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See detailWhat Are Scientific Models? Problems with the Fiction View
Durlacher, Thomas UL

Poster (2021, February 05)

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See detailComparing elementary cellular automata classifications with a convolutional neural network
Comelli, Thibaud; Pinel, Frederic UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proceedings of International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART) (2021, February 05)

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of ... [more ▼]

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of a cellular automata, which can be viewed as an image composed of black and white pixels. The visual patterns within these images inspired several ECA classifications, aimed at matching the automatas’ properties to observed patterns, visual or statistical. In this paper, we quantitatively compare 11 ECA classifications. In contrast to the a priori logic behind a classification, we propose an a posteriori evaluation of a classification. The evaluation employs a convolutional neural network, trained to classify each ECA to its assigned class in a classification. The prediction accuracy indicates how well the convolutional neural network is able to learn the underlying classification logic, and reflects how well this classification logic clusters patterns in the temporal evolution. Results show different prediction accuracy (yet all above 85%), three classifications are very well captured by our simple convolutional neural network (accuracy above 99%), although trained on a small extract from the temporal evolution, and with little observations (100 per ECA, evolving 513 cells). In addition, we explain an unreported ”pathological” behaviour in two ECAs. [less ▲]

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See detailImages alliées de la libération des camps nazis
Tore, Gian Maria UL; Brüll, Christoph UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

La seconde guerre mondiale terminée, le procès de Nuremberg ouvre une nouvelle ère : celle des poursuites judiciaires pour « crimes contre l’humanité », mais aussi celle du recours à l’image comme « ... [more ▼]

La seconde guerre mondiale terminée, le procès de Nuremberg ouvre une nouvelle ère : celle des poursuites judiciaires pour « crimes contre l’humanité », mais aussi celle du recours à l’image comme « preuve ». La projection de films de la libération des camps nazis pendant les audiences du procès de Nuremberg constitue un moment révolutionnaire et fondamental. Ces films tournés et montés par les Soviétiques, les Anglais et surtout les Américains – qui travaillent alors à Hollywood – semblent être aujourd’hui des documentaires incontournables. En réalité, ils sont souvent plus connus que réellement vus ; la plupart d’entre eux avait même littéralement disparu pendant des décennies. [less ▲]

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See detailPromotion of cancer cell stemness by Ras
Chippalkatti, Rohan UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Biochemical Society Transactions (2021)

Cancer stem cells (CSC) may be the most relevant and elusive cancer cell population, as they have the exquisite ability to seed new tumors. It is plausible, that highly mutated cancer genes, such as KRAS ... [more ▼]

Cancer stem cells (CSC) may be the most relevant and elusive cancer cell population, as they have the exquisite ability to seed new tumors. It is plausible, that highly mutated cancer genes, such as KRAS, are functionally associated with processes contributing to the emergence of stemness traits. In this review, we will summarize the evidence for a stemness driving activity of oncogenic Ras. This activity appears to differ by Ras isoform, with the highly mutated KRAS having a particularly profound impact. Next to established stemness pathways such as Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh), the precise, cell cycle dependent orchestration of the MAPK-pathway appears to relay Ras activation in this context. We will examine how non-canonical activities of K-Ras4B (hereafter K-Ras) could be enabled by its trafficking chaperones calmodulin and PDE6D/PDEδ. Both dynamically localize to the cellular machinery that is intimately linked to cell fate decisions, such as the primary cilium and the centrosome. Thus, it can be speculated that oncogenic K-Ras disrupts fundamental polarized signaling and asymmetric apportioning processes that are necessary during cell differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailLatent Dirichlet Allocation Models for World Trade Analysis
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Semeshenko, Viktoriya; Molinari, Andrea

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(2), 0245393

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies ... [more ▼]

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies and techniques that go beyond the traditional approach. The present paper shows the application of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation Models, a well known technique from the area of Natural Language Processing, to search for latent dimensions in the product space of international trade, and their distribution across countries over time. We apply this technique to a dataset of countries' exports of goods from 1962 to 2016. The findings show the possibility to generate higher level classifications of goods based on the empirical evidence, and also allow to study the distribution of those classifications within countries. The latter show interesting insights about countries' trade specialisation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Luxembourg Asylum Law
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Learning material (2021)

This presentation provides a quick overlook on the Law of 18 December 2015 on international protection and temporary protection (Asylum Law) of Luxembourg.

