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See detailTowards Tactile Internet in Beyond 5G Era: Recent Advances, Current Issues and Future Directions
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Woungang, Isaac; Anpalagan, Alagan et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e ... [more ▼]

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e., touch, actuation, motion, vibration, surface texture) over Internet in addition to the conventional audiovisual and data traffics. This emerging TI technology, also considered as the next evolution phase of Internet of Things (IoT), is expected to create numerous opportunities for technology markets in a wide variety of applications ranging from teleoperation systems and Augmented/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) to automotive safety and eHealthcare towards addressing the complex problems of human society. However, the realization of TI over wireless media in the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) and beyond networks creates various non-conventional communication challenges and stringent requirements in terms of ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, high data-rate connectivity, resource allocation, multiple access and quality-latency-rate tradeoff. To this end, this paper aims to provide a holistic view on wireless TI along with a thorough review of the existing state-of-the-art, to identify and analyze the involved technical issues, to highlight potential solutions and to propose future research directions. First, starting with the vision of TI and recent advances and a review of related survey/overview articles, we present a generalized framework for wireless TI in the Beyond 5G Era including a TI architecture, the main technical requirements, the key application areas and potential enabling technologies. Subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing TI works by broadly categorizing them into three main paradigms; namely, haptic communications, wireless AR/VR, and autonomous, intelligent and cooperative mobility systems. Next, potential enabling technologies across physical/Medium Access Control (MAC) and network layers are identified and discussed in detail. Also, security and privacy issues of TI applications are discussed along with some promising enablers. Finally, we present some open research challenges and recommend promising future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to ‘Economic and Monetary Union at Twenty: A Stocktaking of a Tumultuous Second decade’
Howarth, David UL; Verdun, Amy

in Journal of European Integration (2020), 42(3), 287-293

This contribution discusses the two main asymmetries of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) as they developed over the past two decades since the launch of the Single Currency. From the outset, EMU ... [more ▼]

This contribution discusses the two main asymmetries of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) as they developed over the past two decades since the launch of the Single Currency. From the outset, EMU involved asymmetric degrees of integration in the area of ‘economic’ union (less centralised governance) versus ‘monetary’ union (more supranational governance). With the outbreak of the Sovereign Debt Crisis in 2010, the regime-shaping relevance of a second asymmetry emerged: one roughly between the member states of the Euro Area ‘core’ and those in the ‘periphery’. Each of the two asymmetries have created a range of challenges—institutional, policy and political — that undermine the stability and sustainability of the EMU project. [less ▲]

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See detailOne money, two markets? EMU at twenty and European financial market integration
Howarth, David UL; Quaglia, Lucia

in Journal of European Integration (2020), 42(3), 433-448

This contribution combines neo-functionalism and historical institutionalism to understand the implications of differentiated integration in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and Banking Union (BU) for ... [more ▼]

This contribution combines neo-functionalism and historical institutionalism to understand the implications of differentiated integration in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and Banking Union (BU) for the single market in financial services in the European Union (EU). From the 1980s, the relaunch of the Single Market and monetary integration in the EU were presented by the supporters of EMU as mutually reinforcing, as in the logic of the Commission’s Report ‘One Market, One Money’. Initially, EMU appeared to reinforce financial integration, especially in the Euro Area banking sector, even though EMU was a case of differentiated integration in the EU. Subsequently, the incomplete EMU triggered the sovereign debt crisis, which undermined financial market integration and was addressed through the establishment of BU, which reinforced differentiated integration. Both EMU and BU have negative implications for the ‘singleness’ of the single market in financial services, potentially resulting in ‘One Money, Two Markets’. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the “project within the project” to the “city within the city”? Governance and Management Problems in Large Urban Development Projects Using the Example of the Science City Belval, Luxembourg
Leick, Annick UL; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2020), 78(3), 1-17

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in ... [more ▼]

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in particular university locations and science parks, as a central guiding principle for urban expansion. On the other hand, the paper focuses on the analysis of urban management and governance practices and, more specifically, the disjoining of large projects from their common urban planning context. Emphasis is put on the fact that such undertakings are defined as ‘projects’ and that they are subordinated to a specific management approach. Amid debates concerning large-scale urban development projects and urban governance, we develop the thesis that the risk for projects to unfold as a sort of ‘foreign matter’ in the urban realm increases as the degree to which they are subject to proven planning processes and regulatory practices diminishes. This argument will be empirically illustrated with Belval, the science city in the south of Luxembourg, which is developed ever since 2003 and whose progress is critically assessed here. The general conclusions include planning requirements for dealing with new large-scale development projects. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi-use, re-usable and resource-efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Annealing and Light on Co-evaporated Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in Ultra-High Vacuum
Gallet, Thibaut UL; Martin Lanzoni, Evandro UL; Redinger, Alex UL

in 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2020, February 06)

