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See detailPrivacy and Security of Big Data in AI Systems:A Research and Standards Perspective
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), 9-12 December 2019 (2020, February 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (8 UL)
See detailUNTERSUCHUNG DER METALLURGISCHEN PHASENBILDUNG UND DEREN EINFLUSS AUF DIE VERBINDUNGSEIGENSCHAFTEN SOWIE AUF DIE VERSAGENSURSACHEN VON LASERGESCHWEIßTEN HARTMETALL-STAHL-VERBUNDEN
Schiry, Marc UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Laser beam welding of hard metal to steel offers multiple advantages regarding resource saving, mechanical strength of the joint and automation capability. The present work focuses on the fundamental ... [more ▼]

Laser beam welding of hard metal to steel offers multiple advantages regarding resource saving, mechanical strength of the joint and automation capability. The present work focuses on the fundamental research and development of the laser based welding process of tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metals with a tempering steel. Metallurgical analysis of the welding process showed that the formation of intermetallic and/or intermediate phases has a significant influence on the properties and mechanical strength of the dissimilar joint. The amount of molten hard metal in the steel melt bath plays a key role for the formation of the different phases. Therefore, a new parameter dy was defined, which correlates with the hard metal content in the melt pool. It is shown that for hard metals with 12 wt.% of cobalt binder, the phase transformation in the weld seam starts with a relative hard metal content of 10 vol.%. This threshold is dependent on the relative cobalt concentration in the hard metal. The tungsten carbide grain size has a low influence on the phase transformation in the weld seam. Steel melt pools with hard metal content lower than 10 vol.% show under metallographic observation a martensitic/bainitic microstructure. Simulation of the stress formation in the joint showed that due to the volume expansion of martensite during the transformation, tensile stress in the hard metal part was formed. Under shear load, these tensile stresses compensate with the induced compressive stresses and results an almost stress free interface. High shear strengths of the dissimilar joints are possible. A higher percentage of hard metal melting during the welding process increases the carbon and tungsten content in the melt bath. Consequently, the martensite start temperature decreases significantly. When the initiating temperature for martensite transformation falls under room temperature, the weld seam transforms into an austenitic microstructure. Because of the missing volume expansion during cooling of the weld seam volume, low stresses in the hard metal are generated. Under shear load of the joint area, high tensile stresses appear in the sintered part. These stress concentration decreases the shear strength of the weld and lead to premature failure. For the industrial use case, high mechanical strength and a robust manufacturing process is needed. Therefore, the laser welding process of hard metal to steel was optimized. The joint properties strongly depend on the weld bead geometry. Weld seams with x- or v-shaped profiles enable local concentrated metallurgical bonding of the sintered part to the steel sheet. Reduction of the horizontal focal distance of the laser beam to the interface increases the bonding ratio, but also intensifies the melting of the hard metal part and lead to the metallurgical transformation. By tilting a v-shape weld seam, it was possible to optimize the bonding behavior and to minimize the amount of liquefied hard metal in the melt bath. Hard metal with low amounts of binder showed a high temperature sensitivity. After laser welding of these grades, hot cracks were found in the sinter material. These cracks were formed due to the high stresses, which are generate during cooling of the dissimilar joint. Therefore, a laser based heat treatment process was developed and applied. With a defined pre- and post-heating of the joint area, the cooling rate was reduced significantly and the stresses in the hard metal part minimized. High shear strengths were the result. [less ▲]

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See detailA Real-Time Approach for Chance-Constrained Motion Planning with Dynamic Obstacles
Castillo Lopez, Manuel UL; Ludivig, Philippe; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2020), 5(2), 3620-3625

Uncertain dynamic obstacles, such as pedestrians or vehicles, pose a major challenge for optimal robot navigation with safety guarantees. Previous work on motion planning has followed two main strategies ... [more ▼]

