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See detailTranslanguaging practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalizing on multilingualism in European mainstream education. (in press)

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home ... [more ▼]

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home languages are given little space. For multilingual programmes to be inclusive and empowering, professionals need to break with monolingual practices based on monolingual ideologies. The resource-oriented pedagogy of translanguaging which challenges hegemonic practices, is one way in which professionals can give space to all languages, leverage children’s resources and contribute to their development. The present chapter presents the findings of a professional development on multilingual pedagogies in Luxembourg. Data stem from observations, video-recorded activities and interviews with four practitioners, two working in a formal education setting and two in a non-formal one. The findings show that the practitioners developed a positive stance towards translanguaging and multilingual education, learned to design a child-centred and holistic multilingual learning environment and used languages flexibly, deploying translation, code-switching and translanguaging. This dynamic language use facilitated communication, participation, language learning and well-being. There were differences between the practitioners’ flexible language use. The professionals in the school did not use pair talk, made less use of code-switching and used languages more strategically and responsibly than the caregivers in the crèche. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion and future research
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine (Ed.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (in press)

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See detailThe EU Administrative Institutions, Their Law and Legal Scholarship
Mendes, Joana UL

in Cane, Peter; Hoffman, Herwig; Lindseth, Peter (Eds.) Oxford Handbook on Comparative Administrative Law (in press)

The chapter approaches the EU administrative institutions as catalysts of the development of administrative law of the European Union. As a chapter of the Oxford Handbook on Comparative Administrative Law ... [more ▼]

The chapter approaches the EU administrative institutions as catalysts of the development of administrative law of the European Union. As a chapter of the Oxford Handbook on Comparative Administrative Law, it explains the main traits of those institutions, how legal scholarship has portrayed them and how it has addressed the core aspects of their legal regimes. Furthermore, it traces the emergence and current state of EU administrative law, characterising the different roles comparative administrative law has had at different stages. It highlights the initial dissonance between the specificities of the EU administrative institutions and the state-matrix of general principles that were developed on the basis of functional comparison; the role of legal scholarship in shaping EU administrative law, in its efforts to give effect to an “utopia” (Chiti, 2007) of an integrated administration constitutionally framed by general principles and fundamental rights; the limits of resorting to comparative administrative law in the context of EU integration and, briefly, the crossroads at which EU administrative law currently stands. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating Topological Proofs with Model Checking to Instrument Iterative Design
Menghi, Claudio UL; Rizzi, Alessandro Maria; Bernasconi, Anna

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, FASE 2020 (in press)

System development is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To support assurance that the system satisfies its requirements, it is desirable that continuous ... [more ▼]

System development is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To support assurance that the system satisfies its requirements, it is desirable that continuous verification can be performed after each refinement or revision step. To achieve practical adoption, formal verification must accommodate continuous verification efficiently and effectively. Model checking provides developers with information useful to improve their models only when a property is not satisfied, i.e., when a counterexample is returned. However, it is desirable to have some useful information also when a property is instead satisfied. To address this problem we propose TOrPEDO, an approach that supports verification in two complementary forms: model checking and proofs. While model checking is typically used to pinpoint model behaviors that violate requirements, proofs can instead explain why requirements are satisfied. In our work, we introduce a specific notion of proof, called Topological Proof. A topological proof produces a slice of the original model that justifies the property satisfaction. Because models can be incomplete, TOrPEDO supports reasoning on requirements satisfaction, violation, and possible satisfaction (in the case where satisfaction depends on unknown parts of the model). Evaluation is performed by checking how topological proofs support software development on 12 modeling scenarios and 15 different properties obtained from 3 examples from literature. Results show that: (i) topological proofs are ≈60% smaller than the original models; (ii) after a revision, in ≈78% of cases, the property can be re-verified by relying on a simple syntactic check. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcing citizens’ participation by reforming European commission public consultations
Kies, Raphaël UL

in Alemanno, Alberto; Oregan, James (Eds.) Democratic Participation in a Citizen's Europe: What next for the EU? (in press)

