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See detailModular Support Toolkit for Teachers
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a support framework and a modular support toolkit on the basis of the concept of basic motor competences and the results of the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a support framework and a modular support toolkit on the basis of the concept of basic motor competences and the results of the data collection in phase 1 of the project was developed as part of intellectual output 3. The aim of this toolkit is to be implemented mainly at the level of regular physical education lessons to initiate adaptations regarding the content and methods in physical education instruction. In a first step, the support framework was developed for getting from the diagnosis of the students’ basic motor competencies and the strengths and weaknesses identified in the assessment to concrete interventions. Based on this framework, supportive handouts in form of a modular support toolkit were developed, ready to be implemented in concrete educational situations to support students with additional needs in basic motor competencies. The modular support toolkit includes guidelines for the interpretation of MOBAK (Motorische Basiskompetenzen; German for basic motor competencies) test results, the MOBAK support framework, a glossary, as well as the modular support toolkit with materials for physical education teachers in the form of MOBAK task description cards and MOBAK activity cards based on principles of variation and on a competence-oriented approach. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective professional development and sustainability of multilingual approaches
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana; Palviainen, Åsa

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an ... [more ▼]

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an overview of research studies on language policies, teacher agency and beliefs with a focus on multilingual settings. The intertwining of policy and teaching practice is then illustrated by means of the Finnish case, demonstrating how recent ECEC policies advocating diversity and plurilingualism have gradually changed teacher beliefs. The second part of the chapter focuses on professional development (PD) in so far as it is able to support teachers in implementing policies, changing pedagogical practices, and amending beliefs. This section presents different pathways for professional learning and explores the effectiveness of various models of professional development. These observations are taken up in two empirical studies on teachers’ professional development within multilingual preschool classes in Luxembourg and primary schools in the Netherlands. The interview and observation data provided in the two contexts point to the centrality of teacher beliefs and agency in moving towards multilingual practices and sustainable change. Furthermore, it unveils the ways in which teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices change over time, and how effective PD programmes can support teachers in interpreting policies and developing new practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalizing on multilingualism in European mainstream education. (2020)

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home ... [more ▼]

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home languages are given little space. For multilingual programmes to be inclusive and empowering, professionals need to break with monolingual practices based on monolingual ideologies. The resource-oriented pedagogy of translanguaging which challenges hegemonic practices, is one way in which professionals can give space to all languages, leverage children’s resources and contribute to their development. The present chapter presents the findings of a professional development on multilingual pedagogies in Luxembourg. Data stem from observations, video-recorded activities and interviews with four practitioners, two working in a formal education setting and two in a non-formal one. The findings show that the practitioners developed a positive stance towards translanguaging and multilingual education, learned to design a child-centred and holistic multilingual learning environment and used languages flexibly, deploying translation, code-switching and translanguaging. This dynamic language use facilitated communication, participation, language learning and well-being. There were differences between the practitioners’ flexible language use. The professionals in the school did not use pair talk, made less use of code-switching and used languages more strategically and responsibly than the caregivers in the crèche. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion and future research
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine (Ed.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

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See detailIntroduction: multilingual approaches to teaching and learning
Duarte, Joana; Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This introductory chapter outlines the monolingual mindset and language hierarchies that still exist in European education systems, and explains these are a result of the nation-forming movements of the nineteenth century. Next, four types of language instruction are presented: foreign language instruction; second language pedagogy; bilingual/monoglossic instruction; and plurilingual/heteroglossic instruction. The chapter continues with different types of multilingual approaches in mainstream educational settings that capitalise on multilingualism for teaching and learning, among them intercomprehension and translanguaging. Having explained these, the chapter explores the importance of partnerships with parents, professional development, and language policies because these actors and factors contribute to the effectiveness and sustainability of the approaches. The chapter concludes with a presentation of the structure of this volume as well as of the individual chapters. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana

Book published by Routledge (2020)

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from ... [more ▼]

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from several officially monolingual,bilingual, and multilingual countries in Europe, discusses approaches to multilingual education which capitalise on students’ multilingual resources from early childhood to higher education. This book synthesises research on multilingual education, relates theory to practice, and discusses different pedagogical approaches from diverse perspectives. The first section of the book outlines multilingual approaches in early childhood education and primary school, the second looks at multilingual approaches in secondary school and higher education, and the third examines the influence of parents, policy-makers, and professional development on the implementation and sustainability of multilingual approaches. The book demonstrates that educators can leverage students’ multilingualism to promote learning and help students achieve their full potential. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of language education, psychology, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuere Methoden zur Identifikation und Lokalisierung von Schäden an vorgespannten Betonbrücken
Maas, Stefan UL; Nguyen, Viet Ha UL; Kebig, Tanja UL

in Bischoff, Manfred; von Scheven, Malte; Oesterle, Bernd (Eds.) Baustatik-Baupraxis 14 (2020, March 23)

Zuerst wird ein rein statistischer Schadensindikator basierend auf der Hauptkomponentenanalyse vorgestellt. Wichtig sind Referenzmessungen im ungeschädigten Zustand, um Veränderungen zu identifizieren ... [more ▼]

