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See detailSix provocations for 6G
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 06)

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See detailA Distributed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Traffic Management System
Samir Labib, Nader UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The rapid adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) has encouraged the integration of new connected platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to the ubiquitous network. UAVs promise a pragmatic ... [more ▼]

The rapid adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) has encouraged the integration of new connected platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to the ubiquitous network. UAVs promise a pragmatic solution to the limitations of existing terrestrial IoT infrastructure as well as they bring new means of delivering services through a wide range of applications ranging from monitoring and surveillance to on-demand last-mile delivery and people transport. Owning to their potential, UAVs are expected to soon dominate the low-altitude airspace over populated cities. This introduces new research challenges such as the safe management of UAVs operation under high traffic demands. In response to this, industry proposed a handful of constructs for UAV Traffic Management (UTM), however due to their centralised approaches, they will inevitably face limitations in scalability and resilience with predicted traffic demands and advancement in UAV autonomy. In this context, the main objective of this work is to address the aforementioned problem by proposing a distributed UAV Traffic Management system (dUTM). This thesis, hence, investigates the validity of the above hypothesis by: (i) showing the performance insufficiency of centralised systems due to their inadequacy in efficiently optimising large UAV traffic, (ii) showing why a distributed system is favourable due to its characteristics of scalability and resilience, (iii) proposing a novel dUTM framework consisting of an airspace structure model, information exchange model and a traffic optimisation model that rely on distributed methods and approaches to intelligently handle highly dynamic and challenging traffic conditions. To this end, this manuscript contributes to scientific literature by proposing a novel way of structuring the uncontrolled, low-altitude airspace and introduces a model of the Class G airspace as a multi-weighted multilayer network of nodes and airways. Additionally the work presents a novel distributed multiobjective path planning algorithm incorporating a dynamic multi-criteria decision matrix allowing each UAV or agent to plan their path relying on local knowledge gained via digital stigmergy. The PhD thesis additionally contributes to existing state of the art by exploring the technical standardisation landscape and investigating synergies between research directions and standards developments, taking into consideration pressing inherit challenges of UAVs within IoT such as security, data protection and privacy. [less ▲]

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See detailCareer journeys of skilled migrants in Luxembourg: a qualitative exploration
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 05)

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See detailKeynote lecture: Exploring Jewish History in the Digital Age
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 04)

This lecture will explore the intersection of Jewish Studies and Digital Humanities in general, and the myriad ways in which new technologies affect the field of Jewish History in particular. Importantly ... [more ▼]

This lecture will explore the intersection of Jewish Studies and Digital Humanities in general, and the myriad ways in which new technologies affect the field of Jewish History in particular. Importantly, the digital turn in Jewish Studies needs to be historicised; as is the case for the humanities in general, applications of computing in Jewish Studies go back at least 60 years. And as is true for the humanities in general, we should be careful to differentiate engagements with technology in the various (sub-)disciplines that Jewish Studies incorporates, while remaining attentive to common methodological and epistemological questions. In my lecture I will address these broader issues and ask what specific characteristics, if any, Jewish Studies scholars face, before delving into the specific challenges for Jewish historical research. I will then discuss how digital approaches have been, are, and could be harnassed to address these. As digitisation opens up new avenues for research, and can help overcome the classic problem of dispersal of sources, a crucial question to ask is what (Jewish) heritage is being digitised and which stories about the (Jewish) past can (and cannot) be told using them. What are the politics of digitisation in the context of Jewish history and how can we ensure that the offline Jewish historical record remains as relevant as its online counterpart in an age where more and more scholars move to using online resources? In short, how does the digital turn affect Jewish historical research and how can we bring about the full potential of the digital turn for research into Jewish history? [less ▲]

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See detailSEMKIS-DSL: a Domain-Specific Language for Specifying Neural Networks’ Key-Properties
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

Report (2021)

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to ... [more ▼]

