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See detailResearch Frameworks in Comparative Public Law: Law as Category, as Source and as Variable
Hofmann, Herwig UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This chapter outlines some basic approaches to identifying frameworks of comparative research. It first argues that establishing comparative frameworks is a task ubiquitous to legal methodology. The ... [more ▼]

This chapter outlines some basic approaches to identifying frameworks of comparative research. It first argues that establishing comparative frameworks is a task ubiquitous to legal methodology. The framework is the decisive factor identifying the comparators and allowing assessment of similarities and differences. The framework allows identification of what to compare, how many commonalities the comparators have to start with, and how ‘foreign’ the two elements subject to comparison may be, so as to facilitate meaningful comparison. The chapter thus shows how comparative frameworks are flexible in serving the objectives defined by comparative scholars. This fluid feature of the framework of comparison and the relatively ubiquitous nature of the comparative method is the backdrop to the discussions in this chapter, critically reviewing three major frameworks identified by the objectives of the comparative approach: law as ‘category’, as ‘source’, and as ‘variable’. [less ▲]

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See detailUnifying thermodynamic uncertainty relations
Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

in New J. Phys. (2020), 22(5), 053046

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See detailThermodynamics of non-elementary chemical reaction networks
Avanzini, Francesco UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New J. Phys. (2020), 22(9), 093040

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See detailStochastic thermodynamics of all-to-all interacting many-body systems
Herpich, Tim; Cossetto, Tommaso UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL et al

in New J. Phys. (2020), 22(6), 063005

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See detailThe Quest and Hope of Majorana Zero Modes in Topological Superconductor for Fault Tolerant Quantum Computing: An Introductory Overview
Ayukaryana, Nur R.; Fauzi, Mohammad H; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in arXiv (2020)

Ettore Majorana, in his short life, unintendedly has uncovered the most profound problem in quantum computation by his discovery of Majorana fermion, a particle which is its own anti-particle. Owing to ... [more ▼]

Ettore Majorana, in his short life, unintendedly has uncovered the most profound problem in quantum computation by his discovery of Majorana fermion, a particle which is its own anti-particle. Owing to its non-Abelian exchange statistics, Majorana fermions may act as a qubit for a universal quantum computer which is fault-tolerant. The existence of such particle is predicted in mid-gap states (zero modes) of a topological superconductor as bound states that have a highly entangled degenerate ground state. This introductory overview will focus on the simplest theoretical proposals of Majorana fermions for topological quantum computing in superconducting systems, emphasizing the quest from the scalability problem of quantum computer to its possible solution with topological quantum computer employing non-Abelian anyons on various platforms of certain Majorana fermion signature encountered. [less ▲]

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See detailOxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law Research
Hofmann, Herwig UL; Cane, Peter; Ip, Eric et al

Book published by Oxford University Press (2020)

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See detailStrong current response to slow modulation: A metabolic case-study
Forastiere, Danilo UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in J. Chem. Phys. (2020), 152(13), 134101

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See detailThermodynamics of optical Bloch equations
Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Marti, David; Esposito, Massimiliano UL et al

in New J. Phys. (2020), 22(10), 103039

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See detailInterrogating helical nanorod self-assembly with fractionated cellulose nanocrystal suspensions
Honorato-Rios, Camila; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Communications Materials (2020), 1

The helical self-assembly of cholesteric liquid crystals is a powerful motif in nature, enabling exceptional performance in many biological composites. Attempts to mimic these remarkable materials by ... [more ▼]

The helical self-assembly of cholesteric liquid crystals is a powerful motif in nature, enabling exceptional performance in many biological composites. Attempts to mimic these remarkable materials by drying cholesteric colloidal nanorod suspensions often yield films with a non-uniform mosaic-like character, severely degrading optical and mechanical properties. Here we show---using the example of cellulose nanocrystals---that these problems are due to rod length dispersity: uncontrolled phase separation results from a ... [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Waveform/Receiver Design for Vital-Sign Detection in Signal-Dependent Interference
Tedgue Beltrao, Gabriel UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Schroeder, Udo et al

in Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20), Florence, Italy, 2020 (2020)

This paper presents the joint design of discrete slow-time radar waveform and receive filter, with the aim of enhancing the Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) in phase coded radar systems for ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the joint design of discrete slow-time radar waveform and receive filter, with the aim of enhancing the Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) in phase coded radar systems for vital-sign monitoring. Towards this, we consider maximizing the SINR at the input of the vital-sign estimation block, when transmitting hardware efficient Mary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK) sequences. This multi-variable and non-convex optimization problem is efficiently solved based on a Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) filter, with the Coordinate Descent (CD) approach for the sequence optimization, and the obtained results have shown attractive interference suppression capabilities, even for the simple binary case. [less ▲]

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See detailFPGA Design and Implementation of a Real-time FM/PM Pseudo Random Waveform Generation for Noise Radars
Tedgue Beltrao, Gabriel UL; Alisson, Barreto; Leandro, Pralon et al

in Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20), Florence, Italy, 2020 (2020)