Zuerst wird ein rein statistischer Schadensindikator basierend auf der Hauptkomponentenanalyse vorgestellt. Wichtig sind Referenzmessungen im ungeschädigten Zustand, um Veränderungen zu identifizieren. Bevor die Messdaten mit den Rechenmodellen kombiniert werden, müssen Temperatureffekte kompensiert werden, um dann die Schäden zu erkennen und zu lokalisieren. Ein „Model-Updating“ Prozess eines speziellen Finite-Elemente- Modells passt die Steifigkeitsmatrix an die gemessenen Eigenfrequenzen oder an die progressive Absenkung unter Eigengewicht an. [less ▲]

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See detailDeniable encryption, authentication, and key exchange
Ostrev, Dimiter UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We present some foundational ideas related to deniable encryption, message authentication, and key exchange in classical cryptography. We give detailed proofs of results that were previously only sketched ... [more ▼]

We present some foundational ideas related to deniable encryption, message authentication, and key exchange in classical cryptography. We give detailed proofs of results that were previously only sketched in the literature. In some cases, we reach the same conclusions as in previous papers; in other cases, the focus on rigorous proofs leads us to different formulations of the results. [less ▲]

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See detailUne pandémie, cent ans plus tard
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailRadio-Feature "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" Folge 3: Prodeutsch/Probelgisch? Geschichte jenseits von Schwarz-Weiß-Malerei
Brüll, Christoph UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Mit dem Ersten Weltkrieg, der „Urkatastrophe des 20. Jahrhunderts“, begann das „kurze 20. Jahrhundert“, das mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges ausklang. Als epochale Zäsur verstanden, verändern der Erste ... [more ▼]

Mit dem Ersten Weltkrieg, der „Urkatastrophe des 20. Jahrhunderts“, begann das „kurze 20. Jahrhundert“, das mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges ausklang. Als epochale Zäsur verstanden, verändern der Erste Weltkrieg und die Pariser Vorortverträge die politische Landkarte Europas nachhaltig. Die Folgen wirken teilweise bis heute nach – wofür Ostbelgien nur ein Beispiel von vielen ist. Im Vergleich zu den großen territorialen und politischen Umwälzungen, welche die Versailler Friedensordnung in weiten Teilen Europas auslöste, könnte man die Abtretung der preußischen Kreise Eupen und Malmedy an Belgien als „geopolitische peanuts“ bezeichnen. Die Folgen der „petite farce belge“, wie die Volksabstimmung von 1920 in der belgischen Presse genannt wurde, waren aus gesamteuropäischer Perspektive kaum mehr als ein „chirurgischer Eingriff“. [less ▲]

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See detailGene family information facilitates variant interpretation and identification of disease-associated genes in neurodevelopmental disorders
Lal, Dennis; May, Patrick UL; Perez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Genome Medicine (2020), 12(28),

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs ... [more ▼]

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). While orthologous gene conservation is commonly employed in variant annotation, approximately 80% of known disease-associated genes belong to gene families. The use of gene family information for disease gene discovery and variant interpretation has not yet been investigated on genome-wide scale. We empirically evaluate whether paralog conserved or non-conserved sites in human gene families are important in NDDs. Methods: Gene family information was collected from Ensembl. Paralog conserved sites were defined based on paralog sequence alignments. 10,068 NDD patients and 2,078 controls were statistically evaluated for de novo variant burden in gene families. Results: We demonstrate that disease-associated missense variants are enriched at paralog conserved sites across all disease groups and inheritance models tested. We developed a gene family de novo enrichment framework that identified 43 exome-wide enriched gene families including 98 de novo variant carrying genes in NDD patients of which 28 represent novel candidate genes for NDD which are brain expressed and under evolutionary constraint. Conclusion: This study represents the first method to incorporate gene-family information into a statistical framework to interpret variant data for NDDs and to discover newly NDD -associated genes. [less ▲]

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See detailBitcoin Governance as a Decentralized Financial Market Infrastructure
Nabilou, Hossein UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Bitcoin is the oldest and most widely established cryptocurrency network with the highest market capitalization among all cryptocurrencies. Although bitcoin (with lowercase b) is increasingly viewed as a ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin is the oldest and most widely established cryptocurrency network with the highest market capitalization among all cryptocurrencies. Although bitcoin (with lowercase b) is increasingly viewed as a digital asset belonging to a new asset class, the Bitcoin network (with uppercase B) is a decentralized financial market infrastructure (dFMI) that clears and settles transactions in its native asset without relying on the conventional financial market infrastructures (FMIs). To be a reliable asset class as well as a dFMI, however, Bitcoin needs to have robust governance arrangements; whether such arrangements are built into the protocol (i.e., on-chain governance mechanisms) or relegated to the participants in the Bitcoin network (i.e., off-chain governance mechanisms), or are composed of a combination of both mechanisms (i.e., a hybrid form of governance). This paper studies Bitcoin governance with a focus on its alleged shortcomings. In so doing, after defining Bitcoin governance and its objectives, the paper puts forward an idiosyncratic governance model whose main objective is to preserve and maximize the main value proposition of Bitcoin, i.e., its censorship-resistant property, which allows participants to transact in an environment with minimum social trust. Therefore, Bitcoin governance, including the processes through which Bitcoin governance crises have been resolved and the standards against which the Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs) are examined, should be analyzed in light of the prevailing narrative of Bitcoin as a censorship-resistant store of value and payment infrastructure. Within such a special governance model, this paper seeks to identify the potential shortcomings in Bitcoin governance by reference to the major governance crises that posed serious threats to Bitcoin in the last decade. It concludes that the existing governance arrangements in the Bitcoin network have been largely successful in dealing with Bitcoin’s major crises that would have otherwise become existential threats to the Bitcoin network. [less ▲]

