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See detailEmpowering Large Chemical Knowledge Bases for Exposomics: PubChemLite Meets MetFrag
Schymanski, Emma UL; Kondic, Todor UL; Neumann, Steffen et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailMRV of Emissions and Mitigation Action: the Paris Agreement and Financial Support for Transparency- Related Capacity Building in Developing Countries
Alexandraki, Chrysa UL

in Climate Law (2020), 10(3-4), 308-334

This article examines the role of the Paris Agreement in enabling developed-country financial contributions aimed at building transparency-related capacity in developing countries. It first analyses the ... [more ▼]

This article examines the role of the Paris Agreement in enabling developed-country financial contributions aimed at building transparency-related capacity in developing countries. It first analyses the legal means and institutional arrangements utilized by the Agreement to support developing countries in building transparency-related capacity. It then argues that even though the Agreement adopts certain legal and institutional means to foster transparency-related capacity building in developing countries through financial support, it does so in a way that risks undermining the meaningful and accountable use of climate finance, while softening the bindingness of the Agreement’s provisions. The lack of accountability obligations on climate finance for developing countries, the principle of flexibility, and the challenges intrinsic to climate finance, combine to weaken the climate-finance obligation, while calling into question the effectiveness of the Agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on NORMAN-SLE / SusDat for NORMAN-CWG-NTS Meeting (17 Nov 2020)
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 17)

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See detailPeers als Quelle aktueller Motivation? Wie Jugendliche mit heterogenen Verhaltensweisen Peerinteraktionen in Abhängigkeit des behavioralen Klassenumfeldes erleben
Knickenberg, Margarita; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Schmidt, Philipp

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie (2020)

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings ... [more ▼]

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings of stress during social interactions with classmates compared to indi- vidual work settings. However, it turned out that adolescents with behavioural problems have difficulties in making and maintaining social contacts and friendships. While in previous studies behaviour was investigated as dichotomous variable, this study chose a dimensional, person-centered approach to identify adolescents with heterogeneous behaviour. Therefore, this paper aims at analysing effects of social inter- actions at school on emotional experiences of adolescents with heterogeneous behavioural profiles. In addition, a potential moderating effect of the classroom environment regarding behaviour will be tested. The sample comprised N = 719 students of grade five and six. Data were collected using the experience sampling method. In detail, the students completed a short questionnaire concerning their momentary emo- tional experience and their social context two to three times a day on five consecutive days at school. Thus, 8870 snapshots of the adolescents' emotional experiences and situations in class were available. Using teacher ratings regarding the students' behaviour, latent profile analyses were calculated and three different profiles within the sample were identified: students with adaptive, with internalising and with externalising behaviour. Findings of multilevel structural equation models show, first, that students are more motivated and less stressed while interacting with others during lessons (e.g. in partner or group activities) compared to individual working situations. This effect is more pronounced for students with internalising and externalising behavioural profiles. Second, the small differential moderating, but not significant effects indi- cate that the relation between adolescents' emotional experiences and peer interactions is not moderated by the classroom environment regarding prosocial or problem behaviour. The results will be discussed from methodological and content-related perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling for the Internet of Things
Rodoplu, Volkan; Nakip, Mert; Qorbanian, Roozbeh UL et al

in IEEE Access (2020), 8

We develop a methodology for Multi-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (MC-JFS) targeted at solving the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer Massive Access Problem of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication ... [more ▼]

We develop a methodology for Multi-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (MC-JFS) targeted at solving the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer Massive Access Problem of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication in the presence of multiple channels, as found in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. In contrast with the existing schemes that merely react to current traffic demand, Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (JFS) forecasts the traffic generation pattern of each Internet of Things (IoT) device in the coverage area of an IoT Gateway and schedules the uplink transmissions of the IoT devices over multiple channels in advance, thus obviating contention, collision and handshaking, which are found in reactive protocols. In this paper, we present the general form of a deterministic scheduling optimization program for MC-JFS that maximizes the total number of bits that are delivered over multiple channels by the delay deadlines of the IoT applications. In order to enable real-time operation of the MC-JFS system, first, we design a heuristic, called Multi-Channel Look Ahead Priority based on Average Load (MC-LAPAL), that solves the general form of the scheduling problem. Second, for the special case of identical channels, we develop a reduction technique by virtue of which an optimal solution of the scheduling problem is computed in real time. We compare the network performance of our MC-JFS scheme against Multi-Channel Reservation-based Access Barring (MC-RAB) and Multi-Channel Enhanced Reservation-based Access Barring (MC-ERAB), both of which serve as benchmark reactive protocols. Our results show that MC-JFS outperforms both MC-RAB and MC-ERAB with respect to uplink cross-layer throughput and transmit energy consumption, and that MC-LAPAL provides high performance as an MC-JFS heuristic. Furthermore, we show that the computation time of MC-LAPAL scales approximately linearly with the number of IoT devices. This work serves as a foundation for building scalable JFS schemes at IoT Gateways in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailNo, Mars is not a free planet, no matter what SpaceX says
Salmeri, Antonino UL

