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See detailPost-collusion security and distance bounding
Mauw, Sjouke UL; Smith, Zachary Daniel UL; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL et al

in Post-collusion security and distance bounding (2019, November 11)

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat ... [more ▼]

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat some security goals, without revealing their long-term secrets. We develop a model based on multiset rewriting to reason about collusion in security protocols. We introduce the notion of postcollusion security, which verifies security properties claimed in sessions initiated after collusion occurred. We use post-collusion security to analyse terrorist fraud on protocols for securing physical proximity, known as distance-bounding protocols. In a terrorist fraud attack, agents collude to falsely prove proximity, whilst no further false proximity proof can be issued without further collusion. Our definitions and the Tamarin prover are used to develop a modular framework for verification of distance-bounding protocols that accounts for all types of attack from literature. We perform a survey of over 25 protocols, which include industrial protocols such as Mastercard’s contactless payment PayPass and NXP’s MIFARE Plus with proximity check. For the industrial protocols we confirm attacks, propose fixes, and deliver computer-verifiable security proofs of the repaired versions [less ▲]

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See detailInternet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles—A Multilayer Low-Altitude Airspace Model for Distributed UAV Traffic Management
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Musial, Jedrzej UL et al

in Sensors (2019), 19(21), 22

The rapid adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) has encouraged the integration of new connected devices such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to the ubiquitous network. UAVs promise a pragmatic solution ... [more ▼]

The rapid adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) has encouraged the integration of new connected devices such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to the ubiquitous network. UAVs promise a pragmatic solution to the limitations of existing terrestrial IoT infrastructure as well as bring new means of delivering IoT services through a wide range of applications. Owning to their potential, UAVs are expected to soon dominate the low-altitude airspace over populated cities. This introduces new research challenges such as the safe management of UAVs operation under high traffic demands. This paper proposes a novel way of structuring the uncontrolled, low-altitude airspace, with the aim of addressing the complex problem of UAV traffic management at an abstract level. The work, hence, introduces a model of the airspace as a weighted multilayer network of nodes and airways and presents a set of experimental simulation results using three UAV traffic management heuristics. [less ▲]

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See detailAnsätze einer grenzüberschreitenden Sprachen- und Kulturdidaktik für die luxemburgische Grundschullehrerausbildung
Morys, Nancy UL

in Busch, Matthias; Frisch, Julia; Wegner, Anke (Eds.) Europa leben lernen - Apprendre à vivre l'Europe (2019)

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See detailInvestigating magnetic nanoparticles by small-angle neutron scattering
Bender, Philipp Florian UL

Presentation (2019, November)

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See detailEntropy Production in Open Systems: The Predominant Role of Intraenvironment Correlations
Ptaszyński, Krzysztof; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2019)

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See detailCrowdSenSim 2.0: a Stateful Simulation Platform for Mobile Crowdsensing in Smart Cities
Montori, Federico; Cortesi, Emanuele; Bedogni, Luca et al

in MSWIM '19: Proceedings of the 22nd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Miami Beach, FL, USA, 2019. (2019, November)

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices ... [more ▼]

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices. Typically, a large number of participants is required to make a sensing campaign successful. For such a reason, it is often not practical for researchers to build and deploy large testbeds to assess the performance of frameworks and algorithms for data collection, user recruitment, and evaluating the quality of information. Simulations offer a valid alternative. In this paper, we present CrowdSenSim 2.0, a significant extension of the popular CrowdSenSim simulation platform. CrowdSenSim 2.0 features a stateful approach to support algorithms where the chronological order of events matters, extensions of the architectural modules, including an additional system to model urban environments, code refactoring, and parallel execution of algorithms. All these improvements boost the performances of the simulator and make the runtime execution and memory utilization significantly lower, also enabling the support for larger simulation scenarios. We demonstrate retro-compatibility with the older platform and evaluate as a case study a stateful data collection algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailCONFIDENCE-BASED DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT FOR MULTI-SENSOR SYSTEMS
Neyens, Gilles UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

We live in a world where computer systems are omnipresent and are connected to more and more sensors. Ranging from small individual electronic assistants like smartphones to complex autonomous robots ... [more ▼]

