Last 7 days     Results 61-80 of 10737.   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9   Epistemological, critical and reflexive gymnastics: constructing research in "former Yugoslavia" in the face of the coloniality of knowledgeBlondel, Cyril in Aiken, Gerald Taylor; Button, Cat (Eds.) Over-researched places (in press)This article is a story narrating the evolution of my own reflections during my Ph.D.: “Planning at the Borders of European Peripheries: The Serbia/Croatia Borderland and the EU Cooperation and ... [more ▼]This article is a story narrating the evolution of my own reflections during my Ph.D.: “Planning at the Borders of European Peripheries: The Serbia/Croatia Borderland and the EU Cooperation and Reconciliation Injunctions” (Ph.D. thesis, Tours, Université François-Rabelais, 2016). Using auto-ethnographic methods, this article demonstrates a conviction, the necessity to engage with a reflexive and critical approach, before, during, and after the production of research. I show first how I built the thesis’ epistemological approach, by progressively deconstructing classical theoretical frameworks (nationalist, postsocialist, post-Yugoslav). I expose and discuss then the outcomes of such a reflexivity, in particular how I gradually became conscious of the coloniality of (my) knowledge. These mental gymnastics allowed me to occasionally overcome – but regularly report on – the limits of my research, but also to recognize the unsurpassibility of certain aspects of my work connected to the situation in which I stated and conducted it. Reflecting on epistemological reflexivity contributes to clarifying scientific (in)validity of research, and better situates researcher’s arguments, their position and positionality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (1 UL) Media Matter: Images as Presenters, Mediators, and Means of ObservationComas Rubí, Francisca; Priem, Karin ; González Gómez, SaraBook published by De Gruyter (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 UL) Soziale Arbeit in der Inklusionsfalle. Terminologische Unbestimmtheit, ethischer Anspruch und neoliberale Wendung.Limbach-Reich, Arthur in Bütow, Birgit; Holztrattner, Melanie; Raithelhuber, Eberhard (Eds.) (Des-)Organisation und (Ent-)Institutionalisierung in der Sozialen Arbeit. (in press)The analysis of the concept of inclusion in a scientific context and the inflationary classification of different practices as inclusive suggest a rethinking of inclusion as a guiding concept in social ... [more ▼]The analysis of the concept of inclusion in a scientific context and the inflationary classification of different practices as inclusive suggest a rethinking of inclusion as a guiding concept in social work. Inclusion in the sociological sense means something other than the pedagogical postulate of education for all. Inclusion is sometimes understood as a method (inclusive education), sometimes as an ethical principle (human right) and sometimes as a global goal (the inclusive society). In the neoliberal model, inclusion represents a practice of obligation to contribute to economic growth and to comply with market requirements. Due to its proximity to the everyday life of the people, social work has a growing role to play in pointing out the tension between an inclusion promise in the front stage and a back stage on which social exclusion is legitimised. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (0 UL) Avoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approachesKozlowski, Diego ; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et alScientific Conference (in press)Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic, mostly because of the lack of robust race-disambiguation algorithms. Identifying author information does not generally include the author’s race. Therefore, an algorithm needs to be employed, using known information about authors, i.e., their names, to infer their perceived race. Nevertheless, as any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. When the research is focused on the understanding of racial-based inequalities, such biases undermine the objectives of the investigation and may perpetuate inequities. The goal of this article is to assess the biases introduced by the different approaches used name-based racial inference. We use information from US census and mortgage applications to infer the race of US author names in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race and ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article fills an important research gap that will allow more systematic and unbiased studies on racial disparity in science. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL) Primauté et droits fondamentaux: une question de compétences?Neframi, Eleftheria in Gaudin, Hélène (Ed.) Primauté et clause la plus protectrice: le renouveau des droits fondamentaux en Europe (in press)Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans ... [more ▼]Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans la sphère de compétence de l’Union, alors que la protection des droits fondamentaux, comme contestation de la primauté, relève de la sphère nationale. Le conflit entre primauté et droits fondamentaux relève ainsi du rapport des ordres juridiques et est résolu par leur interaction, exprimée dans la balance entre le principe de coopération loyale et la prise en compte des intérêts nationaux, sur la base du respect de l’identité nationale ou en invoquant l’article 53 de la Charte . En ce sens, la problématique des compétences n’entre pas en ligne de compte. Cependant, l’élaboration de standards européens de protection des droits fondamentaux, en tant qu’objet direct ou indirect de l’exercice des compétences de l’Union, peut servir le compromis issu du principe d’attribution. Ainsi, primauté et droits fondamentaux peuvent être abordés sous l’angle des compétences. Le rapport entre primauté et droits fondamentaux n’est toutefois pas forcément conflictuel. La Charte est source d’obligations pour les Etats membres au-delà du champ couvert par l’exercice des compétences de l’Union. Il est bien établi que la notion de mise en œuvre du droit de l’Union en tant que condition de l’application de la Charte à l’égard des Etats membres, est entendue dans le sens du domaine couvert par le droit de l’Union. Ainsi, les standards européens de protection sont eux-mêmes couverts par la primauté et interviennent dans l’encadrement de l’autonomie nationale et l’articulation des compétences [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (1 UL) Supporting DNN Safety Analysis and Retraining through Heatmap-based Unsupervised LearningFahmy, Hazem ; Pastore, Fabrizio ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba et alin IEEE Transactions on Reliability (in press)Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the ... [more ▼]Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the functional safety of DNN-based components. We observe three major challenges with existing practices regarding DNNs in safety-critical systems: (1) scenarios that are underrepresented in the test set may lead to serious safety violation risks, but may, however, remain unnoticed; (2) char- acterizing such high-risk scenarios is critical for safety analysis; (3) retraining DNNs to address these risks is poorly supported when causes of violations are difficult to determine. To address these problems in the context of DNNs analyzing images, we propose HUDD, an approach that automatically supports the identification of root causes for DNN errors. