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See detailGenome sequencing analysis identifies new loci associated with Lewy body dementia and provides insights into its genetic architecture
Chia, Ruth; Sabir, Marya S.; Bandres-Ciga, Sara et al

in Nature Genetics (2021)

The genetic basis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is not well understood. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of LBD cases and neurologically healthy controls to study the genetic ... [more ▼]

The genetic basis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is not well understood. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of LBD cases and neurologically healthy controls to study the genetic architecture of this understudied form of dementia, and to generate a resource for the scientific community. Genome-wide association analysis identified five independent risk loci, whereas genome-wide gene-aggregation tests implicated mutations in the gene GBA. Genetic risk scores demonstrate that LBD shares risk profiles and pathways with Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, providing a deeper molecular understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this age-related neurodegenerative condition. [less ▲]

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See detailBenefits, Motivations, and Challenges of International Collaborative Research: A Sociology of Science Case Study
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Science and Public Policy (2021)

Contemporary science is marked by expanding, diverse forms of teamwork. Collaboration across organizational and cultural boundaries extends the possibilities of discovery. International collaborative ... [more ▼]

Contemporary science is marked by expanding, diverse forms of teamwork. Collaboration across organizational and cultural boundaries extends the possibilities of discovery. International collaborative research projects can provide findings beyond what one team could achieve alone. Motivated to grow their scientific network and maintain existing relationships, researchers increasingly collaborate, despite often unrecognized costs, since such projects are challenging to manage and carry out. Rarely studied in-depth and longitudinally, researcher perspectives are crucial to better understand the dynamics of durable collaboration networks. Thus, this retrospective, longitudinal case study of a sociology of science project applies the novel method of autoethnography to examine teamwork benefits, motivations, and challenges. Key challenges found include spatial distance and differences of culture, language, and career stage. This study, spanning North America, Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, focused on collaborators’ characteristics and evolving perceptions of team dynamics over a decade. [less ▲]

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See detailrio: Reasoner for Input/Output Logics
Steen, Alexander UL

Software (2021)

rio provides a TPTP-aligned [3] automated reasoning system for unconstrained and constrained I/O logics basid on the outi operators, 1 ≤ i ≤ 4. It is implemented as a Scala application and based on the ... [more ▼]

rio provides a TPTP-aligned [3] automated reasoning system for unconstrained and constrained I/O logics basid on the outi operators, 1 ≤ i ≤ 4. It is implemented as a Scala application and based on the scala-tptp-parser [4]. In short, the system allows you to specify a set of conditional norms and a number of inputs (each of which describing aspects of the current situational context), and provides automated means for inferring whether given obligations (also encoded as formulas) can be derived. rio can also be used to infer the set of detached obligations instead of checking detachment of given ones. [less ▲]

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See detailMyths and realities around Open Access before and after 2021
England, Jonathan UL

Learning material (2021)

Presentation given to researchers and research support staff for projects funded by Luxembourg's national funder (FNR) as part of an information session on their pre-2021 and their new post-2021 Open ... [more ▼]

Presentation given to researchers and research support staff for projects funded by Luxembourg's national funder (FNR) as part of an information session on their pre-2021 and their new post-2021 Open Access policy. The idea is to break some of the myths around OA (e.g. OA is a journal, OA is only possible the 'Gold' way), encourage researchers to always self-archive their publications and inform about the new policies coming up due to Plan S. The presentation uploaded was given on 11/02/2021. [less ▲]

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See detailKeynote: Service Oriented Architecture Chances and Challenges
Gonzalez de Oliveira, Ricardo UL; Chirstian, Kerstan; Henkel, Achim

Scientific Conference (2021, February 11)

Service Oriented Architectures are neither new nor very complicated. Quite the opposite. With the introduction of Ethernet into vehicles service based communication became reality. Therefore, the big SOA ... [more ▼]

Service Oriented Architectures are neither new nor very complicated. Quite the opposite. With the introduction of Ethernet into vehicles service based communication became reality. Therefore, the big SOA dream of independent hardware and software deployment seems to be in reach. Not only SOME/IP faces the challenge of service discovery and situation aware communication. However, automotive industry is far from mobilizing the full potential. The presentation will give an overview about the most crucial challenges we have to tackle and provide some – hopefully – helpful approaches how to overcome them. [less ▲]

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See detailThe winner writes it all. Wie erzählen wir Vergangenheit?
Brüll, Christoph UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

