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See detailHigher-Order DCA against Standard Side-Channel Countermeasures
Bogdanov, Andrey; Rivain, Matthieu; Philip, S. Vejre et al

in Polian, Ilia; Stöttinger, Marc (Eds.) Constructive Side-Channel Analysis and Secure Design (2019, March 16)

At CHES 2016, Bos et al. introduced differential computational analysis (DCA) as an attack on white-box software implementations of block ciphers. This attack builds on the same principles as DPA in the ... [more ▼]

At CHES 2016, Bos et al. introduced differential computational analysis (DCA) as an attack on white-box software implementations of block ciphers. This attack builds on the same principles as DPA in the classical side-channel context, but uses computational traces consisting of plain values computed by the implementation during execution. It was shown to be able to recover the key of many existing AES white-box implementations. The DCA adversary is passive, and so does not exploit the full power of the white-box setting, implying that many white-box schemes are insecure even in a weaker setting than the one they were designed for. It is therefore important to develop implementations which are resistant to this attack. We investigate the approach of applying standard side-channel countermeasures such as masking and shuffling. Under some necessary conditions on the underlying randomness generation, we show that these countermeasures provide resistance to standard (first-order) DCA. Furthermore, we introduce higher-order DCA, along with an enhanced multivariate version, and analyze the security of the countermeasures against these attacks. We derive analytic expressions for the complexity of the attacks – backed up through extensive attack experiments – enabling a designer to quantify the security level of a masked and shuffled implementation in the (higher-order) DCA setting. [less ▲]

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See detailDeformation quantization of Kähler manifolds
La Fuente-Gravy, Laurent UL

Presentation (2019, March 11)

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See detailCombining Deep Gaussian Process and Rule-Based Method for Decision-Making in Self-Driving Simulation with Small Data
Fang, W.; Li, H.; Dang, S. et al

in 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS) (2019, March 05)

Self-driving vehicle is a popular and promising field in artificial intelligence. Conventional architecture consists of multiple sensors, which work collaboratively to sense the units on road to yield a ... [more ▼]

Self-driving vehicle is a popular and promising field in artificial intelligence. Conventional architecture consists of multiple sensors, which work collaboratively to sense the units on road to yield a precise and safe driving strategy. Besides the precision and safety, the quickness of decision is also a major concern. In order to react quickly, the vehicle need to predict its next possible action, such as acceleration, brake and steering angle, according to its latest few actions and status. In this paper, we treat this decision-making problem as a regression problem and use deep gaussian process to predict its next action. The regression model is trained using simulation data sets and accurately captures the most significant features. Combined with rule-based method, it can be used in Torcs simulation engine to realize successful loop trip on virtual roads. The proposed method outperforms the existing reinforcement learning methods on the performance indicators of time consumption and the size of data volume. It may be useful for real road tests in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents with emotional and behavioral problems: Their emotional experience in the classroom during peer interactions
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Knickenberg, Margarita; Venetz, Martin

Scientific Conference (2019, March)

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See detailWohlbefinden und Inklusion – ein Widerspruch?
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL

Presentation (2019, March)

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See detailQuid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation?
Emslander, Valentin UL

in Ellwart, Thomas; Peiffer, Henrike (Eds.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum (2019)

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante ... [more ▼]

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante Qualifikationen gelehrt. Um die Qualität entsprechender Lehrveranstaltungen zu sichern, führen Bildungsstätten Lehrveranstaltungsevaluationen (LVE) durch. Positive Ergebnisse bei diesen LVE stellen nicht nur ein Maß für die Qualitätssicherung der Lehre dar, sondern dienen auch als Aushängeschild für die Bildungsstätten und als Feedbackinstrument für die Lehrenden. Es stellt sich jedoch die Frage, ob Lehrende durch die Vergabe zu guter/milder Noten/Bewertungen die Evaluationsergebnisse der eigenen Lehrveranstaltung positiv beeinflussen können und es somit zu einer Verzerrung in den Evaluationsergebnissen kommt. Dies kann die Gültigkeit von LVE und deren Nutzen als aussagekräftiges Feedbackinstrument einschränken. Emslander, V. (2019). Quid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation? [Quid pro quo: Does grading leniency lead to better results in the course evaluation?] In T. Ellwart & H. Peiffer (Hrsg.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum, (01/2019), Download: https://www.uni-trier.de/index.php?id=64878 [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Agent Based Modelling for describing mobility decisions in pre-urban societies
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Scientific Conference (2019, February 26)

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See detail« L’OPHÉLISATION MYSTIQUE » DANS PELLÉAS ET MÉLISANDE DE MAURICE MAETERLINCK ET PARTAGE DE MIDI DE PAUL CLAUDEL
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION REVUE DE PHILOLOGIE ET DE COMMUNICATION INTERCULTURELLE (2019), 2(2018), 227-239

In this article we will see how a « mystic ophelisation » is pregnant in « Pelléas and Mélisande » to Maurice Maeterlinck and « Noon Sharing » to Paul Claudel. To do so, this article will be divided into ... [more ▼]