Uncertain dynamic obstacles, such as pedestrians or vehicles, pose a major challenge for optimal robot navigation with safety guarantees. Previous work on motion planning has followed two main strategies to provide a safe bound on an obstacle's space: a polyhedron, such as a cuboid, or a nonlinear differentiable surface, such as an ellipsoid. The former approach relies on disjunctive programming, which has a relatively high computational cost that grows exponentially with the number of obstacles. The latter approach needs to be linearized locally to find a tractable evaluation of the chance constraints, which dramatically reduces the remaining free space and leads to over-conservative trajectories or even unfeasibility. In this work, we present a hybrid approach that eludes the pitfalls of both strategies while maintaining the original safety guarantees. The key idea consists in obtaining a safe differentiable approximation for the disjunctive chance constraints bounding the obstacles. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is free of chance constraint linearization and disjunctive programming, and therefore, it can be efficiently solved to meet fast real-time requirements with multiple obstacles. We validate our approach through mathematical proof, simulation and real experiments with an aerial robot using nonlinear model predictive control to avoid pedestrians. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing judge biographies together with the CJEU's archives
Fritz, Vera UL

Presentation (2020, February 20)

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See detailRadio-Feature "100 Jahre Ostbelgien": Folge 2 "Das lange 19. Jahrhundert"
Brüll, Christoph UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

In der Geschichtsschreibung zu Ostbelgien hat das 19. Jahrhundert über Jahrzehnte ein Schattendasein gefristet. Den Schatten warfen drei geschichtliche Momente: der Staatenwechsel von 1920, die bewegten ... [more ▼]

In der Geschichtsschreibung zu Ostbelgien hat das 19. Jahrhundert über Jahrzehnte ein Schattendasein gefristet. Den Schatten warfen drei geschichtliche Momente: der Staatenwechsel von 1920, die bewegten Jahre bis zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs und die anschließende Säuberung. Häufig wurden Geschichte und Geschichtsbilder zu bloßen Argumenten, um die Angliederung Eupen-Malmedy-Sankt Viths an Belgien 1920 zu verteidigen bzw. zu verdammen. In dieser Folge von „100 Jahre Ostbelgien“ möchten wir wir erklären, wie aus dem so genannten langen 19. Jahrhundert die große Unbekannte der regionalen Vergangenheit wurde und skizzieren, wie die Zeitspanne von der Französischen Revolution bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg heute aus der Sicht der Geschichtswissenschaft dargestellt wird. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving the understanding of binge-watching behavior: An exploration of its underlying psychological processes
Flayelle, Maèva UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The advent of the digital age with its progress in on-demand viewing technology has been associated in recent years with a dramatic increase in binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of TV ... [more ▼]

The advent of the digital age with its progress in on-demand viewing technology has been associated in recent years with a dramatic increase in binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of TV series in one session), to the point that this practice has now become the new normative way to consume TV shows. Nevertheless, along with its massive rise has come concerns about the associated mental and physical health outcomes, with initial studies even assuming its addictive nature. At a time when the psychological investigation of this behavior was only in its infancy, the current PhD thesis, therefore, aimed at improving the understanding of binge-watching, by clarifying the psychological processes involved in its development and maintenance. To this end, six empirical studies were conducted along two main research axes: 1) the conceptualization and assessment of binge-watching behaviors, and 2) the exploration of binge-watchers’ psychological characteristics. Study 1 consisted of a preliminary qualitative exploration of the phenomenological characteristics of binge-watching. Capitalizing on these pilot findings, Study 2 reported on the development and psychometric validation of two assessment instruments, measuring TV series watching motivations (“Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire”, WTSMQ) and binge-watching engagement and symptoms (“Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire”, BWESQ). Finally, Study 3 aimed at cross-culturally validating the WTSMQ and BWESQ in nine languages (i.e., English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Hungarian, Persian, Arabic, Chinese). Subsequent to this first line of investigation, Study 4 then explored potential binge-watchers’ subtypes by taking into consideration three key psychological factors, i.e. motivations for binge-watching, impulsivity traits, and emotional reactivity. Study 5 consisted of a pre-registered experimental study aimed at ascertaining differences on behavioral and self-reported impulsivity in non-problematic and problematic binge-watchers. Finally, Study 6 carried out the first systematic review of literature on binge-watching correlates. Beyond providing two theoretically and psychometrically sound binge-watching measures that may enable widespread expansion of international research on the topic, this doctoral research also allowed for important insights into the heterogeneous and complex nature of binge-watching, as well as into the understanding of its underlying psychological mechanisms. Centrally, by revealing that high – but healthy – and problematic engagement in binge-watching are underlined by distinct motivational and dispositional psychological processes, the overall findings of this PhD thesis bring an alternative etiological comprehension of problematic binge-watching as a maladaptive coping or emotional regulation strategy to deal with negative affect states. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Hearings in Investor-State Treaty Arbitration: Revisiting the Principle
Harvey Geb. Koprivica, Ana UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

