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See detailInternationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen; Pohle, Jan; Kilian, Wolfgang (Eds.) et al Computerrechts-Handbuch - Informationstechnologie in der Rechts- und Wirtschaftspraxi (in press)

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See detailHealth versus wealth: Saving lives or saving the economy during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL; Mochtak, Michal UL

in Public Opinion Quarterly (in press)

Efforts to combat the COVID-19 crisis were characterized by a difficult trade-off: the stringency of the lockdowns decreased the spread of the virus, but amplified the damage to the economy. In this study ... [more ▼]

Efforts to combat the COVID-19 crisis were characterized by a difficult trade-off: the stringency of the lockdowns decreased the spread of the virus, but amplified the damage to the economy. In this study, we analyze public attitudes toward this trade-off on the basis of a survey and survey-embedded experiment of more than seven thousand respondents from Southeast Europe, collected in April and May 2020. The results show that public opinion generally favored saving lives even at a steep economic cost. However, the willingness to trade lives for the economy was greater when the heterogeneous health and economic consequences of lockdown policies for the young and the elderly were emphasized. Free market views also make people more acceptant of higher casualties, as do fears that the instituted measures will lead to a permanent expansion of government control over society. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia Technologies for a Better World: UNESCO’s Ethical Framework for Communication Infrastructures and Uses of Media after the Second World War
Priem, Karin UL; Sengsavang, Eng

in Atanasiu, Vlad; Chachereau, Nicolas; Sibille, Christiane (Eds.) Framing Innovation (in press)

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See detailVisual Presence and Interpretation: Two Dimensions of the Fight Against Illiteracy in Texts by Carlo Levi and Photographs by David Seymour (1950)
Priem, Karin UL

in Comas Rubí, Francisca; Priem, Karin; González Gómez, Sara (Eds.) Media Matter: Images as Presenters, Mediators, and Means of Observation (in press)

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See detailMedia Matter: Introduction
Comas Rubí, Francisca; Priem, Karin UL; González Gómez, Sara

in Comas Rubí, Francisca; Priem, Karin; González Gómez, Sara (Eds.) Media Matter: Images as Presenters, Mediators, and Means of Observation (in press)

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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia Matter: Images as Presenters, Mediators, and Means of Observation
Comas Rubí, Francisca; Priem, Karin UL; González Gómez, Sara

Book published by De Gruyter (in press)

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See detailSoziale Arbeit in der Inklusionsfalle. Terminologische Unbestimmtheit, ethischer Anspruch und neoliberale Wendung.
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL

in Bütow, Birgit; Holztrattner, Melanie; Raithelhuber, Eberhard (Eds.) (Des-)Organisation und (Ent-)Institutionalisierung in der Sozialen Arbeit. (in press)

The analysis of the concept of inclusion in a scientific context and the inflationary classification of different practices as inclusive suggest a rethinking of inclusion as a guiding concept in social ... [more ▼]

The analysis of the concept of inclusion in a scientific context and the inflationary classification of different practices as inclusive suggest a rethinking of inclusion as a guiding concept in social work. Inclusion in the sociological sense means something other than the pedagogical postulate of education for all. Inclusion is sometimes understood as a method (inclusive education), sometimes as an ethical principle (human right) and sometimes as a global goal (the inclusive society). In the neoliberal model, inclusion represents a practice of obligation to contribute to economic growth and to comply with market requirements. Due to its proximity to the everyday life of the people, social work has a growing role to play in pointing out the tension between an inclusion promise in the front stage and a back stage on which social exclusion is legitimised. [less ▲]

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See detailField-resolved detection of the temporal response of a single plasmonic antenna in the mid infrared
Fischer, Marco P.; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Gallacher, Kevin et al

in Optica (in press)

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See detailAvoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic, mostly because of the lack of robust race-disambiguation algorithms. Identifying author information does not generally include the author’s race. Therefore, an algorithm needs to be employed, using known information about authors, i.e., their names, to infer their perceived race. Nevertheless, as any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. When the research is focused on the understanding of racial-based inequalities, such biases undermine the objectives of the investigation and may perpetuate inequities. The goal of this article is to assess the biases introduced by the different approaches used name-based racial inference. We use information from US census and mortgage applications to infer the race of US author names in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race and ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article fills an important research gap that will allow more systematic and unbiased studies on racial disparity in science. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimauté et droits fondamentaux: une question de compétences?
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Gaudin, Hélène (Ed.) Primauté et clause la plus protectrice: le renouveau des droits fondamentaux en Europe (in press)

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans ... [more ▼]

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans la sphère de compétence de l’Union, alors que la protection des droits fondamentaux, comme contestation de la primauté, relève de la sphère nationale. Le conflit entre primauté et droits fondamentaux relève ainsi du rapport des ordres juridiques et est résolu par leur interaction, exprimée dans la balance entre le principe de coopération loyale et la prise en compte des intérêts nationaux, sur la base du respect de l’identité nationale ou en invoquant l’article 53 de la Charte . En ce sens, la problématique des compétences n’entre pas en ligne de compte. Cependant, l’élaboration de standards européens de protection des droits fondamentaux, en tant qu’objet direct ou indirect de l’exercice des compétences de l’Union, peut servir le compromis issu du principe d’attribution. Ainsi, primauté et droits fondamentaux peuvent être abordés sous l’angle des compétences. Le rapport entre primauté et droits fondamentaux n’est toutefois pas forcément conflictuel. La Charte est source d’obligations pour les Etats membres au-delà du champ couvert par l’exercice des compétences de l’Union. Il est bien établi que la notion de mise en œuvre du droit de l’Union en tant que condition de l’application de la Charte à l’égard des Etats membres, est entendue dans le sens du domaine couvert par le droit de l’Union. Ainsi, les standards européens de protection sont eux-mêmes couverts par la primauté et interviennent dans l’encadrement de l’autonomie nationale et l’articulation des compétences [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting DNN Safety Analysis and Retraining through Heatmap-based Unsupervised Learning
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba et al

in IEEE Transactions on Reliability (in press)

