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See detailHow Acceptable Is This? How User Experience Factors Can Broaden our Understanding of the Acceptance of Privacy Trade-Offs
Distler, Verena UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019)

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits ... [more ▼]

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits of a technology or a service. This study builds on both technology acceptance (TA) and user experience (UX) research in order to explore and build hypotheses regarding additional dimensions that might play a role in the acceptability of privacy tradeoffs that are not currently accounted for in TA models. Using four scenarios describing situations with potential privacy trade-offs, we conducted a focus group study with 8 groups of participants (N = 32). Our results suggest that factors influencing privacy trade-offs go beyond existing TA factors alone. A technology's perceived usefulness plays an important role, as well as dimensions related to context, previous experiences, perceived autonomy and the feeling of control over the data being shared. [less ▲]

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See detailA deep neural network approach to predicting clinical outcomes of neuroblastoma patients
Tranchevent, Leon-Charles UL; Azuaje, Francisco; Rajapakse, Jagath

in BMC Medical Genomics (2019), 12(8), 178

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and ... [more ▼]

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and disease recurrence. Such methods are also important to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying disease etiology and development, as well as treatment responses. Recently, different predictive models, relying on distinct algorithms (including Support Vector Machines and Random Forests) have been investigated. In this context, deep learning strategies are of special interest due to their demonstrated superior performance over a wide range of problems and datasets. One of the main challenges of such strategies is the “small n large p” problem. Indeed, omics datasets typically consist of small numbers of samples and large numbers of features relative to typical deep learning datasets. Neural networks usually tackle this problem through feature selection or by including additional constraints during the learning process. Methods We propose to tackle this problem with a novel strategy that relies on a graph-based method for feature extraction, coupled with a deep neural network for clinical outcome prediction. The omics data are first represented as graphs whose nodes represent patients, and edges represent correlations between the patients’ omics profiles. Topological features, such as centralities, are then extracted from these graphs for every node. Lastly, these features are used as input to train and test various classifiers. Results We apply this strategy to four neuroblastoma datasets and observe that models based on neural networks are more accurate than state of the art models (DNN: 85%-87%, SVM/RF: 75%-82%). We explore how different parameters and configurations are selected in order to overcome the effects of the small data problem as well as the curse of dimensionality. Conclusions Our results indicate that the deep neural networks capture complex features in the data that help predicting patient clinical outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Zooniverse and the Historian
Tatarinov, Juliane UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2019)

https://dhh.uni.lu/2019/12/19/the-zooniverse-and-the-historian/

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See detailYoung emergent multilingual children's agency in learning new language in trilingual Luxembourg
Mortini, Simone UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 14)

Studies on translanguaging suggest that opportunities to use languages flexibly in the classroom may give children some agency over their language use and facilitate their language learning (García ... [more ▼]

Studies on translanguaging suggest that opportunities to use languages flexibly in the classroom may give children some agency over their language use and facilitate their language learning (García & Kleifgen, 2010). In the emerging field of preschool bilingual education, scholars investigate the concept of child agency in relation to the learning of multiple languages (Schwartz, 2018). Children were shown to actively and creatively contribute to their language learning through choosing to interact in a particular language. Studies on young children’s translanguaging and agency nevertheless remain scarce, especially in multilingual contexts involving more than two languages (Schwartz et al., forthcoming). The present study focuses on eight children’s agentive behaviour in multilingual practices in two formal and two non-formal early childhood education institutions participating in a larger longitudinal research project on the development of multilingual pedagogies in trilingual Luxembourg. I drew on multidimensional qualitative research methods, including 65 days of participant observations, fieldnotes, video-recordings and semi-structured interviews with the practitioners. The findings show that all the children made use of various non-linguistic strategies and at least four named languages and translanguaged for various purposes (e.g. demonstrating knowledge, meaning making). Moreover, they showed two types of agentive behaviour: ‘participatory agency’ (e.g. adapting learning to practitioners’ requirements) and ‘controlling agency’ (e.g. influencing or changing peers’ or practitioners’ language use). The findings should deepen our understanding of the interplay between agency and translanguaging. García, O., & Kleifgen, J. (2010). Educating Emergent Bilinguals. Policies, Programs and Practices for English Language Learners. New York: Teachers College Press. Schwartz, M. (2018). Preschool Bilingual Education: Agency in Interactions between Children, Teachers, and Parents. Dordrecht: Springer. Schwartz, M., Kirsch, C., & Mortini, S. (forthcoming). Young children’s language-based agency in multilingual contexts in Luxembourg and Israel. (Applied Linguistic Review). Manuscript accepted for publication. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum mechanics of proteins in explicit water: The role of plasmon-like solute-solvent interactions
Stoehr, Martin UL; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Science Advances (2019), 5(12), 0024