In this article we will see how a « mystic ophelisation » is pregnant in « Pelléas and Mélisande » to Maurice Maeterlinck and « Noon Sharing » to Paul Claudel. To do so, this article will be divided into three parts. In the first part, the locution « mystic ophelisation » will be consider. What is it exactly ? Why do we associate this female name and this phenomenon ? In the second part, we will focus on « Pelléas and Mélisande » to Maurice Maeterlinck ; espacially on Mélisande. In the last part, we will being interested in « Noon Sharing » to Paul Claudel ; espacially on Ysé. How do Mélisande and Ysé look like Ophélia (in « Hamlet » to William Shakespeare) ? How do these female characters go into a transe ? What do they make on the male characters, Pelléas and Mesa ? By this article, we will try to answer these questions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and Improvement of Differential Computation Attacks against Internally-Encoded White-Box Implementations
Rivain, Matthieu UL; Wang, Junwei UL

in IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (2019), 2019(2), 225-255

White-box cryptography is the last security barrier for a cryptographic software implementation deployed in an untrusted environment. The principle of internal encodings is a commonly used white-box ... [more ▼]

White-box cryptography is the last security barrier for a cryptographic software implementation deployed in an untrusted environment. The principle of internal encodings is a commonly used white-box technique to protect block cipher implementations. It consists in representing an implementation as a network of look-up tables which are then encoded using randomly generated bijections (the internal encodings). When this approach is implemented based on nibble (i.e. 4-bit wide) encodings, the protected implementation has been shown to be vulnerable to differential computation analysis (DCA). The latter is essentially an adaptation of differential power analysis techniques to computation traces consisting of runtime information, e.g., memory accesses, of the target software. In order to thwart DCA, it has then been suggested to use wider encodings, and in particular byte encodings, at least to protect the outer rounds of the block cipher which are the prime targets of DCA. In this work, we provide an in-depth analysis of when and why DCA works. We pinpoint the properties of the target variables and the encodings that make the attack (in)feasible. In particular, we show that DCA can break encodings wider than 4-bit, such as byte encodings. Additionally, we propose new DCA-like attacks inspired from side-channel analysis techniques. Specifically, we describe a collision attack particularly effective against the internal encoding countermeasure. We also investigate mutual information analysis (MIA) which naturally applies in this context. Compared to the original DCA, these attacks are also passive and they require very limited knowledge of the attacked implementation, but they achieve significant improvements in terms of trace complexity. All the analyses of our work are experimentally backed up with various attack simulation results. We also verified the practicability of our analyses and attack techniques against a publicly available white-box AES implementation protected with byte encodings –which DCA has failed to break before– and against a “masked” white-box AES implementation –which intends to resist DCA. [less ▲]

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See detailInklusion aus der Sicht von Kindern mit dem Förderschwerpunkt Lernen – Überprüfung von Messinvarianz in verschiedenen schulischen Kontexten
Knickenberg, Margarita; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Venetz, Martin

Scientific Conference (2019, February)

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See detailIntegrating sustainability risks - Implications of the ESMA consultation paper on the integration of sustainability risks and factors
Emrick-Schmitz, Elena Ashley UL; Ammar, Ashraf

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The private equity sector has been increasingly adopting responsible investment practices, with investors being the initial driving force. According to the Global private equity survey conducted by PwC in ... [more ▼]

The private equity sector has been increasingly adopting responsible investment practices, with investors being the initial driving force. According to the Global private equity survey conducted by PwC in 2017, 60% of all private equity firms questioned (111 general partners from 22 countries) stated that they have incorporated ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) factors within their initial screening process. 44% of them aim to align their sustainability efforts to the UN Sustainable Development Goals. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante N°16 – février 2019
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2019), 16

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See detailA genome-wide association study of sodium levels and drug metabolism in an epilepsy cohort treated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine
Berghuis, B; Stapleton, C; Sonsma, ACM et al

in Epilepsia Open (2019)

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See detailSicherheit und Risiko unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Gouvernementalität: Zur Funktion des Kredits
Mein, Georg UL

in Mein, Georg; Christians, Heiko (Eds.) Gefahr oder Risiko. Zur Geschichte von Kalkül und Einbildungskraft (2019)

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See detailCoercive Trade Policy
Anesi, Vincent UL; Facchini, Giovanni

in American Economic Journal. Microeconomics (2019), 11

Coercion is used by one government (the "sender") to influence the trade practices of another (the "target"). We build a two-country trade model in which coercion can be exercised unilaterally or ... [more ▼]

Coercion is used by one government (the "sender") to influence the trade practices of another (the "target"). We build a two-country trade model in which coercion can be exercised unilaterally or channeled through a "weak" international organization without enforcement powers. We show that unilateral coercion may be ineffective because signaling incentives lead the sender to demand a concession so substantial to make it unacceptable to the target. If the sender can instead commit to the international organization's dispute settlement mechanism, then compliance is more likely because the latter places a cap on the sender's incentives to signal its resolve. [less ▲]