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the ... [more ▼]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the functional safety of DNN-based components. We observe three major challenges with existing practices regarding DNNs in safety-critical systems: (1) scenarios that are underrepresented in the test set may lead to serious safety violation risks, but may, however, remain unnoticed; (2) char- acterizing such high-risk scenarios is critical for safety analysis; (3) retraining DNNs to address these risks is poorly supported when causes of violations are difficult to determine. To address these problems in the context of DNNs analyzing images, we propose HUDD, an approach that automatically supports the identification of root causes for DNN errors. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to heatmaps capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. We evaluated HUDD with DNNs from the automotive domain. HUDD was able to identify all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Test Suite Generation for Key-points Detection DNNs Using Many-Objective Search
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]

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See detailLog-based Slicing for System-level Test Cases
Messaoudi, Salma UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Panichella, Annibale et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly designed (e.g., test cases containing multiple test scenarios combined into a single test case) and that require a large amount of time and resources to run. One way to mitigate this issue is decomposing such system test cases into smaller, separate test cases---each of them with only one test scenario and with its corresponding assertions---so that the execution time of the decomposed test cases is lower than the original test cases, while the test effectiveness of the original test cases is preserved. This decomposition can be achieved with program slicing techniques, since test cases are software programs too. However, existing static and dynamic slicing techniques exhibit limitations when (1) the test cases use external resources, (2) code instrumentation is not a viable option, and (3) test execution is expensive. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, called DS3 (Decomposing System teSt caSe), which automatically decomposes a complex system test case into separate test case slices. The idea is to use test case execution logs, obtained from past regression testing sessions, to identify "hidden" dependencies in the slices generated by static slicing. Since logs include run-time information about the system under test, we can use them to extract access and usage of global resources and refine the slices generated by static slicing. We evaluated DS3 in terms of slicing effectiveness and compared it with a vanilla static slicing tool. We also compared the slices obtained by DS3 with the corresponding original system test cases, in terms of test efficiency and effectiveness. The evaluation results on one proprietary system and one open-source system show that DS3 is able to accurately identify the dependencies related to the usage of global resources, which vanilla static slicing misses. Moreover, the generated test case slices are, on average, 3.56 times faster than original system test cases and they exhibit no significant loss in terms of fault detection effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailHumanitarian Photography Beyond the Picture: David “CHIM” Seymour’s Children of Europe
Priem, Karin UL; Herman, Frederik

in Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)

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See detailChallenges and Methodologies in the Visual History of Education
Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et al

in Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)

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See detailAppearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History
Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et al

Book published by De Gruyter - Appearances: Studies in Visual Research (in press)

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See detailSocietal Emotional Environments and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: A Forty-Nine Country Study
Krys, Kuba; Yeung, June; Capaldi, Colin et al

in Journal of Positive Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12,888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well-being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others. [less ▲]

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See detailInvariant density adaptive estimation for ergodic jump diffusion processes over anisotropic classes
Amorino, Chiara UL; Gloter, Arnaud

in Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference (in press)

We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of ... [more ▼]

We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of observations is available. In the case without jumps, Reiss and Dalalyan [7] and Strauch [24] have found convergence rates of invariant density estimators, under respectively isotropic and anisotropic H ̈older smoothness constraints, which are considerably faster than those known from standard multivariate density estimation. We extend the previous works by obtaining, in presence of jumps, some estimators which have the same convergence rates they had in the case without jumps for d ≥ 2 and a rate which depends on the degree of the jumps in the one-dimensional setting. We propose moreover a data driven bandwidth selection procedure based on the Goldenshluger and Lepski method [11] which leads us to an adaptive non-parametric kernel estimator of the stationary density μ of the jump diffusion X. [less ▲]

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See detailInteroception, stress and physical symptoms in stress-associated diseases
Schulz, André UL; Schultchen, Dana; Vögele, Claus UL

in European Journal of Health Psychology (in press)

The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Exemplary, interoception refers to the processing and perception of ascending information from the body to the brain. Stress ... [more ▼]

The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Exemplary, interoception refers to the processing and perception of ascending information from the body to the brain. Stress responses involve a neurobehavioral cascade, which includes the activation of peripheral organs via neural and endocrine pathways and can thus be seen as an example for descending information on the brain-body axis. Hence, the interaction of interoception and stress represents bi-directional communication on the brain-body axis. The main hypothesis underlying this review is that the dysregulation of brain-body communication represents an important mechanism for the generation of physical symptoms in stress-related disorders. The aims of this review are, therefore, (1.) to summarize current knowledge on acute stress effects on different stages of interoceptive signal processing, (2.) to discuss possible patterns of abnormal brainbody communication (i.e., alterations in interoception and physiological stress axes activation) in mental disorders and chronic physical conditions, and (3.) to consider possible approaches to modify interoception. Due to the regulatory feedback loops underlying brain-body communication, the modification of interoceptive processes (ascending signals) may, in turn, affect physiological stress axes activity (descending signals), and, ultimately, also physical symptoms. [less ▲]

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