In this chapter, I would like to draw some lessons from the failed attempts of democratization of the EU by proposing some guidelines that should be followed in order to envision a realistic deliberative ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, I would like to draw some lessons from the failed attempts of democratization of the EU by proposing some guidelines that should be followed in order to envision a realistic deliberative and inclusive transformation of the EU-decision making process. By following their spirits, I will propose an ambitious renovation of the public consultation regime of the EU Commission, the only institutionalized system of public consultation enshrined in the EU Treaties that however most of the citizens are not aware of. This is an idea that I first presented in at the conference at the World Bank (Kies 2016) and that has since then been discussed and presented in the report commissioned by the European Economic and Social Committee (Lironi and Peta 2017), the European Parliament (Korthagen et al. 2018) and is presently discussed within the European Court of Auditors. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana

Book published by Routledge (in press)

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from ... [more ▼]

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from several officially monolingual,bilingual, and multilingual countries in Europe, discusses approaches to multilingual education which capitalise on students’ multilingual resources from early childhood to higher education. This book synthesises research on multilingual education, relates theory to practice, and discusses different pedagogical approaches from diverse perspectives. The first section of the book outlines multilingual approaches in early childhood education and primary school, the second looks at multilingual approaches in secondary school and higher education, and the third examines the influence of parents, policy-makers, and professional development on the implementation and sustainability of multilingual approaches. The book demonstrates that educators can leverage students’ multilingualism to promote learning and help students achieve their full potential. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of language education, psychology, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Principle of Transparency and Access to Documents in the EU: for what, for whom, and of what?
Mendes, Joana UL

in Auby, Jean-Bernard; Jacqueline, Dutheil de la Rochère (Eds.) Traité de Droit Administratif (in press)

Written as a chapter for the third edition of the Traité de Droit Administratif Européen, directed by Jacqueline Dutheil de la Rochère and Jean Bernard Auby (Bryulant, forthcoming), this paper ... [more ▼]

Written as a chapter for the third edition of the Traité de Droit Administratif Européen, directed by Jacqueline Dutheil de la Rochère and Jean Bernard Auby (Bryulant, forthcoming), this paper characterizes transparency as an ambivalent principle of EU law and governance, serving both a functional and a democratic rationale. The analysis focuses on the right of access to documents, a right whose scope and democratic function very much depend on who requests and on the interpretation of the exceptions to access. While the former is a matter of practice, the latter is essentially the result of the main approaches that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has followed hitherto: strict interpretation and application of the exceptions, on the one hand, and general presumptions of non-disclosure, on the other. The paper presents both. It argues that, while much criticized in the literature as contrary to the democratic function of the regulation on access to documents, general presumptions of non-disclosure merit a more nuanced analysis. They can be, under restricted circumstances, a way to protect the democratic function of the citizen’s right to access. Yet, the uncertain and evolving criteria for the establishment of a general presumption of non-disclosure have effectively carved out whole categories of documents from the possibility of access, insulating significant sections of EU public action from the pressure of democratic claims. Overall, the right of access to documents, as ancillary to a principle of democracy, has a limited capacity to change the nature of the polity and of the system of governance in which it is embedded. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Foundations of the Duty to Give Reasons and a Normative Reconstruction
Mendes, Joana UL

in Fisher, Elizabeth; King, Jeff; Young, Alison (Eds.) The Foundations and Future of Public Law (in press)

Despite operating in highly constrained legal environments, executive actors may act in a constitutive capacity. This observation prompts a critical assessment of the role of procedural principles in EU ... [more ▼]

Despite operating in highly constrained legal environments, executive actors may act in a constitutive capacity. This observation prompts a critical assessment of the role of procedural principles in EU administrative law. As norms of conduct deployed by executive bodies during the process of norm concretization, procedural principles may have legal dimensions that, while constitutionally relevant, may not come to the fore in judicial review. The chapter develops this argument with regard to the multifaceted character of the duty to give reasons. It argues that, as a norm of conduct, the duty to give reasons ought to ensure the constitutional embeddedness of the constitutive action of EU executive bodies. Such role is consistent both with the original relevance of the duty to give reasons to the law of integration (in the context of the European Coal and Steel Community) and with the current EU constitutional framework. The latter justifies reinstituting the original constitutional function of the duty to give reasons, irrespective of its current scope in the context of judicial review. [less ▲]