This thesis examines the scope, role and contemporary application of the traditional principle of public hearings, with a particular focus on the specific dispute resolution system of investor-state ... [more ▼]

This thesis examines the scope, role and contemporary application of the traditional principle of public hearings, with a particular focus on the specific dispute resolution system of investor-state arbitration. Whereas there have been extensive discussions in recent years surrounding developments which aim to increase the procedural openness and transparency of this traditionally private dispute resolution system, the emergence of a distinct requirement of holding public hearings in such contexts has not yet been given much attention. This thesis seeks to provide a better understanding of public hearings in investment treaty arbitration. By going beyond the usual narrative of the legitimacy and policy objectives of transparency, a more systematic and comprehensive approach to the issue of public hearings in investor-state arbitration is adopted. In addressing existing gaps in the literature, this thesis contends that current developments related to the principle of public hearings should not be analysed as a phenomenon specific to investor-state arbitration, but should instead be analysed within the broader context of the analogous developments at both the domestic and international level. In conducting such an investigation, this thesis situates the debate surrounding public hearings in investment treaty arbitration within a broader legal landscape, encompassing both national and international courts and tribunals. By examining the evolution of public hearings, it is argued that a steady shift in the understanding of the principle of public hearings over time may be detected. Public hearings have gone from serving merely as a means of protecting the individual from the secrecy and arbitrariness of the state, to becoming a democratic tool which the public is entitled to use not only in order to monitor and evaluate the administration of justice, but also as a platform for facilitating further public debate. In other words, the thesis demonstrates a shift in the understanding of the principle of public hearings from being a mere right of an individual to be heard in an open court, to the (additional) right of the general public to have an insight into what goes on in the courtroom and the active duty of the courts to ensure that this right is respected. This latter aspect of the principle of public hearings is subject to comparative analysis which examines the normative and practical solutions adopted by national and international courts when applying the principle of public hearings. While detecting a divergent legal landscape when it comes to providing public access to hearings, this thesis reveals a general trend towards greater regulation of the ways in which the public may obtain such access. What is more, it shall be shown that, in an era of expanded media coverage of public hearings, the subsequent enlargement of the audiences for such hearings, and the possibility to instantly disseminate information about proceedings through various technologies creates new paths for procedural openness and new challenges for the courts. Based on the findings of this comparative analysis, the thesis argues that it is not only the principle of public hearings which has been renewed and transformed. In seeking to adapt to the principle, the procedures in which the principle of public hearings operates have also started to change. This comparative analysis then forms the basis upon which a critical analysis and in-depth assessment is provided within the context of public hearings in investor-state arbitration. From a more “dispute-oriented” perspective, the thesis looks into the considerations and challenges that ought to be taken into account by arbitral tribunals and parties when organising a public hearing. By not losing sight of the implications for the system as a whole, however, the thesis addresses the future impact that the introduction of public hearings into the system investor-state arbitration may have on that system and, notably, upon its procedures. The key finding here is that the increasing relevance of public hearings in investor-state arbitration constitutes merely one part of the overall evolution of the “public” dimension of the requirement of public hearings. When taking these developments together, the thesis concludes that the debate on what constitutes a truly public hearing has entered a new epoch, with new actors and new challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the “project within the project” to the “city within the city”? Governance and Management Problems in Large Urban Development Projects Using the Example of the Science City Belval, Luxembourg
Leick, Annick UL; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2020), 78(3), 1-17