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to compute some function based on recognized data. Engineering these datasets and these neural network-based software systems is a complicated and challenging task. Software engineers require methods and tools to engineer these datasets and neural networks for their customers and to satisfy their requirements. In general, they lack methods and tools to support the engineering of dataset and neural networks that satisfy the customer’s requirements. They follow traditional approaches consisting of time-consuming, imprecise and manual activities. Typically, these approaches are not supported by any tool that precisely analyse and specify the neural network’s recognition skills. In our previous work, we have introduced the notion of key-properties for describing the neural network’s recognition skills. In this paper, we define a domain-specific language to support our SEMKIS software engineering methodology for the dataset augmentation to improve network’s key-properties. We present the SEMKIS-DSL for the specification of the key-properties of a neural network. We illustrate the concepts of our DSL with a running example specifying a neural network for recognizing a digital meter counter state. This running example demonstrates a specification of the neural network’s key-properties using the SEMKIS-DSL and a successful improvement of the neural network’s recognition skills. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring progress to address statelessness in the EU and Georgia
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2021)

Member States reported statistics from a range of sources or categories. The time period covered by the statistics, which was not specified in the information request, also varied. If a date is not ... [more ▼]

Member States reported statistics from a range of sources or categories. The time period covered by the statistics, which was not specified in the information request, also varied. If a date is not specified, it is assumed that statistics refer to the time of the answer period for the ad hoc query which was April/May 2021. Sources/categories reported include residence permit data, population register data, statutory stateless persons, persons without citizenship, unknown/undetected nationality, nationality not specified and recognised stateless persons. T [less ▲]

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See detailVisualizing Visions: Re-viewing the seventeenth-century genre of constcamer paintings
Koeleman, Floor Anna UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Constcamer paintings or pictures of collections were created almost exclusively in Antwerp, and to a lesser extent in Brussels, in the seventeenth century. Until now, no attempt had been made to collect ... [more ▼]

Constcamer paintings or pictures of collections were created almost exclusively in Antwerp, and to a lesser extent in Brussels, in the seventeenth century. Until now, no attempt had been made to collect all known examples, partly because of the contemporary distribution of such works across collections throughout the Western world. Another difficulty in studying constcamer paintings is the great complexity of the rich variety of subjects, objects, and concepts on display in the images that combine many disciplines separated today. Advances in the field of computer science have made it possible to systematically collect, archive, and analyze artworks and associated information on a large scale. My digital approach to the genre aimed to determine what a constcamer painting is, in terms of form, content, and meaning. In addition to looking at pictorial features and cognitively identifying what we see, contextualization played a key role in achieving understanding. Pictorial, historical, social, cultural, and intellectual contexts served as the framework for interpretation. Special attention has been paid to the interplays between collecting and recollecting, art and science, and physical and metaphysical vision. This thesis argues that pictures of collections primarily lay claim to the active intellect to generate insights by uncovering the multitude of meanings embedded in the seventeenth-century genre. The examination of constcamer paintings through a dataset led to enhanced perception and highlighted the prominence of visuality in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge, both then and now. [less ▲]

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See detailA Formalisation of Abstract Argumentation in Higher-Order Logic
Steen, Alexander UL; Fuenmayor Pelaez, David UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of ... [more ▼]

We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of abstract argumentation frameworks using interactive and automated reasoning tools. This enables the formal analysis and verification of meta-theoretical properties as well as the flexible generation of extensions and labellings with respect to well-known argumentation semantics. [less ▲]

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See detailRequirements And Threat Models of Adversarial Attacks and Robustness of Chest X-ray classification
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little ... [more ▼]

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little research has considered real world applications, in particular in the medical domain. Our research shows that, contrary to previous claims, robustness of chest x-ray classification is much harder to evaluate and leads to very different assessments based on the dataset, the architecture and robustness metric. We argue that previous studies did not take into account the peculiarity of medical diagnosis, like the co-occurrence of diseases, the disagreement of labellers (domain experts), the threat model of the attacks and the risk implications for each successful attack. In this paper, we discuss the methodological foundations, review the pitfalls and best practices, and suggest new methodological considerations for evaluating the robustness of chest xray classification models. Our evaluation on 3 datasets, 7 models, and 18 diseases is the largest evaluation of robustness of chest x-ray classification models. We believe our findings will provide reliable guidelines for realistic evaluation and improvement of the robustness of machine learning models for medical diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLabor Market Effects of Technology Shocks biased Toward the Traded Sector
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Cardi; Restout