Quantum-mechanical van der Waals dispersion interactions play an essential role in intraprotein and protein-water interactions—the two main factors affecting the structure and dynamics of proteins in ... [more ▼]

Quantum-mechanical van der Waals dispersion interactions play an essential role in intraprotein and protein-water interactions—the two main factors affecting the structure and dynamics of proteins in water. Typically, these interactions are only treated phenomenologically, via pairwise potential terms in classical force fields. Here, we use an explicit quantum-mechanical approach of density-functional tight-binding combined with the many-body dispersion formalism and demonstrate the relevance of many-body van der Waals forces both to protein energetics and to protein-water interactions. In contrast to commonly used pairwise approaches, many-body effects substantially decrease the relative stability of native states in the absence of water. Upon solvation, the protein-water dispersion interaction counteracts this effect and stabilizes native conformations and transition states. These observations arise from the highly delocalized and collective character of the interactions, suggesting a remarkable persistence of electron correlation through aqueous environments and providing the basis for long-range interaction mechanisms in biomolecular systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDAISY: A Data Information System for accountability under the General Data Protection Regulation
Becker, Regina UL; Alper, Pinar UL; Groues, Valentin UL et al

in GigaScience (2019), 8(12),

The new European legislation on data protection, namely, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), has introduced comprehensive requirements for the documentation about the processing of personal ... [more ▼]

The new European legislation on data protection, namely, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), has introduced comprehensive requirements for the documentation about the processing of personal data as well as informing the data subjects of its use. GDPR’s accountability principle requires institutions, projects, and data hubs to document their data processings and demonstrate compliance with the GDPR. In response to this requirement, we see the emergence of commercial data-mapping tools, and institutions creating GDPR data register with such tools. One shortcoming of this approach is the genericity of tools, and their process-based model not capturing the project-based, collaborative nature of data processing in biomedical research.We have developed a software tool to allow research institutions to comply with the GDPR accountability requirement and map the sometimes very complex data flows in biomedical research. By analysing the transparency and record-keeping obligations of each GDPR principle, we observe that our tool effectively meets the accountability requirement.The GDPR is bringing data protection to center stage in research data management, necessitating dedicated tools, personnel, and processes. Our tool, DAISY, is tailored specifically for biomedical research and can help institutions in tackling the documentation challenge brought about by the GDPR. DAISY is made available as a free and open source tool on Github. DAISY is actively being used at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine and the ELIXIR-Luxembourg data hub. [less ▲]

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See detailGraph-based Algorithms for Smart Mobility Planning and Large-scale Network Discovery
Changaival, Boonyarit UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Graph theory has become a hot topic in the past two decades as evidenced by the increasing number of citations in research. Its applications are found in many fields, e.g. database, clustering, routing ... [more ▼]