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to heatmaps capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. We evaluated HUDD with DNNs from the automotive domain. HUDD was able to identify all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (3 UL) Automatic Test Suite Generation for Key-points Detection DNNs Using Many-Objective SearchUl Haq, Fitash ; Shin, Donghwan ; Briand, Lionel et alin 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 UL) A Comparison of Pre-Trained Language Models for Multi-Class Text Classification in the Financial DomainArslan, Yusuf ; Allix, Kevin ; Veiber, Lisa et alin Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21 Companion), April 19--23, 2021, Ljubljana, Slovenia (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (9 UL) Blockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash EquilibriumKhan, Nida ; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et alin 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 228 (20 UL) Wüllner, AdolfKrebs, Stefan ; Tschacher, Werner in Neue Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 28 (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (3 UL) "Aktion 18 und Quiz 3000"Nonoa, Koku Gnatuloma in Kovacs, Teresa; Scheinpflug, Peter; Wortmann, Thomas (Eds.) Schlingensief-Handbuch Leben – Werk – Wirkung (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 UL) Humanitarian Photography Beyond the Picture: David “CHIM” Seymour’s Children of EuropePriem, Karin ; Herman, Frederikin Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 UL) Challenges and Methodologies in the Visual History of EducationAllender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et alin Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 UL) Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational HistoryAllender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et alBook published by De Gruyter - Appearances: Studies in Visual Research (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL) Societal Emotional Environments and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: A Forty-Nine Country StudyKrys, Kuba; Yeung, June; Capaldi, Colin et alin Journal of Positive Psychology (in press)In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a ... [more ▼]In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12,888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well-being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 286 (10 UL) Invariant density adaptive estimation for ergodic jump diffusion processes over anisotropic classesAmorino, Chiara ; Gloter, Arnaudin Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference (in press)We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of ... [more ▼]We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of observations is available. In the case without jumps, Reiss and Dalalyan [7] and Strauch [24] have found convergence rates of invariant density estimators, under respectively isotropic and anisotropic H ̈older smoothness constraints, which are considerably faster than those known from standard multivariate density estimation. We extend the previous works by obtaining, in presence of jumps, some estimators which have the same convergence rates they had in the case without jumps for d ≥ 2 and a rate which depends on the degree of the jumps in the one-dimensional setting. We propose moreover a data driven bandwidth selection procedure based on the Goldenshluger and Lepski method [11] which leads us to an adaptive non-parametric kernel estimator of the stationary density μ of the jump diffusion X. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 UL) Biomedical and Clinical Research Data ManagementGanzinger, Matthias; Glaab, Enrico ; Kerssemakers, Jules et alin Wolkenhauer, Olaf (Ed.) Systems Medicine - Integrative, Qualitative and Computational Approaches (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 182 (11 UL) Process analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firingPeters, Bernhard ; Rousset, Alban ; Besseron, Xavier et alin 12th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers (in press)Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 156 (30 UL) Reducibility of n-ary semigroups: from quasitriviality towards idempotencyCouceiro, Miguel; Devillet, Jimmy ; Marichal, Jean-Luc et alin Beiträge zur Algebra und Geometrie (in press)Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the ... [more ▼]Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the elements $x_1,\ldots,x_n$ are equal to each other. The elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ are said to be quasitrivial and those of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are said to be idempotent. We show that $\mathcal{F}^n_1=\cdots =\mathcal{F}^n_{n-2}\subseteq\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\subseteq\mathcal{F}^n_n$ and we give conditions on the set $X$ for the last inclusions to be strict. The class $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ was recently characterized by Couceiro and Devillet \cite{CouDev}, who showed that its elements are reducible to binary associative operations. However, some elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are not reducible. In this paper, we characterize the class $\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\setminus\mathcal{F}^n_1$ and show that its elements are reducible. We give a full description of the corresponding reductions and show how each of them is built from a quasitrivial semigroup and an Abelian group whose exponent divides $n-1$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 123 (17 UL) Interoception, stress and physical symptoms in stress-associated diseasesSchulz, André ; Schultchen, Dana; Vögele, Claus in European Journal of Health Psychology (in press)The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Exemplary, interoception refers to the processing and perception of ascending information from the body to the brain. Stress ... [more ▼]The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Exemplary, interoception refers to the processing and perception of ascending information from the body to the brain. Stress responses involve a neurobehavioral cascade, which includes the activation of peripheral organs via neural and endocrine pathways and can thus be seen as an example for descending information on the brain-body axis. Hence, the interaction of interoception and stress represents bi-directional communication on the brain-body axis. The main hypothesis underlying this review is that the dysregulation of brain-body communication represents an important mechanism for the generation of physical symptoms in stress-related disorders. The aims of this review are, therefore, (1.) to summarize current knowledge on acute stress effects on different stages of interoceptive signal processing, (2.) to discuss possible patterns of abnormal brainbody communication (i.e., alterations in interoception and physiological stress axes activation) in mental disorders and chronic physical conditions, and (3.) to consider possible approaches to modify interoception. Due to the regulatory feedback loops underlying brain-body communication, the modification of interoceptive processes (ascending signals) may, in turn, affect physiological stress axes activity (descending signals), and, ultimately, also physical symptoms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 147 (5 UL)