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See detailEnhanced Signal Space Design for Multiuser MIMO Interference Channels
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Multiuser precoding techniques are critical to handle the co-channel interference, also known as multiuser interference (MUI), in the downlink of multiuser multi-antenna wireless systems. The convention ... [more ▼]

Multiuser precoding techniques are critical to handle the co-channel interference, also known as multiuser interference (MUI), in the downlink of multiuser multi-antenna wireless systems. The convention in designing multiuser precoding schemes has been to treat the MUI as an undesired received signal component. Consequently, the design attempts to suppress the MUI by exploiting the channel state information (CSI), regardless of the instantaneous users’ data symbols. In contrast, it has been shown that the MUI may not always be undesired or destructive as it is possible to exploit the constructive part of the interference or even converting the interfering components into constructive interference (CI) by instantaneously exploiting the users’ intended data symbols. As a result, the MUI can be transformed into a useful source of power that constructively contributes to the users’ received signals. This observation has turned the viewpoint on multiuser precoding from conventional approaches towards more sophisticated designs that further exploit the data information (DI) in addition to the CSI, referred to as symbol-level precoding (SLP). The SLP schemes can improve the multiuser system’s overall performance in terms of various metrics, such as power efficiency, symbol error rate, and received signal power. However, such improvement comes with several practical challenges, for example, the need for setting the modulation scheme in advance, increased computational complexity at the transmitter, and sensitivity to CSI and other system uncertainties. The main goal of this thesis is to address these challenges in the design of an SLP scheme. The existing design formulations for the CI-based SLP problem consider a specific signal constellation; therefore, the design needs to set the modulation scheme in advance. In this thesis, we first elaborate on optimal and relaxed approaches to exploit the CI in a novel systematic way. This study enables us to develop a generic framework for the SLP design problem, which can be used for modulation schemes with constellations of any given shape and order. Depending on the design criterion, the proposed framework can offer significant gains in the power consumption at the transmitter side or the received signal power and the symbol error rate at the receiver side without increasing the complexity, compared to the state-of-the-art schemes. Next, to address the high computational complexity issue, we simplify the design process and propose approximate yet computationally-efficient solutions performing relatively close to the optimal design. We further propose an optimized accelerated FPGA design that allows the real-time implementation of our SLP technique in high-throughput communications systems. Remarkably, the accelerated design enjoys the same per-symbol complexity order as that of the zero-forcing (ZF) precoding scheme. Next, we address the problem of robust SLP design under system uncertainties. In particular, we focus on two sources of uncertainty, namely, the channel and the design process. The related problems are tackled by adopting worst-case and stochastic design approaches and appropriately redefining the precoding optimization problem. The resulting robust schemes can effectively deal with system uncertainties while preserving reliability and power efficiency in the multiuser communications system, at the cost of a slightly increased complexity. Finally, we broaden our scope to new technologies such as millimeter wave (mmWave) communications and massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and revisit the SLP problem for low-cost energy-efficient transmitter architectures. The precoding design problem is more challenging particularly in such scenarios as the related hardware restrictions impose additional (often intractable) constraints on the problem. The restrictions are typically due to the use of finite-resolution analog-to-digital converters (DAC) or analog components such as switches and/or phase shifters. Two well-known design strategies are considered in this thesis, namely, quantized (finite-alphabet) precoding and hybrid analog-digital precoding. We tackle the related problems through adopting efficient design mechanisms and optimization algorithms, which are novel for the SLP schemes. The proposed techniques are shown to improve the system’s energy efficiency compared to the state-of-the-art. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenic Huntingtin Repeat Expansions in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Dewan, Ramita; Chia, Ruth; Ding, Jinhui et al

in Neuron (2021), 109(3), 448-460

We examined the role of repeat expansions in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing whole-genome sequence data from 2,442 FTD/ALS patients ... [more ▼]