Graph theory has become a hot topic in the past two decades as evidenced by the increasing number of citations in research. Its applications are found in many fields, e.g. database, clustering, routing, etc. In this thesis, two novel graph-based algorithms are presented. The first algorithm finds itself in the thriving carsharing service, while the second algorithm is about large graph discovery to unearth the unknown graph before any analyses can be performed. In the first scenario, the automatisation of the fleet planning process in carsharing is proposed. The proposed work enhances the accuracy of the planning to the next level by taking an advantage of the open data movement such as street networks, building footprints, and demographic data. By using the street network (based on graph), it solves the questionable aspect in many previous works, feasibility as they tended to use rasterisation to simplify the map, but that comes with the price of accuracy and feasibility. A benchmark suite for further research in this problem is also provided. Along with it, two optimisation models with different sets of objectives and contexts are proposed. Through a series of experiment, a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is called NGAP, which is based on Reference Point based Non-dominated Sorting genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III) and Pareto Local Search (PLS) and a novel problem specific local search operator designed for the fleet placement problem in carsharing called Extensible Neighbourhood Search (ENS). The designed local search operator exploits the graph structure of the street network and utilises the local knowledge to improve the exploration capability. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms the original NSGA-III in convergence under the same execution time. The work in smart mobility is done on city scale graphs which are considered to be medium size. However, the scale of the graphs in other fields in the real-world can be much larger than that which is why the large graph discovery algorithm is proposed as the second algorithm. To elaborate on the definition of large, some examples are required. The internet graph has over 30 billion nodes. Another one is a human brain network contains around 1011 nodes. Apart of the size, there is another aspect in real-world graph and that is the unknown. With the dynamic nature of the real-world graphs, it is almost impossible to have a complete knowledge of the graph to perform an analysis that is why graph traversal is crucial as the preparation process. I propose a novel memoryless chaos-based graph traversal algorithm called Chaotic Traversal (CHAT). CHAT is the first graph traversal algorithm that utilises the chaotic attractor directly. An experiment with two well-known chaotic attractors, Lozi map and Rössler system is conducted. The proposed algorithm is compared against the memoryless state-of-the-art algorithm, Random Walk. The results demonstrate the superior performance in coverage rate over Random Walk on five tested topologies; ring, small world, random, grid and power-law. In summary, the contribution of this research is twofold. Firstly, it contributes to the research society by introducing new study problems and novel approaches to propel the advance of the current state-of-the-art. And Secondly, it demonstrates a strong case for the conversion of research to the industrial sector to solve a real-world problem. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurocognitive components of gambling disorder: Implications for policy, prevention , and treatment
Navas, Juan F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio et al

in Bowden-Jones, H; Dickson, C; Dunand, C (Eds.) et al Harm Reduction for Problem Gambling: A Public Health Approach (2019)

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See detailGamification of psychological tests: three lessons learned
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL

in Testing International (2019), 42

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See detailLuxemburg - Stadtentwicklung von den Anfängen der Festung im 16. Jahrhundert bis zu ihrer Schleifung 1867
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

in Uhrmacher, Martin; Kass, Steve; Pauli, Sebastian (Eds.) Luxatlas.lu - Ein digitaler und interaktiver historischer Stadtatlas Luxemburgs (2019)

Kurzer Abriss der Stadtgeschichte Luxemburgs von den Anfängen der Festung im 16. Jahrhundert bis zu ihrer Schleifung 1867. Teil des digitalen und interaktiven Stadtatlas Luxemburgs: https://www.luxatlas.lu

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See detailLuxemburg - Stadtentwicklung von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des Mittelalters
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

in Uhrmacher, Martin; Kass, Steve; Pauli, Sebastian (Eds.) Luxatlas.lu - Ein digitaler und interaktiver historischer Stadtatlas Luxemburgs (2019)

Kurzer Abriss der Stadtgeschichte Luxemburgs bis zum Ende des Mittelalters. Teil des digitalen und interaktiven Stadtatlas Luxemburgs: https://www.luxatlas.lu

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See detailLuxatlas.lu - Ein digitaler und interaktiver historischer Stadtatlas Luxemburgs
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Kass, Steve UL; Pauli, Sebastian

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2019)

Seit Ende 2016 widmet sich das universitäre Forschungsprojekt VILLUX X in Zusammenarbeit mit der Stadt Luxemburg der Erstellung eines digitalen historischen Atlas. Dieser zeigt die städtische Entwicklung ... [more ▼]