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See detailCompte rendu de Jakob Müller, Die importierte Nation
Brüll, Christoph UL

in H-Soz-Kult (2021)

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See detailQoS-Predictable SOA on TSN: Insights from a Case-Study
Villanueva, Josetxo; Migge, Jörn; Navet, Nicolas UL

Scientific Conference (2021, February 09)

This work is about the design and configuration of service-oriented communication on top of Ethernet TSN. The first objective is to present takeaways from the design and implementation of the Renault E/E ... [more ▼]

This work is about the design and configuration of service-oriented communication on top of Ethernet TSN. The first objective is to present takeaways from the design and implementation of the Renault E/E Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) called FACE. In particular, we discuss technological, design and configuration choices made for the SOA, such as how to segment messages (UDP with multiple events, TCP, SOME/IP TP), and the technical possibilities to shape the transmission of the packets on the Ethernet network. The second objective is to study how to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) required by services. Indeed, services introduce specific challenges, be it only the sheer amount of traffic they generate and if there is a growing body of experiences in the use of TSN QoS mechanisms most of what has been learned so far is mostly about meeting the requirements of individual streams. Less is known for services that involve the transmission of several, possibly segmented, messages with more complex transmission patterns. We show on the FACE architecture how SOME/IP messages were mapped to TSN QoS mechanisms in a manual then automated manner so as to meet the individual requirements of the services in terms of timing, and the system’s requirements in terms of memory usage. [less ▲]

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See detailAssange’s Extradition: Status Pending
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL; Andreadakis, Stelios

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailWhat Are Scientific Models? Problems with the Fiction View
Durlacher, Thomas UL

Poster (2021, February 05)

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See detailComparing elementary cellular automata classifications with a convolutional neural network
Comelli, Thibaud; Pinel, Frederic UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proceedings of International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART) (2021, February 05)

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of ... [more ▼]

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of a cellular automata, which can be viewed as an image composed of black and white pixels. The visual patterns within these images inspired several ECA classifications, aimed at matching the automatas’ properties to observed patterns, visual or statistical. In this paper, we quantitatively compare 11 ECA classifications. In contrast to the a priori logic behind a classification, we propose an a posteriori evaluation of a classification. The evaluation employs a convolutional neural network, trained to classify each ECA to its assigned class in a classification. The prediction accuracy indicates how well the convolutional neural network is able to learn the underlying classification logic, and reflects how well this classification logic clusters patterns in the temporal evolution. Results show different prediction accuracy (yet all above 85%), three classifications are very well captured by our simple convolutional neural network (accuracy above 99%), although trained on a small extract from the temporal evolution, and with little observations (100 per ECA, evolving 513 cells). In addition, we explain an unreported ”pathological” behaviour in two ECAs. [less ▲]

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See detailImages alliées de la libération des camps nazis
Tore, Gian Maria UL; Brüll, Christoph UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

La seconde guerre mondiale terminée, le procès de Nuremberg ouvre une nouvelle ère : celle des poursuites judiciaires pour « crimes contre l’humanité », mais aussi celle du recours à l’image comme « ... [more ▼]

La seconde guerre mondiale terminée, le procès de Nuremberg ouvre une nouvelle ère : celle des poursuites judiciaires pour « crimes contre l’humanité », mais aussi celle du recours à l’image comme « preuve ». La projection de films de la libération des camps nazis pendant les audiences du procès de Nuremberg constitue un moment révolutionnaire et fondamental. Ces films tournés et montés par les Soviétiques, les Anglais et surtout les Américains – qui travaillent alors à Hollywood – semblent être aujourd’hui des documentaires incontournables. En réalité, ils sont souvent plus connus que réellement vus ; la plupart d’entre eux avait même littéralement disparu pendant des décennies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Luxembourg Asylum Law
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Learning material (2021)

This presentation provides a quick overlook on the Law of 18 December 2015 on international protection and temporary protection (Asylum Law) of Luxembourg.