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See detailHow ill is your IT Portfolio? : Measuring Criticality in IT Portfolios Using Epidemiology
Guggenmos, Florian; Hofmann, Peter; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in 40th International Conference on Information Systems, Munich, Germany, 2019 (2019)

IT project portfolios, consisting of IT projects, also interact with the entire IT landscape. In case of a failure of only one element, existing dependencies can lead to a cascade failure, which can cause ... [more ▼]

IT project portfolios, consisting of IT projects, also interact with the entire IT landscape. In case of a failure of only one element, existing dependencies can lead to a cascade failure, which can cause high losses. Despite the present effects of systemic risk, research into IT portfolio management lacks suitable methods to quantitatively assess systemic risk. We follow the design science research paradigm to develop and evaluate our ‘on track’ or ‘in difficulty’ (TD) method by applying the SI model, representing a recognized network diffusion model in epidemiology, in an IT portfolio context. We evaluate our method using a real-world dataset. We introduce a criticality measure for diffusion models in IT portfolios and compare the TD method’s results and the alpha centrality to human judgment as a benchmark. From our evaluation, we conclude that the TD method outperforms alpha centrality and is a suitable risk measure in IT portfolio management. [less ▲]

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See detailÜberprüfung der Machbarkeit eines offenen und dezentralen Mobilitätssystems (OMOS)
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Röhlen, Jörg; Guggenberger, Tobias et al

Report (2019)

The customer requirements for mobility systems are changing. Travelers increasingly expect a carefree travel experience with any starting or destination point ("Seamless Mobility as a Service") - and that ... [more ▼]

The customer requirements for mobility systems are changing. Travelers increasingly expect a carefree travel experience with any starting or destination point ("Seamless Mobility as a Service") - and that with a single booking and billing for all means of transport used. In order to meet this need, the idea of ​​an open and decentralized mobility system is increasingly being discussed, which can integrate the offers of various mobility providers through a common, neutral system. Before such a system can take a concrete form, however, a clear understanding of the opportunities and risks as well as the specific requirements of end customers and mobility providers on such a system is required. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the general opportunities and risks of a corresponding system, as well as the general feasibility of the requirements placed on such a system. A multi-method approach was chosen for this purpose. This makes it possible to examine a holistic picture of the requirements of end customers as well as mobility providers and other stakeholders (e.g. technology providers). Records from a workshop with the (associated) partners in the OMOS project and the results of a literature analysis were used as the basis for data collection. To examine the end customer needs, two surveys were carried out with a total of 352 participants, whose questions were derived from practical workshops (survey I) and theoretical models (survey II). In addition, an interview study was carried out with 15 experts to discuss the requirements of various stakeholders, on the basis of which general topics in the field of seamless mobility were also asked. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoupling, Information Technology, and the Tradeoff between Organizational Reliability and Organizational Agility
Keller, Robert; Ollig, Philipp; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2019)

Information technology (IT) units within organizations pursue both organizational reliability and agility goals. Reliability ensures the stability and business continuity of organizations, whereas agility ... [more ▼]

Information technology (IT) units within organizations pursue both organizational reliability and agility goals. Reliability ensures the stability and business continuity of organizations, whereas agility helps to detect and exploit market opportunities. In our research, we study projects in 19 organizations and unravel the relationship between agility and reliability. We observe that in certain cases reliability can undermine agility and vice versa. Global rules, routines, and procedures can hinder organizational agility whereas responding creatively for agility can locally undermine global organizational reliability. Further, we find that organizations often use decoupling to deal with this trade-off. Although decoupling enables them to be agile and reliable at the same time, it risks undermining both capabilities in the future, by encouraging the accumulation of technical debt. We find indications of how technical debt limits opportunities to creatively respond and can increase vulnerabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailCompensating Balancing Demand by Spatial Load Migration : The Case of Geographically Distributed Data Center
Thimmel, Markus; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Keller, Robert et al

in Energy Policy (2019), 130

The increasing share of renewables confronts existing power grids with a massive challenge, stemming from additional volatility to power grids introduced by renewable energy sources. This increases the ... [more ▼]

The increasing share of renewables confronts existing power grids with a massive challenge, stemming from additional volatility to power grids introduced by renewable energy sources. This increases the demand for balancing mechanisms, which provide balancing power to ensure that power supply always meets with demand. However, the ability to provide cost-efficient and eco-friendly balancing power can vary significantly between locations. Fridgen et al. (2017) introduce an approach based on geographically distributed data centers, aiming at the spatial migration of balancing power demand between distant locations. Although their approach enables the migration of balancing demand to cost-efficient and/or eco-friendly balancing mechanisms, it will come up against limits if deployed on a global scale. In this paper, we extend Fridgen et al. (2017)’s approach by developing a model based on geographically distributed data centers, which not only enables the migration of balancing demand but also compensates for this migration when it is contradictory between different balancing power markets without burdening conventional balancing mechanisms. Using a simulation based on real-world data, we demonstrate the possibility to exploit the potential of compensation balancing demand offered by spatial load migration resulting in economic gains that will incentivize data center operators to apply our model. [less ▲]

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