Seit Ende 2016 widmet sich das universitäre Forschungsprojekt VILLUX X in Zusammenarbeit mit der Stadt Luxemburg der Erstellung eines digitalen historischen Atlas. Dieser zeigt die städtische Entwicklung Luxemburgs seit Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts in Form von digitalen und interaktiven Karten. In mehreren Zeitschnitten ab den 1820er Jahren lassen sich die tiefgreifenden Wandlungsprozesse der Stadt und ihr Wachstum interaktiv nachvollziehen: Von der engen Festungsstadt des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur großflächigen, internationalen Metropole des 21. Jahrhunderts. Die Stadtentwicklung ist für diesen Zeitraum in vielen Bereichen noch immer wenig erforscht. Das überrascht, denn Luxemburg hat im Vergleich zu anderen europäischen Städten in den letzten 200 Jahren besonders tiefgreifende Veränderungsprozesse durchlaufen: Von einer mittelgroßen Festungsstadt der frühen Neuzeit, die sich erst nach 1867 von ihrem einengenden Militärkorsett befreien konnte, bis hin zu einer modernen europäischen Hauptstadt des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts. Dann, in der Nachkriegszeit, wurde die Stadt zu einem der drei Hauptverwaltungssitze der Europäischen Union. Und ab den 1970er Jahren entwickelte sie sich darüber hinaus zu einem internationalen Finanzzentrum. Heute ist Luxemburg zweifellos die wirtschaftlich, politisch und kulturell bedeutendste Stadt der Großregion mit einem ausgeprägten kosmopolitischen Flair. Ziel des Luxatlas-Projekts ist es, die Voraussetzungen und Merkmale dieser Entwicklung sowie die wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen nachzuzeichnen und zu analysieren. Es sind vor allem raumbezogene Fragstellungen, die dabei in historischer Perspektive mit dem digitalen und interaktiven Stadtatlas in den Blick genommen werden. Der Atlas lässt sich in diesem Sinne definieren als eine Sammlung von Karten, Bildern und erläuternden Texten. Er bündelt und verknüpft relevante Daten von städtischen und nationalen Behörden und Kultureinrichtungen sowie auch von unterschiedlichen Forschungsdisziplinen wie Geschichte und Geographie und stellt diese in überarbeiteter Form den Nutzern zur Verfügung. Luxatlas.lu ermöglicht es, historische Veränderungsprozesse des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts diachron zu dokumentieren und gleichzeitig traditionelle Entwicklungsvorstellungen in Frage stellen. Zugleich etabliert er neue Methoden und Konzepte zur Standardisierung von Online-Karten und wird somit selbst zu einem Instrument zusätzlichen Erkenntnisgewinns für seine Nutzer. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivational Effects of Enhanced Expectancies for Motor Learning in Individuals With High and Low Self-Efficacy
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Perceptual and Motor Skills (2019)

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and subsequent motor learning in individuals with varied motivational states (e.g., self-efficacy; SE) are not well understood. This study examined the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and motor learning in individuals with high and low SE by manipulating the type of knowledge of results (KR). We selected 60 participants from 251 male undergraduate students, based on their SE level, and assigned them to four groups: (a) Good Performance KR and High SE, (b) Poor Performance KR and High SE, (c) Good Performance KR and Low SE, and (d) Poor Performance KR and Low SE. We asked participants to throw beanbags at a target with their nondominant hand during an acquisition phase (10 blocks of six trials each) and during subsequent retention and transfer tests. During acquisition, the Good KR groups received KR from their three most accurate trials in each training block, whereas the Poor KR groups received KR from their three poorest attempts in each block. We measured accuracy scores and changes in SE as dependent variables. Results showed that KR from good trials, relative to KR from poor trials, led to better accuracy scores during acquisition and retention and transfer tests, independent of participants’ initial SE levels. Moreover, KR on good trials enhanced SE in the Good KR and Low SE group and kept SE at a high level in the Good KR and High SE group during acquisition and on the retention and transfer tests. These results provide support for the OPTIMAL (optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning) theory of motor learning, and we discuss results in terms of the potential effects of positive feedback on motor performance in professional athletes. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxatlas.lu: Der erste historische Stadtatlas Luxemburgs - digital und interaktiv.
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Kass, Steve UL; Pauli, Sebastian

Presentation (2019, November 28)

Presentation of the Luxatlas.lu website, developed by the VILLUX project. This University of Luxembourg project, co-financed by the City of Luxembourg, provides an interactive digital tool that traces the ... [more ▼]