Article for general public (2020)

SpaceX makes no secret of its driving goal to make humans a multiplanetary species. Given SpaceX founder Elon Musk’s fixation on Mars and fondness for Tesla ‘Easter eggs’ and other gags, it’s hardly ... [more ▼]

SpaceX makes no secret of its driving goal to make humans a multiplanetary species. Given SpaceX founder Elon Musk’s fixation on Mars and fondness for Tesla ‘Easter eggs’ and other gags, it’s hardly surprising to see Mars mentioned in the terms of service (ToS) agreement for beta users of its Starlink satellite broadband service. However, as a space lawyer, I certainly didn’t expect Starlink’s beta ToS to include the following provision: “For services provided on Mars, or in transit to Mars via Starship or other colonization spacecraft, the parties recognize Mars as a free planet and that no Earth-based government has authority or sovereignty over Martian activities. Accordingly, Disputes will be settled through self-governing principles, established in good faith at the time of the Martian settlement.” To be sure, SpaceX might have inserted Clause 9 as another one of Musk’s jokes that aren’t really jokes, like the time he invoked South Park’s infamous underwear gnomes in explaining how he intended to fund his ambitious Mars colonization plans. After all, there are no Starlink satellites orbiting Mars, and no prospective customers there yet, either. But international law is no laughing matter. Taken literally, Starlink users must agree with SpaceX that Mars is a “free planet” and that disputes concerning Starlink services provided on Mars or while en route to the red planet via a SpaceX Starship — will be settled through self-regulation. But is this clause valid? What are the political implications of a transportation company proclaiming the legal status of a celestial body? Does such an attempt make strategic sense? [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer Learning and Meta Learning Based Fast Downlink Beamforming Adaptation
Yuan, Yi; Zheng, G.; Wong, K.-K. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2020)

This paper studies fast adaptive beamforming optimization for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio balancing problem in a multiuser multiple-input single-output downlink system. Existing deep ... [more ▼]

This paper studies fast adaptive beamforming optimization for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio balancing problem in a multiuser multiple-input single-output downlink system. Existing deep learning based approaches to predict beamforming rely on the assumption that the training and testing channels follow the same distribution which may not hold in practice. As a result, a trained model may lead to performance deterioration when the testing network environment changes. To deal with this task mismatch issue, we propose two offline adaptive algorithms based on deep transfer learning and meta-learning, which are able to achieve fast adaptation with the limited new labelled data when the testing wireless environment changes. Furthermore, we propose an online algorithm to enhance the adaptation capability of the offline meta algorithm in realistic non-stationary environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed adaptive algorithms achieve much better performance than the direct deep learning algorithm without adaptation in new environments. The meta-learning algorithm outperforms the deep transfer learning algorithm and achieves near optimal performance. In addition, compared to the offline meta-learning algorithm, the proposed online meta-learning algorithm shows superior adaption performance in changing environments. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: mind ideologies!
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 14)

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See detailTrafficSliver: Fighting Website Fingerprinting Attacks with Traffic Splitting
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Mitseva, Asya; Hiller, Jens et al

in 27th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '20) (2020, November 13)

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See detailFormation à la pratique d’enseignement en temps de crise sanitaire: Conception, production et diffusion de vidéos pédagogiques à distance
Reuter, Robert UL; Reeff, Alain; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

Le Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education (BScE) de l’Université du Luxembourg propose une formation approfondie et exigeante alliant savoir académique et pratique. Ils sont formés pour enseigner dans tous ... [more ▼]