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the ... [more ▼]

Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the traded sector. Our VAR evidence for seventeen OECD countries reveals that the non-traded sector alone drives the increase in total hours worked following a technology shock that increases permanently traded relative to non-traded TFP. The shock generates a reallocation of labor toward the non-traded sector which contributes to 35% on average of the rise in non-traded hours worked. Both labor reallocation and variations in labor income shares are found empirically connected with factor-biased technological change. Our quantitative analysis shows that a two-sector open economy model with flexible prices can reproduce the labor market effects we document empirically once we allow for imperfect mobility of labor, gross substitutability between home- and foreign-produced traded goods, and factor-biased technological change. When calibrating the model to country-specific data, its ability to account for the cross-country reallocation and redistributive effects we estimate increases once we let factor-biased technological change vary between sectors and across countries. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Relationship Between Log Parsing and Anomaly Detection
Shin, Donghwan UL; Khan, Zanis Ali UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (2021, October)

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an ... [more ▼]

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an essential pre-processing step called log parsing. This step is needed because automated log analysis requires structured input logs, whereas original logs contain semi-structured text printed by logging statements. Log parsing bridges this gap by converting the original logs into structured input logs fit for anomaly detection. Despite the intrinsic dependency between log parsing and anomaly detection, no existing work has investigated the impact of the "quality" of log parsing results on anomaly detection. In particular, the concept of "ideal" log parsing results with respect to anomaly detection has not been formalized yet. This makes it difficult to determine, upon obtaining inaccurate results from anomaly detection, if (and why) the root cause for such results lies in the log parsing step. In this short paper, we lay the theoretical foundations for defining the concept of "ideal" log parsing results for anomaly detection. Based on these foundations, we discuss practical implications regarding the identification and localization of root causes, when dealing with inaccurate anomaly detection, and the identification of irrelevant log messages. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Properties over Inter-Procedural, Source Code Level Behaviour of Programs
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (2021, October)

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level ... [more ▼]

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level of abstraction and provide sophisticated modal operators, giving a high level of expressiveness. In particular, this makes it possible to express properties concerning the source code level behaviour of programs. However, for many languages, the correspondence between events generated at the source code level and parts of the specification in question would have to be carefully defined. To enable expressing — using a temporal logic — properties over source code level behaviour without the need for this correspondence, previous work introduced Control-Flow Temporal Logic (CFTL), a specification language with a low level of abstraction with respect to the source code of programs. However, this work focused solely on the intra-procedural setting. In this paper, we address this limitation by introducing Inter-procedural CFTL, a language for expressing source code level, inter-procedural properties of program runs. We evaluate the new language, iCFTL, via application to a real-world case study. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicar los impactos de la globalización en las zonas transfronterizas a través de la calidad de la democracia. Un marco interregional comparativo
Koff, Harlan UL; Mejía Idarraga, Santiago

in Estudios Políticos (2021), 62

Globalisation has significantly affected the ability of States to govern flows. Important questions which have recently emerged in international relations ask: how has globalisation affected border ... [more ▼]

Globalisation has significantly affected the ability of States to govern flows. Important questions which have recently emerged in international relations ask: how has globalisation affected border regions and what explains these impacts? Employing a comparative, cross-regional research design, this article proposes two originalresponses to these questions: first, it questions whether border communities benefit or suffer from globalization and, in doing so, it addresses the impacts of globalization on border communities. Second, an attempt is made to explain these impacts by studying the democratic quality of border integration processes. Thus, globalization is examined as a system in which the benefits are distributed or concentrated according to the quality of the integration processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the geometrical imperfections of a dry-stacked masonry block based on Miscanthus
Pereira Dias, Patrick; Jesuino Kammer, Vanessa; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2021)

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See detailIntelligent Autonomous Agents and Trust in Virtual Reality
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Computers in Human Behavior Reports (2021)

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailFlight to Safety and Retail Investor Behavior
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October)

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See detailLaurent Menager (1835-1902). Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Abteilung I: Vokalwerke, Band 4, Weltliche Vokalwerke
Anders, Ursula UL; Reuter, Caroline; Sagrillo, Damien François UL et al

Book published by Merseburger (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 UL)