We examined the role of repeat expansions in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing whole-genome sequence data from 2,442 FTD/ALS patients, 2,599 Lewy body dementia (LBD) patients, and 3,158 neurologically healthy subjects. Pathogenic expansions (range, 40-64 CAG repeats) in the huntingtin (HTT) gene were found in three (0.12%) patients diagnosed with pure FTD/ALS syndromes but were not present in the LBD or healthy cohorts. We replicated our findings in an independent collection of 3,674 FTD/ALS patients. Postmortem evaluations of two patients revealed the classical TDP-43 pathology of FTD/ALS, as well as huntingtin-positive, ubiquitin-positive aggregates in the frontal cortex. The neostriatal atrophy that pathologically defines Huntington's disease was absent in both cases. Our findings reveal an etiological relationship between HTT repeat expansions and FTD/ALS syndromes and indicate that genetic screening of FTD/ALS patients for HTT repeat expansions should be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailBistability in oxidative stress response determines the migration behavior of phytoplankton in turbulence
Carrara, Francesco; Sengupta, Anupam UL; Behrendt, Lars et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2021), 118(5), 2005944118

Turbulence is an important determinant of phytoplankton physiology, often leading to cell stress and damage. Turbulence affects phytoplankton migration both by transporting cells and by triggering ... [more ▼]

Turbulence is an important determinant of phytoplankton physiology, often leading to cell stress and damage. Turbulence affects phytoplankton migration both by transporting cells and by triggering switches in migratory behavior, whereby vertically migrating cells can actively invert their direction of migration upon exposure to turbulent cues. However, a mechanistic link between single-cell physiology and vertical migration of phytoplankton in turbulence is currently missing. Here, by combining physiological and behavioral experiments with a mathematical model of stress accumulation and dissipation, we show that the mechanism responsible for the switch in the direction of migration in the marine raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is the integration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling generated by turbulent cues. Within timescales as short as tens of seconds, the emergent downward-migrating subpopulation exhibited a twofold increase in ROS, an indicator of stress, 15% lower photosynthetic efficiency, and 35% lower growth rate over multiple generations compared to the upward-migrating subpopulation. The origin of the behavioral split as a result of a bistable oxidative stress response is corroborated by the observation that exposure of cells to exogenous stressors (H2O2, UV-A radiation, or high irradiance), in lieu of turbulence, caused comparable ROS accumulation and an equivalent split into the two subpopulations. By providing a mechanistic link between the single-cell mechanics of swimming and physiology on the one side and the emergent population-scale migratory response and impact on fitness on the other, the ROS-mediated early warning response we discovered contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton community composition in future ocean conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailQM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of quantum-mechanical properties spanning the chemical space of small organic molecules
Hoja, Johannes UL; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Ernst, Brian G. et al

in Scientific Data (2021), 8(43),

We introduce QM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of 42 physicochemical properties for ≈4.2 million equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures of small organic molecules with up to seven non-hydrogen (C, N, O ... [more ▼]

We introduce QM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of 42 physicochemical properties for ≈4.2 million equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures of small organic molecules with up to seven non-hydrogen (C, N, O, S, Cl) atoms. To span this fundamentally important region of chemical compound space (CCS), QM7-X includes an exhaustive sampling of (meta-)stable equilibrium structures—comprised of constitutional/structural isomers and stereoisomers, e.g., enantiomers and diastereomers (including cis-/trans- and conformational isomers)—as well as 100 non-equilibrium structural variations thereof to reach a total of ≈4.2 million molecular structures. Computed at the tightly converged quantum-mechanical PBE0+MBD level of theory, QM7-X contains global (molecular) and local (atom-in-a-molecule) properties ranging from ground state quantities (such as atomization energies and dipole moments) to response quantities (such as polarizability tensors and dispersion coefficients). By providing a systematic, extensive, and tightly-converged dataset of quantum-mechanically computed physicochemical properties, we expect that QM7-X will play a critical role in the development of next-generation machine-learning based models for exploring greater swaths of CCS and performing in silico design of molecules with targeted properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the Metabolic Networks of Tumor Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts
Karta, Jessica UL; Bossicard, Ysaline UL; Kotzamanis, Konstantinos UL et al

in Cells (2021)

Metabolism is considered to be the core of all cellular activity. Thus, extensive studies of metabolic processes are ongoing in various fields of biology, including cancer research. Cancer cells are known ... [more ▼]