We live in a world where computer systems are omnipresent and are connected to more and more sensors. Ranging from small individual electronic assistants like smartphones to complex autonomous robots, from personal wearable health devices to professional eHealth frameworks, all these systems use the sensors’ data in order to make appropriate decisions according to the context they measure. However, in addition to complete failures leading to the lack of data delivery, these sensors can also send bad data due to influences from the environment which can sometimes be hard to detect by the computer system when checking each sensor individually. The computer system should be able to use its set of sensors as a whole in order to mitigate the influence of malfunctioning sensors, to overcome the absence of data coming from broken sensors, and to handle possible conflicting information coming from several sensors. In this thesis, we propose a computational model based on a two layer software architecture to overcome this challenge. In a first layer, classification algorithms will check for malfunctioning sensors and attribute a confidence value to each sensor. In the second layer, a rule-based proactive engine will then build a representation of the context of the system and use it along some empirical knowledge about the weaknesses of the different sensors to further tweak this confidence value. Furthermore, the system will then check for conflicting data between sensors. This can be done by having several sensors that measure the same parameters or by having multiple sensors that can be used together to calculate an estimation of a parameter given by another sensor. A confidence value will be calculated for this estimation as well, based on the confidence values of the related sensors. The successive design refinement steps of our model are shown over the course of three experiments. The first two experiments, located in the eHealth domain, have been used to better identify the challenges of such multi-sensor systems, while the third experiment, which consists of a virtual robot simulation, acts as a proof of concept for the semi-generic model proposed in this thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Processing of Filtered DNA Reads
Fernandes, Maria UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Volp, Marcus UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, October 22)

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See detailFinite frequency noise in a chiral Luttinger liquid coupled to phonons
Idrisov, Edvin UL

in Physical Review. B (2019)

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See detailBig Automotive Data Preprocessing: A Three Stages Approach
Tawakuli, Amal UL; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Engel, Thomas UL

Poster (2019, October 08)

The automotive industry generates large datasets of various formats, uncertainties and frequencies. To exploit Automotive Big Data, the data needs to be connected, fused and preprocessed to quality ... [more ▼]

The automotive industry generates large datasets of various formats, uncertainties and frequencies. To exploit Automotive Big Data, the data needs to be connected, fused and preprocessed to quality datasets before being used for production and business processes. Data preprocessing tasks are typically expensive, tightly coupled with their intended AI algorithms and are done manually by domain experts. Hence there is a need to automate data preprocessing to seamlessly generate cleaner data. We intend to introduce a generic data preprocessing framework that handles vehicle-to-everything (V2X) data streams and dynamic updates. We intend to decentralize and automate data preprocessing by leveraging edge computing with the objective of progressively improving the quality of the dataflow within edge components (vehicles) and onto the cloud. [less ▲]

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See detailEntropy production in one-dimensional quantum fluids
Idrisov, Edvin UL; Schmidt, Thomas UL

in Physical Review. B (2019)

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See detailPerformance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in Urban VANETs
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volume 11803) (2019, September 25)

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of ... [more ▼]

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of emerging vehicular applications. In order to move data between vehicles that are not in direct communication range, several distributed routing protocols have been proposed and tested in vehicular networks, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Some previous works report disagreeing claims about routing protocol performances in similar vehicular scenarios. Therefore, in this work, we evaluate the performances in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), packet delay, frame collision rate, and signaling rate of three well-known routing protocols (AODV, DSDV, and GPSR), simulating them in a realistic Manhattan scenario. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of typical urban obstacles (e.g. buildings) on the considered performance metrics. We observed that, in the proposed urban scenario, AODV provided the best PDR, GPSR the best packet delay, and DSDV failed to provide satisfactory performances due to signaling-induced congestion. Simulations showed that considering the shadowing effects induced by the buildings in an urban scenario drastically changes the observed performances, i.e. reduces the frame collisions, decreases the PDR, and increases the packet delay. [less ▲]

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See detailBreaking Unlinkability of the ICAO 9303 Standard for e-Passports using Bisimilarity
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Smith, Zachary Daniel UL et al

in Breaking Unlinkability of the ICAO 9303 Standard for e-Passports using Bisimilarity (2019, September 23)

We clear up confusion surrounding privacy claims about the ICAO 9303 standard for e-passports. The ICAO 9303 standard includes a Basic Access Control (BAC) protocol that should protect the user from being ... [more ▼]