Presentation of the Luxatlas.lu website, developed by the VILLUX project. This University of Luxembourg project, co-financed by the City of Luxembourg, provides an interactive digital tool that traces the history of the city of Luxembourg and illustrates the stages of its development over the last 200 years. The historical town atlas is an innovative research tool to gain knowledge about the urban development, its conditions and characteristics and the underlying economic, social and political conditions. It brings together a collection of maps, explanatory texts, and chronological tables and images, which all trace the history of the city and illustrate the stages of its development. The digital and interactive historical atlas makes available research findings from a variety of disciplines such as history and geography and combines relevant information and data from national authorities and cultural institutions. It therefore provides a better understanding of the historical process of change from the 19th to the 20th centuries, including the histories of buildings, streets, neighbourhoods and urban quarters. The website can be accessed online: https://www.luxatlas.lu [less ▲]

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See detailIon-induced interactions in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid
Michelsen, Andreas Nicolai Bock UL; Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas et al

in Physical Review. B (2019), 100(20),

We investigate the physics of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid of spin-polarized fermions superimposed on an ion chain. This compound system features (attractive) long-range interspecies interactions. By means ... [more ▼]

We investigate the physics of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid of spin-polarized fermions superimposed on an ion chain. This compound system features (attractive) long-range interspecies interactions. By means of density matrix renormalization group techniques we compute the Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid parameter and speed of sound as a function of the relative atom/ion density and the two quantum defect parameters, namely, the even and odd short-range phases which characterize the short-range part of the atom-ion polarization potential. The presence of ions is found to allow critical tuning of the atom-atom interaction, and the properties of the system are found to depend significantly on the short-range phases due to the atom-ion interaction. These latter dependencies can be controlled, for instance, by manipulating the ions' internal state. This allows modification of the static properties of the quantum liquid via external driving of the ionic impurities. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Erfindung der Grenze. Luxemburg im Spiegel spätmittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Kartographie (15.-17. Jh.)
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Presentation (2019, November 27)

Der Vortrag widmet sich dem Ursprung fester Grenzlinien auf Karten. Ausgehend von den ersten, noch punktuellen Erwähnungen Luxemburgs auf mittelalterlichen Karten wird der Frage nachgegangen, ab wann ... [more ▼]

Der Vortrag widmet sich dem Ursprung fester Grenzlinien auf Karten. Ausgehend von den ersten, noch punktuellen Erwähnungen Luxemburgs auf mittelalterlichen Karten wird der Frage nachgegangen, ab wann erstmals Grenzlinien zur Darstellung territorial-räumlicher Verhältnisse verwendet wurden und welche Rolle ihnen bei der Konstruktion von Herrschaft im Raum zukommt. Denn die tatsächlichen territorialpolitischen Verhältnisse waren noch bis zum Ende der frühen Neuzeit derart unübersichtlich und verworren, dass eine feste lineare Grenzziehung eigentlich nicht möglich war. Die Territorialkarten des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts täuschen deshalb eine flächige Staatlichkeit des Herzogtums Luxemburg und der benachbarten Territorien vor, die es so eigentlich nicht gab. Dennoch prägen sie unser Bild der historischen Landschaft bis heute. [less ▲]

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See detailA case study on the impact of masking moving objects on the camera pose regression with CNNs
Cimarelli, Claudio UL; Cazzato, Dario UL; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in 2019 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) (2019, November 25)

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence ... [more ▼]

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence of dynamic objects, due to occlusion and continuous changes in the appearance. Recent research on global localization methods focused on using a single (or multiple) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to estimate the 6 Degrees of Freedom (6-DoF) pose directly from a monocular camera image. In contrast with the classical approaches using engineered feature detector, CNNs are usually more robust to environmental changes in light and to occlusions in outdoor scenarios. This paper contains an attempt to empirically demonstrate the ability of CNNs to ignore dynamic elements, such as pedestrians or cars, through learning. For this purpose, we pre-process a dataset for pose localization with an object segmentation network, masking potentially moving objects. Hence, we compare the pose regression CNN trained and/or tested on the set of masked images and the original one. Experimental results show that the performances of the two training approaches are similar, with a slight reduction of the error when hiding occluding objects from the views. [less ▲]

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