Metabolism is considered to be the core of all cellular activity. Thus, extensive studies of metabolic processes are ongoing in various fields of biology, including cancer research. Cancer cells are known to adapt their metabolism to sustain high proliferation rates and survive in unfavorable environments with low oxygen and nutrient concentrations. Hence, targeting cancer cell metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer research. However, cancers consist not only of genetically altered tumor cells but are interwoven with endothelial cells, immune cells and fibroblasts, which together with the extracellular matrix (ECM) constitute the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are linked to poor prognosis in different cancer types, are one important component of the TME. CAFs play a significant role in reprogramming the metabolic landscape of tumor cells, but how, and in what manner, this interaction takes place remains rather unclear. This review aims to highlight the metabolic landscape of tumor cells and CAFs, including their recently identified subtypes, in different tumor types. In addition, we discuss various in vitro and in vivo metabolic techniques as well as different in silico computational tools that can be used to identify and characterize CAF–tumor cell interactions. Finally, we provide our view on how mapping the complex metabolic networks of stromal-tumor metabolism will help in finding novel metabolic targets for cancer treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal and international parental migration and the living conditions of children in Ghana
Cebotari, Victor UL; Dito, Bilisuma

in Children and Youth Services Review (2021), 121(February), 105821

Relatively little is known about the effects of parental migration on the living conditions of children who stay behind. Using survey data collected in 2010 from Ghanaian school children (11–18 years; N ... [more ▼]

Relatively little is known about the effects of parental migration on the living conditions of children who stay behind. Using survey data collected in 2010 from Ghanaian school children (11–18 years; N = 2100), this study investigates variations in children’s durable goods and private utilities when parents migrate internally or internationally compared to a control group of children who live with their parents. The study also investigates whether the effects are contingent upon the marital situation of the parents. The findings show that parental migration is not associated with poorer living conditions for Ghanaian children. Rather, specific factors, such as parental divorce, internal migration and the gender of the child, influence whether children experience a decline in their living conditions when parents migrate. [less ▲]

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See detailRaumplanung und Weiterbildung in Luxemburg
Becker, Tom UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in RaumPlanung (2021), 2021(210), 60-65

Das Großherzogtum Luxemburg ist eines der kleinsten Mitgliedsländer der Europäischen Union und hat in der jüngeren Vergangenheit ein massives Wachstum von Wirtschaft und Bevölkerung erfahren. COVID-19 und ... [more ▼]

Das Großherzogtum Luxemburg ist eines der kleinsten Mitgliedsländer der Europäischen Union und hat in der jüngeren Vergangenheit ein massives Wachstum von Wirtschaft und Bevölkerung erfahren. COVID-19 und die Gegenmaßnahmen der Politik haben die hohe Außenorientierung des Landes jedoch empfindlich getroffen. Am Beispiel der Raumplanungs-Weiterbildung ‚Formation Continue Aménagement du Territoire (FCAT)‘ zeigt dieser Beitrag, wie raumplanerische Lehre und Forschung auf diese neuen Herausforderungen reagieren, sowohl inhaltlich wie auch didaktisch. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroducing the COVID-19 crisis Special Education Needs Coping Survey
Dukes, Daniel; Van Herwegen, Jo; Alessandri, Michael et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when ... [more ▼]

Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when people are being asked to stay isolated, suffering increased anxiety and depression as a consequence. Their families have often found themselves under tremendous pressure to provide support, engendering financial hardship, and physical and emotional strains. In such times, it is vital that international collaborations assess the impact on the individuals and their families, affording the opportunity to make national and international comparisons of how people have coped and what needs to be done to optimize the measures taken by families, associations and governments. This paper introduces one such collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailNein to ‘Transfer Union’: the German brake on the construction of a European Union fiscal capacity
Howarth, David UL; Schild, Joachim

in Journal of European Integration (2021), 43(2), 207-224

This paper argues that, on the development of European Union (EU)/Eurozone fiscal capacity German governments have consistently engaged in foot-dragging. Few German state elites have ever supported ... [more ▼]