Careful surface analysis is essential to understand the electronic and ionic behaviors in perovskite absorbers. In this contribution we discuss Kelvin probe force microscopy performed in ultra-high vacuum ... [more ▼]

Careful surface analysis is essential to understand the electronic and ionic behaviors in perovskite absorbers. In this contribution we discuss Kelvin probe force microscopy performed in ultra-high vacuum on as-grown and annealed co-evaporated methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films. By comparing the contact potential difference upon annealing and illumination, we find that annealing increases the average workfunction, indicating a change either in doping or in surface composition. Illumination also increases the average workfunction, indicating a p-type absorber, by reducing band bending as the photo-generated carriers screen the surface states. The effect of light shows a two-step process, with a first fast trend, linked to the surface photovoltage and a second slower trend indicating a possible redistribution of mobile charges. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolving a Deep Neural Network Training Time Estimator
Pinel, Frédéric UL; Yin, Jian-xiong; Hundt, Christian UL et al

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2020, February)

We present a procedure for the design of a Deep Neural Net- work (DNN) that estimates the execution time for training a deep neural network per batch on GPU accelerators. The estimator is destined to be ... [more ▼]

We present a procedure for the design of a Deep Neural Net- work (DNN) that estimates the execution time for training a deep neural network per batch on GPU accelerators. The estimator is destined to be embedded in the scheduler of a shared GPU infrastructure, capable of providing estimated training times for a wide range of network architectures, when the user submits a training job. To this end, a very short and simple representation for a given DNN is chosen. In order to compensate for the limited degree of description of the basic network representation, a novel co-evolutionary approach is taken to fit the estimator. The training set for the estimator, i.e. DNNs, is evolved by an evolutionary algorithm that optimizes the accuracy of the estimator. In the process, the genetic algorithm evolves DNNs, generates Python-Keras programs and projects them onto the simple representation. The genetic operators are dynamic, they change with the estimator’s accuracy in order to balance accuracy with generalization. Results show that despite the low degree of information in the representation and the simple initial design for the predictor, co-evolving the training set performs better than near random generated population of DNNs. [less ▲]

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See detailFinding Bit-Based Division Property for Ciphers with Complex Linear Layers
Hu, Kai; Wang, Qingju UL; Wang, Meiqin

in IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology (2020), 1(1),

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See detailLinks between Division Property and Other Cube Attack Variants
Hao, Yonglin; Jiao, Lin; Li, Chaoyun et al

in IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology (2020), 1(1),

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See detailFiscal effects of migrants in Europe: a quantile regression approach
Joxhe, Majlinda UL; Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL; Scaramozzino, Pasquale

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this paper, we explore the fiscal impact of immigrants in Europe applying a quantile regression approach to data from the European Survey on Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for the period 2007-2015. Our ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we explore the fiscal impact of immigrants in Europe applying a quantile regression approach to data from the European Survey on Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for the period 2007-2015. Our estimations show that not only on average but also in almost all income quantiles, the fiscal position of both European and non-European migrants is not significantly different from that of native citizens. Furthermore, non-EU migrants are net contributors as compared to the corresponding native citizens in the Netherlands and Belgium for various quantiles. Lastly, we examine the link between migrants’ fiscal position and the fiscal perception of native European citizens measured using ESS data. We find a conflicting relationship: countries where migrants are perceived negatively are instead countries where they are net fiscal contributors and vice versa. [less ▲]

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See detailMartin Straus, ein europäischer Musikpädagoge aus Luxemburg
Sagrillo, Damien UL; Brusniak, Friedhelm

in Ars Inter Culturas (2020)

Martin Straus (1946-2019) was one of the music educators of the last decades who attracted attention beyond Luxembourg with his new creative and innovative ideas. His work “Music – Playing with Sound“ ... [more ▼]

