bubble function, an additional displacement degree of freedom is added at the centroid of the element. Several numerical studies are performed demonstrating the stability and validity of the proposed approach. The obtained results are compared with standard FEM and with analytical solutions to show the effectiveness of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: a paradigm shift?
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2021)

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and ... [more ▼]

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and literacy activities of educators and parents in day care centres, as reported by educators in two online-questionnaires. The findings show that the educators and parents use multiple languages when communicating, singing and reading with children in the centres. In addition to French and Luxembourgish which dominate, they use five other languages. Their reported multilingual practice reflects their beliefs that speaking and reading in several languages promotes language learning. However, while the programme is multilingual, a range of home languages are marginalised. The educators produce a language hierarchy in the centres which the parents reproduce. While collaboration with parents can be effective in bringing home languages into day care centres, educators need to be aware of language hierarchies and ideologies. [less ▲]

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See detailGesundheit von Schülerinnen und Schülern in Luxemburg - Bericht zur luxemburgischen HBSC-Befragung 2018
Heinz, Andreas UL; Kern, Matthias Robert; van Duin, Claire UL et al

Report (2021)

Der Bericht gibt Auskunft über Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden der Schüler im Jahr 2018 in ihrem sozialen Kontext. Darüber hinaus informiert er, wie sich die entsprechenden Indikatoren von 2006—2018 in ... [more ▼]

Der Bericht gibt Auskunft über Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden der Schüler im Jahr 2018 in ihrem sozialen Kontext. Darüber hinaus informiert er, wie sich die entsprechenden Indikatoren von 2006—2018 in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Verbesserungen gab es vor allem beim Gesundheitsverhalten — die Schüler rauchen und trinken weniger, sie putzen sich häufiger die Zähne und essen mehr Obst und Gemüse. Verschlechterungen betreffen die mentale Gesundheit: Die Schüler haben häufiger psychosomatische Beschwerden und sie fühlen sich häufiger von der Schularbeit gestresst. Des Weiteren sind die Schüler häufiger übergewichtig und sie sind seltener körperlich aktiv. Der Bericht zeigt auch, dass Gesundheitsrisiken mit soziodemografischen Merkmalen zusammenhängen, wie u. a. dem Geschlecht, dem Alter, dem Wohlstand und dem Migrationshintergrund. So verhalten sich Mädchen zwar häufig gesundheitsbewusster als Jungen, aber dennoch schätzen sie ihren Gesundheitszustand schlechter ein und sie haben mehr Stress und sie sind häufiger von multiplen psychosomatischen Beschwerden betroffen. Aus Clusteranalysen geht hervor, dass es typische Konstellationen von Gesundheitsverhaltensweisen gibt, die zudem mit soziodemografischen Merkmalen sowie Übergewicht, Stress und der Lebenszufriedenheit zusammenhängen. [less ▲]

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See detailUltra-rare constrained missense variants in the epilepsies: Shared and specific enrichment patterns in neuronal gene-sets 2021.04.18.440264
Koko, Mahmoud; Krause, Roland UL; Sander, Thomas et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes ... [more ▼]

Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes. We set out to investigate the burden of URVs in a comprehensive range of gene-sets presumed to be implicated in epileptogenesis. Methods: We investigated several constraint and conservation-based strategies to study whole exome sequencing data from European individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE, n = 1,003), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE, n = 3,064), and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE, n = 3,522), collected by the Epi25 Collaborative, compared to 3,962 ancestry-matched controls. The burden of 12 URVs types in 92 gene-sets was compared between epilepsy cases (DDE, GGE, NAFE) and controls using logistic regression analysis. Results: Burden analysis of brain-expressed genes revealed an excess of different URVs types in all three epilepsy categories which was largest for constrained missense variants. The URVs burden was prominent in neuron-specific, synaptic and developmental genes as well as genes encoding ion channels and receptors, and it was generally higher for DEE and GGE compared to NAFE. The patterns of URVs burden in gene-sets expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons or receptors suggested a high burden in both in DEE but a differential involvement of inhibitory genes in GGE, while excitatory genes were predominantly affected in NAFE. Top ranking susceptibility genes from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of generalized and focal epilepsies displayed a higher URVs burden in constrained coding regions in GGE and NAFE, respectively. Conclusions: Using exome-based gene-set burden analysis, we demonstrate that missense URVs affecting mainly constrained sites are enriched in neuronal genes in both common and rare severe epilepsy syndromes. Our results indicate a differential impact of these URVs in genes expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons and receptors in generalized vs. focal epilepsies. The excess of URVs in top-ranking GWAS risk-genes suggests a convergence of rare deleterious and common risk-variants in the pathogenesis of generalized and focal epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of colorectal cancer-associated bacteria in colorectal cancer
Ternes, Dominik UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Mounting evidence from 16S rRNA-based or metagenomic analyses suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological microbial imbalance, is prevalent in the gut of patients with CRC. Numerous microbial taxa ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence from 16S rRNA-based or metagenomic analyses suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological microbial imbalance, is prevalent in the gut of patients with CRC. Numerous microbial taxa have been identified of which representative isolate cultures can interact with cancer cells, further triggering distinct disease pathways in animal models. Nevertheless, how these complex interrelationships of a dysbiotic microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of CRC remains a fundamental question and requires multifaceted mechanistic studies. This thesis moves beyond observational studies, it integrates novel experimental approaches for the study of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer. It incorporates current knowledge in the field as well as interdisciplinary approaches. My work aims at contributing to an ecosystem-level mechanistic understanding of the CRC-associated microbiome in the initiation and progression of the disease. In detail, the objective of my work comprised an integrative approach of microbiome-CRC interaction studies. We revised current knowledge on, and studied the CRC-associated bacteria, in particular Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Gemella morbillorum (Gm). We assessed their direct and indirect effects on CRC cells, their interactions with immune cells, as well as their tumor-modulating potential in vitro, in silico, and in vivo. The results presented in this thesis comprise new findings on human microbial cross-talk of Fn with CRC. We identified formate as a potential fusobacterial oncometabolite, which enhanced cancer incidence and progression via increased cancer stemness signaling. Furthermore, we discovered immune-suppressive functions of Gm in the context of CRC. With my work in collaboration projects, I contributed to the development of two novel approaches in anti-cancer therapy: First, to the establishment of a personalized in vitro model (iHuMiX) for the study of microbe-host-immune interactions in anti-cancer therapy, and second, to the validation of an in silico workflow that uses metabolic rewiring strategies for network-based drug target predictions for CRC therapy. Taken together, this thesis work broadened the mechanistic understanding of CRC-associated microbes and it contributed to potential strategies for the development of an improved CRC therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of electron and phonon transport in Bi-doped CaMnO3 for thermoelectric applications
Suprayoga, E; Putri, WBK; Singsoog, K et al