Le Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education (BScE) de l’Université du Luxembourg propose une formation approfondie et exigeante alliant savoir académique et pratique. Ils sont formés pour enseigner dans tous les cycles de l’école fondamentale, dans les classes de la voie de préparation et dans le contexte d’élèves à besoins éducatifs spécifiques au Luxembourg. Comme dans de nombreuses autres formations initiales des enseignants, le temps de terrain (ou stage) représente un moment clé de chaque semestre dans le BScE. Face à la crise sanitaire du COVID-19, ce dispositif de formation à la pratique pédagogique n’a pas pu être conservé. En effet, les écoles étaient fermées, les élèves étaient scolarisés à distance par leur enseignant. Nous avons donc dû rapidement innover et mettre en place des activités d’apprentissage alternatives qui correspondaient au mieux aux objectifs visés par les temps de terrain. Nous avons ainsi demandé à nos étudiants de concevoir et produire, en dyades, des vidéos pédagogiques à destination des écoles du pays. Le but était de permettre à nos étudiants de développer les compétences nécessaires pour réaliser de telles ressources d’apprentissage et de de les mettre à disposition des écoles via Internet. Nous allons décrire, analyser et évaluer le dispositif mis en place, ainsi que les vidéos qui ont été produite. Nous allons également discuter des éventuelles leçons apprises qui conduiront à des adaptations dans notre formation. [less ▲]

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See detailProfessional development to promote innovative language teaching: examples from multilingual Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language ... [more ▼]

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. There is a need for professional development (PD) which can influence the practitioners’ attitudes, knowledge and skills, and the quality of their teaching (Egert et al., 2018; Peleman et al., 2017). This presentation begins with an outline of several theoretical models of PD and explains why integrated models that are collaborative, inquiry-based, and performance-based are the most effective in contributing to change. I will then present a PD used in Luxembourg to help early childhood practitioners develop and implement multilingual pedagogies. The model, which comprised training sessions, network meetings, and coaching, aimed to deepen the practitioners’ understanding of multilingualism and language learning, familiarize them with translanguaging (García & Reid, 2019) and enable them to implement language and literacy activities in Luxembourgish, French and children’s home languages (Kirsch et al. forthcoming). Finally, I provide insights into the professional learning of two preschool teachers. The PD, the experience of engaging in multilingual activities, and the reflection on teaching and learning, enabled the teachers to develop a positive stance to multilingual education, design productive leaning environments based on social-constructivist theories, and monitor language use to guarantee responsible translanguaging (Kirsch 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging course for preschool teachers to disrupt inequalities
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebić, Džoen Dominique UL

Presentation (2020, November 12)

The highly linguistically and culturally diverse reality of Luxembourg and its school system pose a great challenge to students, families, and teachers alike. This reality tends to produce one of the ... [more ▼]

The highly linguistically and culturally diverse reality of Luxembourg and its school system pose a great challenge to students, families, and teachers alike. This reality tends to produce one of the largest differences in reading performance between Luxembourgish and language minority children compared to other countries (PISA, 2019), which creates inequalities in students’ academic trajectory. Translanguaging as a pedagogy has been established to overcome these inequalities by disrupting language hierarchies and giving language minority children a space and voice to learn and prosper (García, 2019). To address the inequalities and help implement a translanguaging pedagogy in preschool, our project : (1) offered a professional development course in translanguaging to 40 teachers, (2) involves children’s parents to foster home-school collaboration through questionnaires and interviews, and (3) cultivates children’s linguistic, cognitive, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom through linguistic tests and video observations. We also used focus groups and questionnaires at the beginning and the end of the course. The 18-hour course in Translanguaging (June to December 2019) aimed to challenge the teachers’ perception about multilingualism and equality in their classroom. Through the preliminary results of the focus groups, questionnaires and field notes, we were able to observe some positive changes in the teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about their language minority children such as realizing that language is a tool of communication. Teachers were also more positive about home-school collaboration. However, despite our continuous creative efforts, some teachers still maintained their traditional monolingual stance and conviction of parents’ lack of education and interest. Most of the teachers did, however, not completely overcome a monolingual bias and this remains our main focus in the remaining points and follow-ups of our project. References García, O. (2019). Translanguaging: a coda to the code?, Classroom Discourse, 10(3-4), 369-373, doi: 10.1080/19463014.2019.1638277 OECD (2019). PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What students know and can do. PISA, OECD Publishing: Paris. doi: https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en [less ▲]

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See detailGeoGebraTAO: Geometry Learning using a Dynamic Adaptive ICT-Enhanced Environment to Promote String Differentiation of Children's Individual Pathways
Dording, Carole; Max, Charles Joseph UL; Kreis, Yves UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a ... [more ▼]