Noise Radar technology is the general term used to describe radar systems that employ realizations of a given stochastic process as transmit waveforms. With the advances made in hardware as well as the ... [more ▼]

Noise Radar technology is the general term used to describe radar systems that employ realizations of a given stochastic process as transmit waveforms. With the advances made in hardware as well as the rise of the software defined noise radar concept, waveform design emerges as an important research area related to such systems. Several optimization algorithms have been proposed to generate pseudo-random waveforms with specific desired features, specially with respect to sidelobes. Nevertheless, not only modifying random waveforms may compromise their LPI performance, but also the implementation of such algorithms in real time applications may not be feasible. Within this context, this paper analyzes varied design architectures for FM/PM pseudo-noise waveform generation, considering a real-time application. The proposed architectures are verified in a co-simulation environment using the Xilinx System Generator tool and implemented on reconfigurable hardware, i.e., a Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is taken into consideration. Timing, resource consumption, and the trade-offs related to hardware area and performance are then investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailResponsive Photonic Liquid Marbles
Anyfantakis, Manos; Jampani, Venkata S. R.; Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL et al

in Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2020), 59(43), 19260--19267

Liquid marbles have potential to serve as mini- reactors for fabricating new materials, but this has been exploited little and mostly for conventional chemical reactions. Here, we uncover the unparalleled ... [more ▼]

Liquid marbles have potential to serve as mini- reactors for fabricating new materials, but this has been exploited little and mostly for conventional chemical reactions. Here, we uncover the unparalleled capability of liquid marbles to act as platforms for controlling the self-assembly of a bio- derived polymer, hydroxypropyl cellulose, into a cholesteric liquid crystalline phase showing structural coloration by Bragg reflection. By adjusting the cholesteric pitch via quantitative water extraction, we achieve liquid marbles that we can tailor for structural color anywhere in the visible range. Liquid marbles respond with color change that can be detected by eye, to changes in temperature, exposure to toxic chemicals and mechanical deformation. Our concept demonstrates the ad- vantages of using liquid marbles as a miniature platform for controlling the liquid crystal self-assembly of bio-derived polymers, and their exploitation to fabricate sustainable, responsive soft photonic objects. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic tuning of the director field in liquid crystal shells using block copolymers
Noh, Junghyun; Wang, Yiwei; Liang, Hsin-Ling et al

in Physical Review Research (2020), 2(3), 033160

When an orientationally ordered system, like a nematic liquid crystal (LC), is confined on a self-closing spherical shell, topological constraints arise with intriguing consequences that depend critically ... [more ▼]

When an orientationally ordered system, like a nematic liquid crystal (LC), is confined on a self-closing spherical shell, topological constraints arise with intriguing consequences that depend critically on how the LC is aligned in the shell. We demonstrate reversible dynamic tuning of the alignment, and thereby the topology, of nematic LC shells stabilized by the nonionic amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic F127. Deep in the nematic phase, the director (the average molecule orientation) is tangential to the interface, but upon approaching the temperature TNI of the nematic-isotropic transition, the director realigns to normal. We link this to a delicate interplay between an interfacial tension that is nearly independent of director orientation, and the configuration-dependent elastic deformation energy of an LC confined in a shell. The process is primarily triggered by the heating-induced reduction of the nematic order parameter, hence realignment temperatures differ by several tens of degrees between LCs with high and low TNI, respectively. The temperature of realignment is always lower on the positive-curved shell outside than at the negative-curved inside, yielding a complex topological reconfiguration on heating. Complementing experimental investigations with mathematical modeling and computer simulations, we identify and investigate three different trajectories, distinguished by their configurations of topological defects in the initial tangential-aligned shell. Our results uncover a new aspect of the complex response of LCs to curved confinement, demonstrating that the order of the LC itself can influence the alignment and thereby the topology of the system. They also reveal the potential of amphiphilic block copolymer stabilizers for enabling continuous tunability of LC shell configuration, opening doors for in-depth studies of topological dynamics as well as novel applications in, e.g., sensing and programed soft actuators. [less ▲]

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See detailDisruption of Electrospinning due to Water Condensation into the Taylor Cone.
Reyes, C. G.; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2020), 12(23), 26566--26576

The well-known problems of electrospinning hygroscopic polymer fibers in humid air are usually attributed to water condensing onto the jet mid-flight: water enters the jet as an additional solvent ... [more ▼]