in Materials Research Bulletin (2021), 141

The electron and phonon transports in CaMnO3 and in one of its Bi-doped counterparts, namely, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3, are investigated using the thermoelectric transport measurements and first-principles ... [more ▼]

The electron and phonon transports in CaMnO3 and in one of its Bi-doped counterparts, namely, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3, are investigated using the thermoelectric transport measurements and first-principles calculations. We find that antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3 breaks the Wiedemann–Franz law with the Lorenz number reaching four times that of ordinary metals at room temperature. Bismuth doping reduces both the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of CaMnO3; thus, it recovers the Wiedemann–Franz law behavior. In addition, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3 possesses a shorter phonon lifetime according to the transport measurements. As a result, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3 exhibits superior thermoelectric properties over pristine CaMnO3 owing to the lower thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetoelectric thin-film composites for energy harvesting applications
Nguyen, Tai UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailDie "mentions honorifiques" - Kann man Patriotismus bewerten?
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailQuand l’Europe emménageait au Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2021)

Lorsque le 9 mai 1950, le ministre français des Affaires étrangères (natif du Luxembourg) Robert Schuman (1886-1963) énonce ce que l’Histoire retiendra comme la « Déclaration Schuman » et propose la ... [more ▼]

Lorsque le 9 mai 1950, le ministre français des Affaires étrangères (natif du Luxembourg) Robert Schuman (1886-1963) énonce ce que l’Histoire retiendra comme la « Déclaration Schuman » et propose la création d’une Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier (CECA) réunissant les ennemies héréditaires d’antan - la France et l’Allemagne - personne n’imaginait que cette initiative censée forger une paix durable en Europe allait se concrétiser en moins d’un an. Et pourtant, la première Communauté européenne devient réalité le 18 avril 1951, lorsque les représentants de six pays - Robert Schuman (France), Konrad Adenauer (RFA), Paul van Zeeland et Joseph Meurice (Belgique), le comte Carlo Sforza (Italie), Dirk Stikker et Jan Van den Brink (Pays-Bas) et Joseph Bech (Luxembourg) – concluent le traité de Paris. Le traité CECA d’il y a 70 ans, presque jour pour jour, signifie le début du destin européen du Grand-Duché en tant qu’État fondateur et acteur de marque de la construction européenne, et de Luxembourg-ville, en tant que « première capitale de l’Europe ». [less ▲]

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See detailThird-country National Labour Workers' Mobility to and inside Europe during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nienaber, Birte UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 15)

This presentation analyses the situation generated by the Covid-19 pandemic crisis regarding border closures and the reintroduction of temporary border controls at the internal borders in the EU and the ... [more ▼]

This presentation analyses the situation generated by the Covid-19 pandemic crisis regarding border closures and the reintroduction of temporary border controls at the internal borders in the EU and the impact that this border closures and the pandemic had on third-country nationals living or visiting the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives from the French-Luxembourgish and the Belgian-German Borders
Portas Vazquez, Irene UL; Brüll, Christoph UL

Presentation (2021, April 15)

When six European nations embarked on the integration process in the wake of World War II, there was no blueprint. Of course, the founders had a vision and shared ideals, but European integration has left ... [more ▼]