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See detailLatent Dirichlet Allocation Models for World Trade Analysis
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Semeshenko, Viktoriya; Molinari, Andrea

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(2), 0245393

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies ... [more ▼]

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies and techniques that go beyond the traditional approach. The present paper shows the application of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation Models, a well known technique from the area of Natural Language Processing, to search for latent dimensions in the product space of international trade, and their distribution across countries over time. We apply this technique to a dataset of countries' exports of goods from 1962 to 2016. The findings show the possibility to generate higher level classifications of goods based on the empirical evidence, and also allow to study the distribution of those classifications within countries. The latter show interesting insights about countries' trade specialisation. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Signal Space Design for Multiuser MIMO Interference Channels
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Multiuser precoding techniques are critical to handle the co-channel interference, also known as multiuser interference (MUI), in the downlink of multiuser multi-antenna wireless systems. The convention ... [more ▼]

Multiuser precoding techniques are critical to handle the co-channel interference, also known as multiuser interference (MUI), in the downlink of multiuser multi-antenna wireless systems. The convention in designing multiuser precoding schemes has been to treat the MUI as an undesired received signal component. Consequently, the design attempts to suppress the MUI by exploiting the channel state information (CSI), regardless of the instantaneous users’ data symbols. In contrast, it has been shown that the MUI may not always be undesired or destructive as it is possible to exploit the constructive part of the interference or even converting the interfering components into constructive interference (CI) by instantaneously exploiting the users’ intended data symbols. As a result, the MUI can be transformed into a useful source of power that constructively contributes to the users’ received signals. This observation has turned the viewpoint on multiuser precoding from conventional approaches towards more sophisticated designs that further exploit the data information (DI) in addition to the CSI, referred to as symbol-level precoding (SLP). The SLP schemes can improve the multiuser system’s overall performance in terms of various metrics, such as power efficiency, symbol error rate, and received signal power. However, such improvement comes with several practical challenges, for example, the need for setting the modulation scheme in advance, increased computational complexity at the transmitter, and sensitivity to CSI and other system uncertainties. The main goal of this thesis is to address these challenges in the design of an SLP scheme. The existing design formulations for the CI-based SLP problem consider a specific signal constellation; therefore, the design needs to set the modulation scheme in advance. In this thesis, we first elaborate on optimal and relaxed approaches to exploit the CI in a novel systematic way. This study enables us to develop a generic framework for the SLP design problem, which can be used for modulation schemes with constellations of any given shape and order. Depending on the design criterion, the proposed framework can offer significant gains in the power consumption at the transmitter side or the received signal power and the symbol error rate at the receiver side without increasing the complexity, compared to the state-of-the-art schemes. Next, to address the high computational complexity issue, we simplify the design process and propose approximate yet computationally-efficient solutions performing relatively close to the optimal design. We further propose an optimized accelerated FPGA design that allows the real-time implementation of our SLP technique in high-throughput communications systems. Remarkably, the accelerated design enjoys the same per-symbol complexity order as that of the zero-forcing (ZF) precoding scheme. Next, we address the problem of robust SLP design under system uncertainties. In particular, we focus on two sources of uncertainty, namely, the channel and the design process. The related problems are tackled by adopting worst-case and stochastic design approaches and appropriately redefining the precoding optimization problem. The resulting robust schemes can effectively deal with system uncertainties while preserving reliability and power efficiency in the multiuser communications system, at the cost of a slightly increased complexity. Finally, we broaden our scope to new technologies such as millimeter wave (mmWave) communications and massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and revisit the SLP problem for low-cost energy-efficient transmitter architectures. The precoding design problem is more challenging particularly in such scenarios as the related hardware restrictions impose additional (often intractable) constraints on the problem. The restrictions are typically due to the use of finite-resolution analog-to-digital converters (DAC) or analog components such as switches and/or phase shifters. Two well-known design strategies are considered in this thesis, namely, quantized (finite-alphabet) precoding and hybrid analog-digital precoding. We tackle the related problems through adopting efficient design mechanisms and optimization algorithms, which are novel for the SLP schemes. The proposed techniques are shown to improve the system’s energy efficiency compared to the state-of-the-art. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenic Huntingtin Repeat Expansions in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Dewan, Ramita; Chia, Ruth; Ding, Jinhui et al

in Neuron (2021), 109(3), 448-460

We examined the role of repeat expansions in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing whole-genome sequence data from 2,442 FTD/ALS patients ... [more ▼]