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See detailCollective Effects in Stochastic Thermodynamics
Herpich, Tim UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

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See detailSuicidal Behaviour in Youth in Luxembourg - Findings from the HBSC 2014 Luxembourg Study
Catunda, Carolina UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL et al

Report (2020)

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on ... [more ▼]

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on suicidal behaviours among adolescents were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. These can be used to identify suicide risk factors and to develop comprehensive suicide prevention programs. In Luxembourg, the suicide rate has fluctuated around 15 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants per year, for more than ten years. In the period 2006 – 2016, 20 deaths were registered as suicide in the age group of 10 to 19-year-olds. These suicides represent approximately 19% of all deaths registered in this age group. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study conducted in 2014, 875 adolescents indicated to have contemplated suicide in the last 12 months, which amounts to 15.1% of the adolescents in the study. In the same year, 811 adolescents (14.0%) indicated to have made a suicide plan in the last 12 months, and 448 adolescents (7.7%) to have attempted suicide (at least once) in the last year. In first instance, bivariate logistic regressions analyses were conducted for 24 independent variables with three suicidal behaviours (contemplation of suicide, planning of suicide and suicide attempt) and sadness as dependent variables in order to identify potential risk factors. These risk factors were further tested in multivariate logistic regressions, in order to make a statement about the relevance of these factors for suicidal behaviour of adolescents in Luxembourg, while taking into account the dependence between the risk factors. Results from multivariate logistic regressions indicate that subjective health complaints are the most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents who have recurrent multiple health complaints are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who do not have health complaints. Life satisfaction is the second most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents with lower levels of life satisfaction are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who have higher levels of life satisfaction. Gender-specific analyses show that the risk factors differ between girls and boys for suicidal behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends from 2006-2018 in Health, Health Behaviour, Health Outcomes and Social Context of Adolescents in Luxembourg
Heinz, Andreas UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Kern, Matthias Robert UL et al

Report (2020)

This report shows how 30 health indicators developed in the four Luxembourg HBSC surveys conducted in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. There were positive trends especially in the health behaviour of the pupils ... [more ▼]

This report shows how 30 health indicators developed in the four Luxembourg HBSC surveys conducted in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. There were positive trends especially in the health behaviour of the pupils: they smoke less and drink less alcohol. They also report more frequently that they brush their teeth regularly, eat more fruit and fewer sweets and consume fewer soft drinks. From 2006-2018, however, there were also deteriorations. For example, more pupils feel stressed from school and rate the climate among classmates worse. In addition, there are more pupils who are overweight and exercise less and more pupils report having psychosomatic health complaints. [less ▲]

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See detailLogistics: Situating flows in a spatial context
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geography Compass (2020)

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and ... [more ▼]

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and engineering. Logistics systems are now the conveyor belts of the global system of trade, commerce and production, and its associated techniques and strategies aim at optimizing flows and throughput within discrete units (such as firms), in economic networks and across geographical space. Because flows are important determinants for the development of places, logistics has the power to structure territories. Therefore, it has raised considerable interest in the field of geography, not only with regard to cities and their dense agglomeration of people, buildings and infrastructure, but also in geopolitical terms as it fosters the exploration, control and surveillance of areas. The paper presents a critical account of logistics operations and their relevance for the making (and unmaking) of territories, related policy dimensions and future challenges for research. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicidality in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressive symptomatology, alexithymia, and antidepressants.
Pinto Costa, Andreia UL; Loor, Cathia; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (2020)

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of suicidality. However, the risk factors remain under-investigated. This study explored factors that increase suicidality risk in ASD ... [more ▼]

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of suicidality. However, the risk factors remain under-investigated. This study explored factors that increase suicidality risk in ASD. Through an online survey, 150 adults with ASD were compared to 189 control adults. Autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, alexithymia, and antidepressant intake were assessed on their contribution predicting suicidality. Among people with ASD, 63% scored above the cutoff for high suicidality risk. Increased autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant intake significantly predicted suicidality. Furthermore, among those with high levels of autistic traits, the risk of suicidality was increased if they also had high levels of alexithymia. These results highlight the importance of considering depression, antidepressants, and alexithymia to prevent suicidality in ASD. [less ▲]

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