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See detailModel Checking MITL formulae on Timed Automata: a Logic-Based Approach
Menghi, Claudio UL; Bersani, Marcello; Rossi, Matteo et al

in ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (in press)

Timed Automata (TA) is de facto a standard modelling formalism to represent systems when the interest is the analysis of their behaviour as time progresses. This modelling formalism is mostly used for ... [more ▼]

Timed Automata (TA) is de facto a standard modelling formalism to represent systems when the interest is the analysis of their behaviour as time progresses. This modelling formalism is mostly used for checking whether the behaviours of a system satisfy a set of properties of interest. Even if efficient model-checkers for Timed Automata exist, these tools are not easily configurable. First, they are not designed to easily allow adding new Timed Automata constructs, such as new synchronization mechanisms or communication procedures, but they assume a fixed set of Timed Automata constructs. Second, they usually do not support the Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) and rely on a precise semantics for the logic in which the property of interest is specified which cannot be easily modified and customized. Finally, they do not easily allow using different solvers that may speed up verification in different contexts. This paper presents a novel technique to perform model checking of Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) properties on TA. The technique relies on the translation of both the TA and the MITL formula into an intermediate Constraint LTL over clocks (CLTLoc) formula which is verified through an available decision procedure. The technique is flexible since the intermediate logic allows the encoding of new semantics as well as new TA constructs, by just adding new CLTLoc formulae. Furthermore, our technique is not bound to a specific solver as the intermediate CLTLoc formula can be verified using different procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase field simulation of early-age fracture in cement-based materials (Top 10%)
Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Bui, Tinh Quoc

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (in press)

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at early-age hydration. A new constitutive law describing mechanical behavior of young concrete is thus derived, taking into account the effects of several factors including thermal expansion, shrinkage, damage, and both basic and transient thermal creeps. A strongly coupled model describing the interaction between fracture and multi-physics problems of cement hydration is obtained. The present phase field model in terms of smeared crack approach is highly suitable for simulating crack, especially when considering the unilateral contact conditions at crack surfaces. The capability of the proposed model in modeling complex crack initiation and propagation under arbitrary boundary conditions is highlighted. Fracture phenomena at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales are considered and analyzed. The effects of creep and microstructural heterogeneity in different length scale are investigated, showing the great potential of the developed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: multilingual approaches to teaching and learning
Duarte, Joana; Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (in press)

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This introductory chapter outlines the monolingual mindset and language hierarchies that still exist in European education systems, and explains these are a result of the nation-forming movements of the nineteenth century. Next, four types of language instruction are presented: foreign language instruction; second language pedagogy; bilingual/monoglossic instruction; and plurilingual/heteroglossic instruction. The chapter continues with different types of multilingual approaches in mainstream educational settings that capitalise on multilingualism for teaching and learning, among them intercomprehension and translanguaging. Having explained these, the chapter explores the importance of partnerships with parents, professional development, and language policies because these actors and factors contribute to the effectiveness and sustainability of the approaches. The chapter concludes with a presentation of the structure of this volume as well as of the individual chapters. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Uniqueness of Subjective Ageing. Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Spuling, Svenja M.; Klusmann, Verena; Bowen, Catherine E. et al

in European Journal of Ageing (in press)

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See detailNanoscale magnetophotonics
Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Zubritskaya, Irina; Razdolski, Ilya et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (in press)

This Perspective surveys the state-of-the-art and future prospects of science and technology employing the nanoconfined light (nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics) in combination with magnetism. We denote ... [more ▼]