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in ... [more ▼]

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in particular university locations and science parks, as a central guiding principle for urban expansion. On the other hand, the paper focuses on the analysis of urban management and governance practices and, more specifically, the disjoining of large projects from their common urban planning context. Emphasis is put on the fact that such undertakings are defined as ‘projects’ and that they are subordinated to a specific management approach. Amid debates concerning large-scale urban development projects and urban governance, we develop the thesis that the risk for projects to unfold as a sort of ‘foreign matter’ in the urban realm increases as the degree to which they are subject to proven planning processes and regulatory practices diminishes. This argument will be empirically illustrated with Belval, the science city in the south of Luxembourg, which is developed ever since 2003 and whose progress is critically assessed here. The general conclusions include planning requirements for dealing with new large-scale development projects. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing Overloading Incidents on Smart Grids: A Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Approach
Antoniadis, Nikolaos UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Sifaleras, Angelo et al

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2020, February 15)

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that ... [more ▼]

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that, the overload could trip the fuse, opening the circuit, and stopping the flow and heating. However, sustained overloads, even if they are below the safety limits, could also damage the wires. To prevent overload, smart grid operators can switch the fuses on or off to protect the circuits, or remotely curtail the over-producing/over-consuming users. Nevertheless, making the most appropriate decision is a daunting decision-making task, notably due to contractual and technical obligations. In this paper, we define and formulate the overloading prevention problem as a Multiobjective Mixed Integer Quadratically Constrained Program. We also suggest a solution method using a combinatorial optimization approach with a state-of-the-art exact solver. We evaluate this approach for this real-world problem together with Creos Luxembourg S.A., the leading grid operator in Luxembourg, and show that our method can suggest optimal countermeasures to operators facing potential overloading incidents. [less ▲]

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See detailTerminologisch gesichert, musikalisch gerechtfertigt? Das „Sinfonische“ und das „Philharmonische“ im Blasmusikwesen
Sagrillo, Damien UL

in Sagrillo, Damien (Ed.) Kongressbericht Wadgassen, Deutschland 2018 (2020)

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See detailKongressbericht Wadgassen, Deutschland 2018
Sagrillo, Damien UL

Book published by Lit (2020)

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See detailLe complot judéo-maçonnique en 7 minutes top chrono
Meyers, Christian UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (0 UL)
See detailThe Digital Archive and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2020, February 13)

This paper deals with a question that is becoming increasingly important for historians who work with digitised cultural heritage: what are the politics of digitisation and what are its implications for ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a question that is becoming increasingly important for historians who work with digitised cultural heritage: what are the politics of digitisation and what are its implications for historical research? Is the often-lauded democratising potential of digitisation also offset by risks, inherent in selection processes that might privilege the digitisation of heritage corresponding to existing national master narratives, the availability of funding and/or the priorities set by cultural policies and certain research agendas? How does transnational heritage fit into this picture when most digitisation projects are, in one way or another, nationally framed? What biases can digital archives introduce in our work and how does that differ from issues of bias and selection in the ‘paper’ archive? In discussing these questions, I will provide a couple of examples before emphasising the importance of more transparency in this regard and the need for guidelines about how digital archives are constituted. A key point to highlight is that professional historians can and should be more open to learn from the experience of digital archivists and librarians who are at the forefront of the digital turn in heritage work. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (2 UL)
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See detailNew opportunities by laser joining of dissimilar materials
Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2020, February 13)

The presentation gives an overview about research projects at UL related to laser welding of dissimilar materials. Literature reference at the end enables the reader to dig deeper in case some specific ... [more ▼]

The presentation gives an overview about research projects at UL related to laser welding of dissimilar materials. Literature reference at the end enables the reader to dig deeper in case some specific projects are of interest. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 UL)
See detailVon Imaginationen himmlischer Erlösung bis zum Pogrom – Der Umgang mit Leprakranken im historischen Überblick.
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2020, February 13)