We clear up confusion surrounding privacy claims about the ICAO 9303 standard for e-passports. The ICAO 9303 standard includes a Basic Access Control (BAC) protocol that should protect the user from being traced from one session to another. While it is well known that there are attacks on BAC, allowing an attacker to link multiple uses of the same passport, due to differences in implementation; there still remains confusion about whether there is an attack on unlinkability directly on the BAC protocol as specified in the ICAO 9303 standard. This paper clarifies the nature of the debate, and sources of potential confusion. We demonstrate that the original privacy claims made are flawed, by uncovering attacks on a strong formulation of unlinkability. We explain why the use of the bisimilarity equivalence technique is essential for uncovering our attacks. We also clarify what assumptions lead to proofs of formulations of unlinkability using weaker notions of equivalence. Furthermore, we propose a fix for BAC within the scope of the standard, and prove that it is correct, again using a state-of-the-art approach to bisimilarity. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-flow congestion-aware routing in software-defined vehicular networks
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2019 IEEE 90th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Fall) Proceedings (2019, September 22)

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop ... [more ▼]

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications is one of the hardest challenges in vehicular networking, and it has been tackled in literature by using distributed algorithms. The distributed approach has shown significant inefficiencies in such dynamic vehicular scenarios, mainly due to poor network congestion control. To overcome the complexity of the envisioned architecture, and the inefficiency of distributed routing algorithms, we hereby propose to leverage the coordination capabilities of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to determine optimal V2V multi-hop paths and to offload traffic from the Vehicle-to-Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (V2I2V) to the V2V communications, using both cellular and Wi-Fi technologies. In order to achieve this goal, we propose Multi-Flow Congestion-Aware Routing (MFCAR), a centralized routing algorithm that relies on graph theory to choose short and uncongested V2V paths. Realistic simulations prove that MFCAR outperforms well- established centralized routing algorithms (e.g. Dijkstra's) in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), goodput and average packet delay, up to a five-fold performance gain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe real problem with Rawlsian reasonableness
Burks, Deven UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 17)

In The Law of Peoples, Rawls states that, if “political liberalism offers no way of proving that this specification [of reasonableness] is itself reasonable”, this is no great loss, for “it is simply ... [more ▼]

In The Law of Peoples, Rawls states that, if “political liberalism offers no way of proving that this specification [of reasonableness] is itself reasonable”, this is no great loss, for “it is simply politically reasonable to offer fair terms of cooperation to other free and equal citizens, and it is simply politically unreasonable to refuse to do so” (Rawls 1999: 87-8). While Rawls is undoubtedly right that public reason liberalism analytically requires some standard of reasonableness, it is less obvious this standard must take Rawls’s preferred form. Yet criticisms of Rawlsian “reasonableness” as “loaded” (Stout 2004: 184), “chimerical” (Young 2005: 308) or “entirely circular” (Mulhall and Swift 2003: 483) often equivocate on the meaning of reasonableness and so fall afoul of the “equivocation defense” (Freeman 2004: 2063-5). In this paper, I improve on those earlier criticisms by means of a narrow, immanent criticism whereon the two basic aspects of reasonableness – (A1) proposing and abiding by fair terms of cooperation and (A2) recognizing the “burdens of judgment” (Rawls 1996: 54-8) – may plausibly conflict: in some instances, accepting (A2) may give persons reason to disagree over the need to accept (A1). To show this, I first restate two aspects of reasonableness as a biconditional: a person is reasonable iff (A1) and (A2) obtain. I then examine whether Rawls’s burdens give reason to doubt the requirement in (A1). Insofar as the third, fourth and fifth burdens give reason to doubt just this requirement, I conclude that Rawlsian reasonableness should be reformulated. This reformulation preserves what Rawls gets right about reasonableness – namely, the burdens – but replaces the old standard with “reasonableness pluralism”, from which it follows that public reason cannot represent all the necessary conditions of political justification under circumstances of reasonable pluralism. [less ▲]

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See detailHiring Processes in Male- and Female-Dominated Occupations: Evidence for Gendered Scarring due to Unemployment
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2019, September 14)

Spells of unemployment have been shown to negatively affect the hiring chances of job applicants. These so-called "scarring effects" might be gender-specific due to gender bias in recruiters' hiring ... [more ▼]