This Perspective surveys the state-of-the-art and future prospects of science and technology employing the nanoconfined light (nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics) in combination with magnetism. We denote this field broadly as nanoscale magnetophotonics. We include a general introduction to the field and describe the emerging magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic and magnetophotonic nanostructures supporting localized plasmons. Special attention is given to magnetoplasmonic crystals with transverse magnetization and the associated nanophotonic nonreciprocal effects, and to magneto-optical effects in nanostructure’s periodic arrays. We also give an overview of the applications of these systems in biological and chemical sensing, as well as in light polarization and phase control. We further review the area of nonlinear magnetophotonics, the semiconductor spin-plasmonics, and the general principles and applications of optomagnetism and nano-optical ultrafast control of magnetism and spintronics. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective professional development and sustainability of multilingual approaches
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana; Palviainen, Åsa

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (in press)

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an ... [more ▼]

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an overview of research studies on language policies, teacher agency and beliefs with a focus on multilingual settings. The intertwining of policy and teaching practice is then illustrated by means of the Finnish case, demonstrating how recent ECEC policies advocating diversity and plurilingualism have gradually changed teacher beliefs. The second part of the chapter focuses on professional development (PD) in so far as it is able to support teachers in implementing policies, changing pedagogical practices, and amending beliefs. This section presents different pathways for professional learning and explores the effectiveness of various models of professional development. These observations are taken up in two empirical studies on teachers’ professional development within multilingual preschool classes in Luxembourg and primary schools in the Netherlands. The interview and observation data provided in the two contexts point to the centrality of teacher beliefs and agency in moving towards multilingual practices and sustainable change. Furthermore, it unveils the ways in which teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices change over time, and how effective PD programmes can support teachers in interpreting policies and developing new practices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe duty of loyalty: A Tool for Fundamental Rights Enforcement in the EU Legal System
Zinonos, Panagiotis UL

in Frenkel, David-Arie; Emilio Nunez, Jorge (Eds.) International Law and Social Justice (in press)

The effective enforcement of rights within the European Union, understood as a legal system overarched by the duty of loyalty, depends upon judicial independence. This chapter introduces some recent legal ... [more ▼]

The effective enforcement of rights within the European Union, understood as a legal system overarched by the duty of loyalty, depends upon judicial independence. This chapter introduces some recent legal developments pertaining to its double dimension as a fundamental right and as a structural duty of the Member states to discuss four enforcing tools that concretise the duty of loyalty: the self-standing right to an independent tribunal, the infringement procedure, the preliminary ruling procedure and the technique of exceptional circumstances. In that context, the chapter rejects the idea that the multifaceted configuration of the European Union is detrimental to fundamental rights protection and stresses the relevance of all the actors of the legal system for the effective enforcement of rights. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on "Zamariola et al., (2018), Interoceptive Accuracy Scores are Problematic: Evidence from Simple Bivariate Correlations"-The Empirical Data Base, the Conceptual Reasoning and the Analysis behind this Statement are Misconceived and do not Support the Authors' Conclusions.
Ainley, V.; Tsakiris, Emmanouil UL; Pollatos, O. et al

in Biological Psychology (in press)

A recent paper by Zamariola and colleagues is widely cited as an authority on the invalidity of the Heartbeat Counting Task as a measure of interoceptive accuracy. Given the widespread interest in this ... [more ▼]

A recent paper by Zamariola and colleagues is widely cited as an authority on the invalidity of the Heartbeat Counting Task as a measure of interoceptive accuracy. Given the widespread interest in this field, it is essential that papers about methods are conceptually sound. However, only one of the authors' four criticisms appears substantiated - that people count too few heartbeats. Their arguments about "simple bivariate correlations" and their finding that interoceptive accuracy and heart rate correlate, depend on 'spurious correlations' arising from the overlooked point that interoceptive accuracy is a ratio. Moreover, scrutiny of the authors' data shows that their fourth criticism (that interoceptive accuracy is lower on longer trials) is confounded by differences in mean heart rate between trials. We present data from our own labs to refute it. We draw the authors' and editors' attention to these issues and trust that they will reconsider these erroneous conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailAvant-propos
Salemme, Timothy UL; Renault, Jean-Baptiste

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque internationa (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 UL)