Die Geschichte der Lepra ist geprägt von Elend, Siechtum und Ausgrenzung bis hin zum Pogrom, aber andererseits auch von religiöser Überhöhung, Privilegierung und beispielhafter Fürsorge. Diese Ambivalenz ... [more ▼]

Die Geschichte der Lepra ist geprägt von Elend, Siechtum und Ausgrenzung bis hin zum Pogrom, aber andererseits auch von religiöser Überhöhung, Privilegierung und beispielhafter Fürsorge. Diese Ambivalenz ist sehr typisch für den Umgang mit Leprakranken, auch Leprose genannt, im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit. Und sie spiegelt sich auch in Vorurteilen wider, mit denen die an Lepra Erkrankten konfrontiert waren. Das Spektrum reicht hier von Imaginationen himmlischer Erlösung bis hin zur Unterstellung von Sünden und Verbrechen. Der Vortrag beschreibt zunächst Ursprünge und Ausprägungen von Vorurteilen gegenüber Leprakranken beschreiben. Kann man überhaupt von „den Leprosen“ sprechen, die stets als typische Randgruppe der mittelalterlichen Gesellschaft bezeichnet werden? Oder führten Vorurteile in unterschiedlichen zeitlichen und sozialen Kontexten womöglich zur Bildung verschiedener Gruppen? Hierzu werden im zweiten Teil ausgewählte Quellenbeispiele in den Blick genommen. Sie zeigen auf, welche konkreten Auswirkungen bestehende Vorurteile in der Praxis auf die Lebenswelt von Leprakranken hatten. Und sie ermöglichen, der Wandlung von Vorurteilsstrukturen in der long durée nachzugehen. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiome in Colorectal Cancer: How to Getfrom Meta-omics to Mechanism?
Ternes, Dominik UL; Karta, Jessica UL; Tsenkova, Mina UL et al

in Trends in Microbiology (2020)

Mounting evidence from metagenomic analyses suggests that a state of pathological microbial imbalance or dysbiosis is prevalent in the gut of patients with colorectal cancer. Several bacterial taxa have ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence from metagenomic analyses suggests that a state of pathological microbial imbalance or dysbiosis is prevalent in the gut of patients with colorectal cancer. Several bacterial taxa have been identified of which representative isolate cultures interact with human cancer cells in vitro and trigger disease path-ways in animal models. However, how the complex interrelationships in dysbiotic communities may be involved in cancer pathogenesis remains a crucial question.Here, we provide a survey of current knowledge of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer. Moving beyond observational studies, we outline new experimental approaches for gaining ecosystem-level mechanistic understanding of the gut microbiome’s role in cancer pathogenesis [less ▲]

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See detailExcess of singleton loss-of-function variants in Parkinson's disease contributes to genetic risk.
Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy; Banda, Peter UL; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (2020)

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple ... [more ▼]

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple variants associated with sporadic PD were discovered via association studies. Methods We studied the whole-exome sequencing data of 340 PD cases and 146 ethnically matched controls from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and performed burden analysis for different rare variant classes. Disease prediction models were built based on clinical, non-clinical and genetic features, including both common and rare variants, and two machine learning methods. Results We observed a significant exome-wide burden of singleton loss-of-function variants (corrected p=0.037). Overall, no exome-wide burden of rare amino acid changing variants was detected. Finally, we built a disease prediction model combining singleton loss-of-function variants, a polygenic risk score based on common variants, and family history of PD as features and reached an area under the curve of 0.703 (95% CI 0.698 to 0.708). By incorporating a rare variant feature, our model increased the performance of the state-of-the-art classification model for the PPMI dataset, which reached an area under the curve of 0.639 based on common variants alone. Conclusion The main finding of this study is to highlight the contribution of singleton loss-of-function variants to the complex genetics of PD and that disease risk prediction models combining singleton and common variants can improve models built solely on common variants. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective thermodynamics of two interacting underdamped Brownian particles
Herpich, Tim UL; Shayanfard, Kamran; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E. (2020), 101

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silvia, Marielle; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi‐use, re‐usable and resource‐efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi-use, re-usable and resource-efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 UL)