We examined the role of repeat expansions in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing whole-genome sequence data from 2,442 FTD/ALS patients, 2,599 Lewy body dementia (LBD) patients, and 3,158 neurologically healthy subjects. Pathogenic expansions (range, 40-64 CAG repeats) in the huntingtin (HTT) gene were found in three (0.12%) patients diagnosed with pure FTD/ALS syndromes but were not present in the LBD or healthy cohorts. We replicated our findings in an independent collection of 3,674 FTD/ALS patients. Postmortem evaluations of two patients revealed the classical TDP-43 pathology of FTD/ALS, as well as huntingtin-positive, ubiquitin-positive aggregates in the frontal cortex. The neostriatal atrophy that pathologically defines Huntington's disease was absent in both cases. Our findings reveal an etiological relationship between HTT repeat expansions and FTD/ALS syndromes and indicate that genetic screening of FTD/ALS patients for HTT repeat expansions should be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailBistability in oxidative stress response determines the migration behavior of phytoplankton in turbulence
Carrara, Francesco; Sengupta, Anupam UL; Behrendt, Lars et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2021), 118(5), 2005944118

Turbulence is an important determinant of phytoplankton physiology, often leading to cell stress and damage. Turbulence affects phytoplankton migration both by transporting cells and by triggering ... [more ▼]

Turbulence is an important determinant of phytoplankton physiology, often leading to cell stress and damage. Turbulence affects phytoplankton migration both by transporting cells and by triggering switches in migratory behavior, whereby vertically migrating cells can actively invert their direction of migration upon exposure to turbulent cues. However, a mechanistic link between single-cell physiology and vertical migration of phytoplankton in turbulence is currently missing. Here, by combining physiological and behavioral experiments with a mathematical model of stress accumulation and dissipation, we show that the mechanism responsible for the switch in the direction of migration in the marine raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is the integration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling generated by turbulent cues. Within timescales as short as tens of seconds, the emergent downward-migrating subpopulation exhibited a twofold increase in ROS, an indicator of stress, 15% lower photosynthetic efficiency, and 35% lower growth rate over multiple generations compared to the upward-migrating subpopulation. The origin of the behavioral split as a result of a bistable oxidative stress response is corroborated by the observation that exposure of cells to exogenous stressors (H2O2, UV-A radiation, or high irradiance), in lieu of turbulence, caused comparable ROS accumulation and an equivalent split into the two subpopulations. By providing a mechanistic link between the single-cell mechanics of swimming and physiology on the one side and the emergent population-scale migratory response and impact on fitness on the other, the ROS-mediated early warning response we discovered contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton community composition in future ocean conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailQM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of quantum-mechanical properties spanning the chemical space of small organic molecules
Hoja, Johannes UL; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Ernst, Brian G. et al

in Scientific Data (2021), 8(43),

We introduce QM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of 42 physicochemical properties for ≈4.2 million equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures of small organic molecules with up to seven non-hydrogen (C, N, O ... [more ▼]

We introduce QM7-X, a comprehensive dataset of 42 physicochemical properties for ≈4.2 million equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures of small organic molecules with up to seven non-hydrogen (C, N, O, S, Cl) atoms. To span this fundamentally important region of chemical compound space (CCS), QM7-X includes an exhaustive sampling of (meta-)stable equilibrium structures—comprised of constitutional/structural isomers and stereoisomers, e.g., enantiomers and diastereomers (including cis-/trans- and conformational isomers)—as well as 100 non-equilibrium structural variations thereof to reach a total of ≈4.2 million molecular structures. Computed at the tightly converged quantum-mechanical PBE0+MBD level of theory, QM7-X contains global (molecular) and local (atom-in-a-molecule) properties ranging from ground state quantities (such as atomization energies and dipole moments) to response quantities (such as polarizability tensors and dispersion coefficients). By providing a systematic, extensive, and tightly-converged dataset of quantum-mechanically computed physicochemical properties, we expect that QM7-X will play a critical role in the development of next-generation machine-learning based models for exploring greater swaths of CCS and performing in silico design of molecules with targeted properties. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal and international parental migration and the living conditions of children in Ghana
Cebotari, Victor UL; Dito, Bilisuma

in Children and Youth Services Review (2021), 121(February), 105821

Relatively little is known about the effects of parental migration on the living conditions of children who stay behind. Using survey data collected in 2010 from Ghanaian school children (11–18 years; N ... [more ▼]

Relatively little is known about the effects of parental migration on the living conditions of children who stay behind. Using survey data collected in 2010 from Ghanaian school children (11–18 years; N = 2100), this study investigates variations in children’s durable goods and private utilities when parents migrate internally or internationally compared to a control group of children who live with their parents. The study also investigates whether the effects are contingent upon the marital situation of the parents. The findings show that parental migration is not associated with poorer living conditions for Ghanaian children. Rather, specific factors, such as parental divorce, internal migration and the gender of the child, influence whether children experience a decline in their living conditions when parents migrate. [less ▲]

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