When six European nations embarked on the integration process in the wake of World War II, there was no blueprint. Of course, the founders had a vision and shared ideals, but European integration has left some citizens afraid of losing their identity and cultural heritage and an influx of immigrants has fuelled these fears. Building on this topic, this panel brings together researchers who focus on different aspects of what happens to history and heritage in multicultural European societies and particularly those in the border regions over time. New technologies are being used in innovated ways to communicate histories and memories to the public and with the goal to boost social and cultural participation. Since these former industrial regions in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany have coped with similar challenges including the decline of the mining industry and changing borders, this panel aims to help us understand what opportunities lie in engaging local communities in research and how this can contribute to creating a sense of shared European heritage and identity. [less ▲]

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See detailFrictional interactions for non-localised beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact
Magliulo, Marco; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Zilian, Andreas UL et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2021), 122(7), 1706-1731

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces (instead of surfaces implicitly deduced from the beams’ centroid lines), the presented enhancements are not only able to account for frictional sliding in the beams’ axial directions, but also in the circumferential directions. Both the frictional beam-to-beam approach as well as the frictional beam-inside-beam approach are applicable to shear-deformable and shear-undeformable beams, as well as to beams with both circular and elliptical cross-sections (although the cross-sections must be rigid). A penalty formulation is used to treat unilateral and frictional contact constraints. FE implementation details are discussed, where automatic differentiation techniques are used to derive the implementations. Simulations involving large sliding displacements and large deformations are presented for both beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam schemes. All simulation results are compared to those of the frictionless schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping citizens’ reflections and perceptions of place-based experiences in the time of COVID-19
Jones, Catherine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 14)

Using a Citizen Science Approach, the ZesummenMaps project explores the emergent spatial interactions of our towns, cities and rural areas that arise from the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing and ... [more ▼]

Using a Citizen Science Approach, the ZesummenMaps project explores the emergent spatial interactions of our towns, cities and rural areas that arise from the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing and confinement policies in Luxembourg and the Greater Region. Citizens (residents, students, cross-border workers) reflect on their personal experiences of place during the crises. They contribute thoughts and perceptions through a collaborative community-mapping interface. This provides a foundation to explore, evaluate and understand the evolving perceptions and uses of public spaces, infrastructures and physical environments. Thus, creating an evidence-base of emerging spatial interactions to inform understanding of the impact of the "bleift doheem" policy (stay at home, confinement, lockdown) related to our perceptions and uses of our towns, cities and rural areas. [less ▲]

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See detail“Every Student Can Learn, just not on the same Day” -Data Protection and Cybersecurity Challenges for E-Learning Platforms
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Schiffner, Stefan UL

Presentation (2021, April 14)

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period ... [more ▼]

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period. With the COVID19 crisis, online learning became an everyday commodity almost overnight; however, not all schools were prepared to swiftly switch from in class to remote teaching. Concerns were raised with regard to data protection and cyber security, which in some cases led to the implementation of “home-made” solutions. Taking the example of the federalist state of Germany, where education is within the sole competence of the Länder, this paper will explore the functioning and technical implementation of a variety of e-learning platforms before data protection concerns are addressed. We will then explore whether the NIS Directive, which foresees similar security requirements as the GDPR, is applicable to the diverse models, and outline the consequences. In light of the acceleration of the revision of the NIS Directive due to the COVID-19 crisis, we take the example of learning platforms to outline the flaws of the 2016 Directive before we critically evaluate selected aspects of the NIS 2.0 proposal of December 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailLes langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2019)
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Fehlen, Fernand UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le ... [more ▼]

À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le marché du travail du Luxembourg. Après une présentation contextuelle de la situation linguistique et de l’emploi au Luxembourg, l’analyse empirique des quelques 8 340 offres d’emploi de notre échantillon constitue le cœur de cette publication. Aux divers tableaux et graphiques illustrant notre propos s’ajoutent des décryptages de la sémantique utilisée dans les offres d’emploi publiées, utiles à la compréhension des besoins linguistiques dans un marché du travail plurilingue et international. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceived loneliness and the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging: the case of Portuguese first‑generation immigrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL

in European Journal of Ageing (2021)

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin ... [more ▼]

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin, an important developmental task for migrants is the establishment of bonds in the receiving country. Drawing on recent studies, I will explore the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging in order to identify both protective and risk factors regarding loneliness in middle and older age in a sample of first-generation immigrants from Portugal living in Luxembourg. The sample comprises N = 131 participants (51.9% female) between the ages of 41 and 80 (M = 56.08; SD = 7.80) who have on average spent M = 31.71 years (SD = 8.81) in Luxembourg and raised children in Luxembourg. They took part in the IRMA project (‘Intergenerational Relations in the Light of Migration and Ageing’) which was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg. A standardised questionnaire assessed socio-demographic data, aspects of cultural belonging (i.e. cultural attachment to both countries, bicultural identity orientation, acculturative stress), intergenerational belonging (i.e. family cohesion, family conflict, perceived intergenerational value consensus) and perceived loneliness. Results showed that while cultural and intergenerational belonging were protective factors, the strongest predictors for participants’ perceived loneliness were cultural identity conflict and, even more so, intergenerational conflict. Our findings suggest that establishing roots and bonds in the host country is a protective factor against loneliness, whereas the feeling of not fitting in is a strong risk factor. [less ▲]

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