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse student population. 164 children of Luxembourg elementary schools, aged between 10 and 13 years, acted as test-group and explored elementary geometric concepts in a sequence of learning assignments, created with the dynamic mathematics system GeoGebra integrated into the computer-assisted testing framework TAO. They actively built new knowledge in an autonomous way and at their own pace with only minor support interventions of their teacher. Based on easily exploitable data, collected within a sequence of exploratory learning assignments, the GeoGebraTAO tool analyses the answers provided by the child and performs a diagnostic of the child’s competencies in geometry. With respect to this outcome, the tool manages to identify children struggling with geometry concepts and subsequently proposes a differentiated individual pathway through scaffolding and feedback practices. Short videoclips aim at helping the children to better understand any task in case of need and can be watched voluntarily. Furthermore, a spaced repetition feature is another highly useful component. Pre- and post-test results show that the test-group, working with GeoGebraTAO, and a parallel working control-group, following a traditional paper-and-pencil geometry course, increased their geometry skills and knowledge through the training program; the test-group performed even better in items related to dynamic geometry. In addition, a more precise analysis within clusters, based on similar performances in both pre- and post-tests and the child’s progress within GeoGebraTAO activities, provides evidence of some common ways of working with our dynamic geometry tool, leading to overall improvement at an individualized level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of augmented reality, digital and physical modelling in schooling at home in early childhood in Echternach
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Zsolt, Lavicza

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early ... [more ▼]

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early childhood (cycle 1), however, is not yet a common practice in elementary schools in Luxemburg. Participation in online video conferences or the use of educational technologies relied in early childhood in significant parts on the disponibility and skills of parents. Younger students were experiencing difficulties in following-up courses requests in schooling at home. From previous research (Haas et al., In Preparation), we designed a conceptual framework on parent assisted remote teaching. Hence, we used these findings to work with 12 early childhood students (ages 4-6), their teachers and parents in schooling at home. Based on the four basic principles of Dienes’s theory of mathematics in physical and digital modelling (Lieban, 2019), we created mathematical modelling tasks with TinkerCad. During two weeks, we collected data through chat responses, web meetings and observations. In this presentation, we will explain insights and how further tasks in schooling at home in early childhood could benefit from this experience. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in the Luxembourgish Educational System: Effects of Language Proficiency on Math Performance Among Different Generations of Immigrant Students
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Reichel, Yanica UL et al

Poster (2020, November 12)

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant ... [more ▼]

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant background (Lenz & Heinz, 2018), and several studies indicate these students are considerably disadvantaged in terms of educational achievement levels (Hadjar et al., 2015, 2018). Lower achievement may be partly due to difficulties related to displacement and settling of 1st generation immigrant students. Second and later generation students may however also experience disadvantages as they speak languages at home that are different from the two main languages of instruction (i.e., German and French), and their parents may be less familiar with the educational system and less able to provide support for their children (Alba & Foner, 2016). This may explain why educational inequalities persist; however little is known about the influence of language proficiency of different generations of immigrant students on their performance in other school subjects. Therefore, our poster focuses on the effect of generation after controlling for the effect of language on math competency. Using data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées) for the 2016 cohort of 9th grade students in the two main tracks of secondary school (n=4,339), we conduct regression analysis to investigate to what extent language proficiency in German and French and generational status have an impact on math performance. Data indicates that language proficiency in both German and French explains a significant proportion of variance in math performance. In addition, there is a generation effect, whereby 3rd and later generation immigrant students achieve a higher level of math competency than students of the 1st or 2nd generation. Results will be discussed in terms of social mobility and educational inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do pupils experience Technology-Based Assessments? Implications for methodological approaches to measuring the User Experience based on two case studies in France and Luxembourg
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at ... [more ▼]

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at their best (i.a. independent of individual differences in computer literacy), we must ensure reliable and valid data collection. By reducing Human-Computer Interaction issues, we provide the best possible assessment conditions and user experience (UX) with the TBA and reduce educational inequalities. Good UX is thus a prerequisite for better data validity. Building on a recent case study, we investigated how pupils perform TBAs in real-life settings. We addressed the context-dependent factors resulting from the observations that ultimately influence the UX. The first case study was conducted with pupils age 6 to 7 in three elementary schools in France (n=61) in collaboration with la direction de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP). The second case study was done with pupils age 12 to 16 in four secondary schools in Luxembourg (n=104) in collaboration with the Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET). This exploratory study focused on the collection of various qualitative datasets to identify factors that influence the interaction with the TBA. We also discuss the importance of teachers’ moderation style and mere system-related characteristics, such as audio protocols of the assessment data. This study contribution comprises design recommendations and implications for methodological approaches to measuring pupils’ user experience during TBAs. [less ▲]

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See detailTackling educational inequalities using school effectiveness measures
Levy, Jessica UL; Mussack, Dominic UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 11)

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