Martin Straus (1946-2019) was one of the music educators of the last decades who attracted attention beyond Luxembourg with his new creative and innovative ideas. His work “Music – Playing with Sound“ which was developed in cooperation with a teacher and a second teacher, is based on a “parameter concept“, in which the six musical parameters – tone color, form, rhythm, dynamics, melody and harmony – are connected to the six activities of singing, playing, moving, composing, listening, recording/understanding so that it results in 36 points of contact for didactic-methodical considerations. The visual symbol is the “Klangmännchen“ (« little sound man“), a cephalopod figure, which, much as a soap bubble, you can see, but which you cannot hear. From this elementary direction of thinking, the “Luxembourg Model“ works well for both non-specialist teachers in the elementary field and for advanced music lessons in general education schools. The first scientific studies have shown that it is also of practical use in special needs education programs. The concept “Music – Playing with Sound“ is suitable for multi-perspective lessons using examples of music from the past and the present as well as for pedagogical challenges in the areas of inclusion and integration. [less ▲]

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See detailHeavy Alkali Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: Surface versus Bulk effects
Siebentritt, Susanne UL; Avancini, Enrico; Bär, Marcus et al

in Advanced Energy Materials (2020)

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See detailDesigning an early failure indicator channel for an in-tank hydrogen valve via a fatigue-based approach
Cao, Thanh Binh UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL; Sellen, Stephan et al

in Journal of Computational Design and Engineering (2020)

This study introduced a fatigue-based approach to design and implement an indicator channel into an in-tank hydrogen valve. It was aimed at providing a mean to point out multiple early valve’s damages. To ... [more ▼]

This study introduced a fatigue-based approach to design and implement an indicator channel into an in-tank hydrogen valve. It was aimed at providing a mean to point out multiple early valve’s damages. To achieve the goal, the study was proposed to handle via three main phases. They included (i) the risk point determinations, (ii) the new valve design and the crack nucleation life estimations, as well as (iii) the simplified crack growth analyses. The obtained results firstly highlighted the construction of the test channel (TC), whose branches were located close to the predicted damage’s sites. The damages could be identified either when a crack reaches the TC (then forms a leakage) or indirectly via the crack propagations’ correlation. The results also pointed out that the TC-implemented valve could perform as similarly as the non-TC one in the non-treated condition. More importantly, this new structure was proved to have a capacity of satisfying the required minimal life of 1.5E5 cycles, depending on the combined uses of the specific material and the pre-treatment, among those considered. In addition, the results emphasized the complexity of the TC that could not be formed by the traditional manufacturing process. Hence, direct metal laser sintering was proposed for the associated prototype and the final TC was issued based on the fundamental requirements of the technique. Finally, it was suggested that practical experiments should essentially be carried out to yield more evidence to support the demonstrated results. [less ▲]

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See detailÜberfällig? Thesen zur Postwachstumsplanung
Schulz, Christian UL

in Blog Postwachstum (2020)

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See detailIslam and Reform of Authoritarianism: The Case of Muslim Majority Government
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

in International Journal of Legislative Drafting & Legal Reform (2020), 8(1), 3-25

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See detailAutonomous Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Gaudín, Américo; Madruga, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Carlos et al

in High Performance Computing (2020)

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ... [more ▼]

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The subproblem of static off-line planning is studied to find initial flight plans for each vehicle in the fleet, using evolutionary algorithms to achieve compromise values between the size of the explored area, the proximity of the vehicles, and the monitoring of points of interest defined in the area. The results obtained in the experimental analysis on representative instances of the surveillance problem indicate that the proposed techniques are capable of computing effective flight plans. [less ▲]

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See detailA new variant of the Burgers model describing the flow of uncured styrene-butadiene rubber
Řehoř, Martin; Gansen, Alex UL; Sill, Clemens et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare the classical Burgers model with additional ... [more ▼]

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare the classical Burgers model with additional dissipation, a generalised Burgers model originally developed to describe the response of asphalt binders, and a newly derived Burgers model combining the strengths of the two existing models. We select the model that best fits the experimental data obtained from a modified stress relaxation experiment in the torsional configuration of the plate-plate rheometer. The optimisation of the five model parameters for each model is achieved by minimising the weighted least-squares distance between experimental observations and the computer model output using a tree-structured Parzen estimator algorithm to find an initial guess, followed by further optimisation using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The results show that our new model is the most suitable variant to describe the observed behavior of SBR in the given regime. The predictive capabilities of the three models are further examined in changed experimental and numerical configurations. Full data and code to produce the figures in this article are included as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailTESTS AND ESTIMATION STRATEGIES ASSOCIATED TO SOME LOSS FUNCTIONS
Baraud, Yannick UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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