This paper argues that, on the development of European Union (EU)/Eurozone fiscal capacity German governments have consistently engaged in foot-dragging. Few German state elites have ever supported European fiscal capacity building beyond the EC budget. Following the outbreak of the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, German governments agreed to the creation of financial support mechanisms only with reluctance. We see a case of continuity in German policy preferences driven by consistent ordoliberal and, specifically, moral hazard concerns. The important longterm change that we can observe relates to the growing importance for successive governments of avoiding audience costs driven by sceptical public opinion and the rise of a challenger party in German politics. German government support for a massive EU fiscal response to the economic crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates an exceptional policy position in favour of temporary financial mechanisms involving no fiscal transfers among member state governments. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary and secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children in Ghana
Karpati, Julia; Elezaj, Erëblina; Cebotari, Victor UL et al

Report (2021)

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See detailWhat´s in a diagnosis: The Effect of Externalizing and Internalizing Students´ Behaviour on Pre-service Teachers' Classroom Management and Interaction Strategies
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2021)

Background. All over the word, classrooms are getting more and more diverse and teachers are required to effectively manage these classes even when students have special education needs (SEN). Aims. The ... [more ▼]

Background. All over the word, classrooms are getting more and more diverse and teachers are required to effectively manage these classes even when students have special education needs (SEN). Aims. The study aimed to investigate classroom management strategies and interpersonal teacher behaviour in relation to students internalizing and externalizing behaviour, whereby we varied the diagnosis of special educational needs. Sample. Two hundred and fifty-four German pre-service teachers (143 female) with a mean age of 26.04 years participated in the study. Method. Using an experimental between-subjects design, a fictitious student was described as exhibiting either internalizing or externalizing behaviour. Additionally, we varied whether the student was diagnosed as having SEN or not. The participants were asked to indicate which strategies they would apply and how they would interact with students. Results. Results showed that teacher interaction in response to both students with internalizing and externalizing behaviour approached ideal interpersonal teacher behaviour (i.e. high level of cooperativeness with certain level of dominance), whereas pre-service teachers applied all classroom management strategies to minimize effects of student behaviour on learning time. Although pre-service teachers adapted their responses based on type of behaviour, they only made allowances for internalizing behaviour while their response to externalizing behaviour did not vary much as a function of a SEN diagnosis. Conclusions. Together, these findings highlight the importance of providing preservice teachers with the pedagogical knowledge concerning effective classroom management and flexible use of strategies in response to diverse student needs in inclusive classrooms. [less ▲]

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See detailStadtentwicklung im vormodernen Europa. Beobachtungen zu Kontinuitäten und Brüchen
Pauly, Michel UL; Stercken, Martina

Book published by Chronos - 2nd revised edition (2021)

Beobachtungen zu Permanenzen und Wandel stehen im Zentrum der Skizze zur Stadtentwicklung in Westeuropa. Sie unternimmt den Versuch, langlebige Verhältnisse und deutliche Einschnitte in einer weiten ... [more ▼]

Beobachtungen zu Permanenzen und Wandel stehen im Zentrum der Skizze zur Stadtentwicklung in Westeuropa. Sie unternimmt den Versuch, langlebige Verhältnisse und deutliche Einschnitte in einer weiten zeitlichen und räumlichen Perspektive zu umreissen, die von der Verfestigung der neuen städtischen Lebensform im 12. Jahrhundert bis ins 19. Jahrhundert reicht, als sich mit der politischen Neuordnung und der Industrialisierung die Vorstellungen von Stadt veränderten. Zusammengeführt und partiell neu bewertet werden damit epochenspezifische Befunde der historischen Forschung zur mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Stadt, vergleichende Untersuchungen zu regionalen Unterschieden in Westeuropa und Erkenntnisse anderer an der Städteforschung beteiligter Disziplinen. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing Hate Speech with Data Science: An Overview from Computer Science Perspective
Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Srba; Pikuliak, Matus et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this ... [more ▼]

From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this chapter, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art data-science approaches - how they define hate speech, which tasks they solve to mitigate the phenomenon, and how they address these tasks. We limit our investigation mostly to (semi-)automatic detection of hate speech, which is the task that the majority of existing computer science works focus on. Finally, we summarize the challenges and the open problems in the current data-science research and the future directions in this field. Our aim is to prepare an easily understandable report, capable to promote the multidisciplinary character of hate speech research. Researchers from other domains (e.g., psychology and sociology) can thus take advantage of the knowledge achieved in the computer science domain but also contribute back and help improve how computer science is addressing that urgent an d socially relevant issue which is the prevalence of hate speech in social media. [less ▲]

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