Spells of unemployment have been shown to negatively affect the hiring chances of job applicants. These so-called "scarring effects" might be gender-specific due to gender bias in recruiters' hiring decisions. However, systematic analyses of the conditions under which scarring effects become gender-specific are missing. Against this background, we examine how gender and the duration of unemployment interactively shape recruiters' hiring decisions. We use data from a multinational factorial survey experiment among recruiters conducted in Switzerland and Norway. By focusing on a male-dominated (mechanics) and a female-dominated occupation (nursing), we test the hypothesis that gendered role expectations affect recruiters' hiring decisions towards unemployed men and women. We find, overall, evidence for heterogeneous scarring effects. By constituting new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment, this study contributes to our understanding of the demand-side barriers to successful and "gender-equal" transitions to employment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe view from anywhere: A better orientation towards public justification?
Burks, Deven UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 05)

If reasoning proceeds from perspectives, from which perspective should one reason when pursuing the ideal of public justification (acceptability (Lister 2013) or justifiability (Vallier 2018) of statutes ... [more ▼]

If reasoning proceeds from perspectives, from which perspective should one reason when pursuing the ideal of public justification (acceptability (Lister 2013) or justifiability (Vallier 2018) of statutes or policy to different perspectives)? Although recent debate focuses on the relative merits of consensus (Quong 2011) or convergence (Gaus and Vallier 2009), public justification may require both consensus and convergence, suitably understood. Accordingly, I survey two broad orientations towards public justification: the views “from nowhere” (Nagel 1986) and “from everywhere” (Muldoon 2016). I argue that neither is adequate to socio-political complexity and privilege instead the “view from anywhere”. I first take up individually the views from nowhere and from everywhere. The former consists in the individual ideal of a neutral perspective between preferences and beliefs, attained through following an impartial procedure. In political morality, Rawls’s original position and its associated standpoints are prominent examples (Rawls 1999). Yet this view underestimates the conceptual difficulties of navigating decisions from an alien perspective and avoiding prejudging what is and is not morally relevant. The latter is an epistemic-moral social orientation which aggregates individual perspectives in collective deliberation in order to evaluate proposals via evidentiary support from different perspectives (Muldoon 2016). Such support frames “economic” bargaining between persons and groups over local, fixed-term social contracts. Though both impartial and epistemically feasible, this view likewise encounters conceptual difficulties: a.) underestimating the importance of some uniformity in bargaining and the risks of epistemic bubbles and alternative facts (Frazer 2017); b.) reifying perspectives as insulated standpoints. Consequently, a distinct orientation to public justification is needed to secure impartiality and epistemic feasibility, to build disagreement into the orientation and to allow for perspectives and their transformation. The view from anywhere does so in two ways. First, it extends McMahon’s (2009) “moral nominalism” to show how perspectives inhere in a shared use-history of prescriptive terms in evaluative judgments. Because judgments constitutive of a perspective are susceptible to extension and novel use which may be challenged by others sharing those terms, perspectives may undergo considerable negotiation. Disagreeing parties may come to agree on certain matters or to see their differences. Deliberative conversions remain possible. Second, it fosters a “social picture of reasoning” (Laden 2012) whereon reasonableness consists in issuing one another invitations to alter certain elements of one’s perspective or judgment history to reach the point where each authorizes each to speak for her on some shared concern. Public reasons are not merely accessible in form and content but via their history of mutual invitation and response. The view from anywhere thus makes more sense of public justification’s perspectival character and provides a better picture of how public justification should proceed and public reasons develop in contemporary democracies by allowing that the person may start from anywhere in the justificatory landscape and, potentially, arrive at a conclusion anywhere therein. To Rawls’s reminder to heed “where we are and whence we speak” (Rawls 2005: 382), I add that one may be and speak from anywhere, with enough time, effort and good will. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Social Interaction and Urban Equilibria
Picard, Pierre M UL; Augeraud-Veron, Emmanuelle; Maruhenda, Francisco

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In this paper we investigate the effect of local interaction in a simple urban economics model. Agents interact with others if and only if their interaction benefit outweights their travel cost and ... [more ▼]

In this paper we investigate the effect of local interaction in a simple urban economics model. Agents interact with others if and only if their interaction benefit outweights their travel cost and therefore meet others only within finite geographic windows. We show that two or more cites may co-exist at the equilibrium provided that they are sufficiently distant. For any interaction surplus function, there exists a unique spatial equilibrium on not too large city supports. The population density within a city is determined by a second order advance-delay differential equation, whose solutions are fully characterized for linear interaction surplus functions. Numerical analyses show that more localized interactions yield flatter population density and land rents over larger extents of the city support. They do not give support to the idea that multiple subcenters can be caused by small and finite geographic windows of interaction. [less ▲]

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