The well-known problems of electrospinning hygroscopic polymer fibers in humid air are usually attributed to water condensing onto the jet mid-flight: water enters the jet as an additional solvent, hindering solidification into well-defined fibers. Here, we show that fiber fusion and shape loss seen at the end of the process may actually stem from water already condensing into the Taylor cone from where the jet ejects, if the solvent is volatile and miscible with water, for example, ethanol. The addition of water can radically change the solvent character from good to poor, even if water on its own is an acceptable solvent. Moreover, and counterintuitively, the water condensation promotes solvent evaporation because of the release of heat through the phase transition as well as from the exothermic mixing process. The overall result is that the polymer solution develops a gel-like skin around the Taylor cone. The situation is significantly aggravated in the case of coaxial electrospinning to make functional composite fibers if the injected core fluid forms a complex phase diagram with miscibility gaps together with the polymer sheath solvent and the water condensing from the air. The resulting phase separation coagulates the polymer throughout the Taylor cone, as liquid droplets with different compositions nucleate and spread, setting up strong internal flows and concentration gradients. We demonstrate that these cases of uncontrolled polymer coagulation cause rapid Taylor cone deformation, multiple jet ejection, and the inability to spin coaxial fiber mats, illustrated by the example of coaxial electrospinning of an ethanolic polyvinylpyrrolidone solution with a thermotropic liquid crystal core, at varying humidities. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Equilibrium Liquid Crystal Formation and Kinetic Arrest to Photonic Bandgap Films Using Suspensions of Cellulose Nanocrystals
Schütz, Christina; Bruckner, Johanna R.; Honorato-Rios, Camila et al

in Crystals (2020), 10(3), 199

The lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal phase developed by suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) has come increasingly into focus from numerous directions over the last few years. In part, this is ... [more ▼]

The lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal phase developed by suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) has come increasingly into focus from numerous directions over the last few years. In part, this is because CNC suspensions are sustainably produced aqueous suspensions of a fully bio-derived nanomaterial with attractive properties. Equally important is the interesting and useful behavior exhibited by solid CNC films, created by drying a cholesteric-forming suspension. However, the pathway along which these films are realized, starting from a CNC suspension that may have low enough concentration to be fully isotropic, is more complex than often appreciated, leading to reproducibility problems and confusion. Addressing a broad audience of physicists, chemists, materials scientists and engineers, this Review focuses primarily on the physics and physical chemistry of CNC suspensions and the process of drying them. The ambition is to explain rather than to repeat, hence we spend more time than usual on the meanings and relevance of the key colloid and liquid crystal science concepts that must be mastered in order to understand the behavior of CNC suspensions, and we present some interesting analyses, arguments and data for the first time. We go through the development of cholesteric nuclei (tactoids) from the isotropic phase and their potential impact on the final dry films; the spontaneous CNC fractionation that takes place in the phase coexistence window; the kinetic arrest that sets in when the CNC mass fraction reaches ~10 wt.\%, preserving the cholesteric helical order until the film has dried; the 'coffee-ring effect' active prior to kinetic arrest, often ruining the uniformity in the produced films; and the compression of the helix during the final water evaporation, giving rise to visible structural color in the films. [less ▲]

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See detailEcrire l'histoire de la place financière d/au Luxembourg
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Marx, Claude; Limpach, Marc; Majerus, Benoît (Eds.) Surveillance, indépendance et intégrité (2020)

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See detailStadt - Land - Fluss. Grabdenkmäler der Treuerer in lokaler und überregionaler Perspektive. Akten der internationalen Konferenz 25.-27. Oktober 2018 in Neumagen und Trier
Binsfeld, Andrea UL; Klöckner, Anja; Kremer, Gabrielle et al

Book published by Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag (2020)

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See detailAntiferroelectricity in a family of pyroxene-like oxides with rich polymorphism
Aramberri, Hugo; Iñiguez, Jorge UL

in Communications Materials (2020)

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See detailSidelobe Performance Analysis of Noise Waveforms Considering the Doppler Mismatch
Tedgue Beltrao, Gabriel UL; Pralon, Leandro; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL et al

in Proceedings of the 21st International Radar Symposium (IRS), Warsaw, Poland, 2020 (2020)

Waveform design and optimization algorithms generally assume a zero-Doppler ideal case to reach an optimum or satisfactory solution in terms of the matched filter output. Therefore, its performance is ... [more ▼]

Waveform design and optimization algorithms generally assume a zero-Doppler ideal case to reach an optimum or satisfactory solution in terms of the matched filter output. Therefore, its performance is usually characterized only in terms of the resultant waveforms autocorrelation function, neglecting the practical situation in which the received signal is modulated by the target’s Doppler shift. Within this context, this work investigates the Doppler mismatch effects in the Integrated Sidelobe Level (ISL) performance of previously designed/optimized noise waveforms. The analysis has shown that, despite much better results for steady targets, the increasing Doppler mismatch reduces the ISL performance of optimized waveforms, until similar levels achieved when no optimization is performed. To address that, a subpulse Doppler processing approach is also considered, and the results have shown that, besides increasing the Doppler tolerance, it has also increased the optimized waveform robustness to the Doppler mismatch, reducing the resultant ISL loss and thus extending its applicability. [less ▲]

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