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See detailStatelessness the proof of a negative
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journaal Vreemdelingen-recht (2020), 19(2/2020), 30-37

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on ... [more ▼]

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on Statelessness. It also provides an overview of the state of play of statelessness in the European Union based on the EMN Inform entitled ‘Statelessness in the EU’ putting emphasis on the burden and standard of proof. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of Brexit on “bail-inable” liabilities under English law
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Over three years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known, for paving the way to ... [more ▼]

Over three years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known, for paving the way to multiple legal issues, which mostly depend on the finalisation of an agreement setting the conditions for the future relations between the European Union (EU) and the UK. Despite recent political declarations, the Brexit outcome is now clear, and a transitional period has just begun. As a result, for the resolution of credit institutions established in the EU, the bail-in of liabilities previously established under English law could become problematic. To date, the EU framework for the resolution of credit institutions (namely, the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive – BRRD) lacks a provision for the direct recognition of liabilities governed under third-country law. However, through its Article 55, the BRRD leaves to the EU Member State (MS) the duty to require entities to include “resolution-proof” clauses or, alternatively, to conclude a binding agreement with the relevant third country. This leaves a legislative gap concerning this direct recognition. By analysing the current EU legal framework for the bail-in of liabilities established with contracts governed by third-country law, with a view to identify its weaknesses, this paper aims at addressing possible practical solutions. The purpose is to ease the resolution process for the relevant administrative authority of the EU MS in charge of the resolution procedure, without the need of an immediate intervention of the legislator. Indeed, a solution for such gap in the BRRD might be disentangled outside the Brexit withdrawal agreement, or with specific arrangements between the EU/EU MS and the UK administrative authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain and GS1 Standards in the Food Chain: A Review of the Possibilities and Challenges
Keogh, John G.; Rejeb, Abderahman; Khan, Nida UL et al

in Building the Future of Food Safety Technology, 1st Edition, Blockchain and Beyond (2020)

The globalization of food systems has engendered significant changes to the operation and structure of food supply chains (FSCs). Alongside increasing consumer demands for safe and sustainable food ... [more ▼]

The globalization of food systems has engendered significant changes to the operation and structure of food supply chains (FSCs). Alongside increasing consumer demands for safe and sustainable food products, FSCs are challenged with issues related to information transparency and consumer trust. Uncertainty in matters of transparency and trust arises from the growing information asymmetry between food producers and food consumers. In particular: how and where food is cultivated, harvested, processed, and under what conditions. FSCs are tasked with guaranteeing the highest standards in food quality and food safety-ensuring the use of safe and authentic ingredients, limiting product perishability, and mitigating the risk of opportunism such as quality cheating or falsification of information. A sustainable, food-secure world will require multidirectional sharing of information and enhanced information symmetry between food producers and food consumers. The need for information symmetry will drive transformational changes in FSCs methods of practice and will require a coherent standardized framework of best practice recommendations to manage logistic units in the food chain A standardized framework will enhance food traceability, drive FSC efficiencies, enable data interoperability, improve data governance practices, and set supply chain identification standards for products and assets (what), exchange parties (who), locations (where), business processes (why) and sequence (when). FSCs began to adopt industry-driven supply chain standards in 1974 when the first barcode was scanned at a point-of-sale at Marsh's Supermarket in Troy, Ohio. However, the adoption of standards alone will not adequately address the challenges created by the information asymmetry between food producers and food consumers. Therefore, this paper examines the integration of GS1 standards with the functional components of Blockchain technology as an approach to realize a coherent standardized framework of industry-based tools for successful FSC transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical Posterior Error Bounds from Variational Objectives
Huggins, Jonathan; Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL; Campbell, Trevor et al

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS) (2020, June)

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See detailDas Zinsregister der Luxemburger Deutschordenskommende von 1457-1458. Edition und Kommentar
Pauly, Michel UL

in Hémecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2020), 72(2), 174-194

The article presents a twelve-page register dating back to 1457-58, which lists the annual rent incomes of the Teutonic Order based at the St. Elisabeth House in Ulrichgasse in the city of Luxembourg. The ... [more ▼]

The article presents a twelve-page register dating back to 1457-58, which lists the annual rent incomes of the Teutonic Order based at the St. Elisabeth House in Ulrichgasse in the city of Luxembourg. The article describes this rare source, asks about the possible circumstances of its origins and elaborates some prosopographical, topographical and economic conclusions that may be drawn from it. In the last part, it offers a critical edition of the document. [less ▲]

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See detailHet Dagboek van Anne Frank en andere Joodse Egodocumenten
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2020)

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See detailGOING DEEPER WITH NEURAL NETWORKS WITHOUT SKIP CONNECTIONS
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Shabayek, Abd El Rahman UL; Aouada, Djamila UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2020), Abu Dhabi, UAE, Oct 25–28, 2020 (2020, May 30)

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See detailBoosting SWIPT via Symbol-Level Precoding
Gautam, Sumit UL; Krivochiza, Jevgenij UL; Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, May 29)

In this paper, we investigate a simultaneous wireless information and power transmission (SWIPT) system, wherein a single multi-antenna transmitter serves multiple single-antenna users which employ the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate a simultaneous wireless information and power transmission (SWIPT) system, wherein a single multi-antenna transmitter serves multiple single-antenna users which employ the power-splitting (PS) receiver architecture. We formulate a Symbol-Level Precoding (SLP) based transmit power minimization problem dependent on the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and energy harvesting (EH) thresholds. We solve the corresponding non-negative convex quadratic optimization problem per time frame of transmitted symbols and study the benefits of proposed design under Zero-Forcing (ZF) Precoding, Direct Demand SLP (DD-SLP), and Squared-Root Demand SLP (RD-SLP) techniques. A static PS-ratio is fixed according to the SINR and EH demands to enable the segregation of intended received signals for information decoding (ID) and EH, respectively. Numerical results show the property conservation of SINR-enhancement via SLP at the ID unit while increasing the harvested energy at each of the end-users. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Generation of Acceptance Test Cases from Use Case Specifications: an NLP-based Approach
Wang, Chunhui UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Göknil, Arda UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2020)

Acceptance testing is a validation activity performed to ensure the conformance of software systems with respect to their functional requirements. In safety critical systems, it plays a crucial role since ... [more ▼]

Acceptance testing is a validation activity performed to ensure the conformance of software systems with respect to their functional requirements. In safety critical systems, it plays a crucial role since it is enforced by software standards, which mandate that each requirement be validated by such testing in a clearly traceable manner. Test engineers need to identify all the representative test execution scenarios from requirements, determine the runtime conditions that trigger these scenarios, and finally provide the input data that satisfy these conditions. Given that requirements specifications are typically large and often provided in natural language (e.g., use case specifications), the generation of acceptance test cases tends to be expensive and error-prone. In this paper, we present Use Case Modeling for System-level, Acceptance Tests Generation (UMTG), an approach that supports the generation of executable, system-level, acceptance test cases from requirements specifications in natural language, with the goal of reducing the manual effort required to generate test cases and ensuring requirements coverage. More specifically, UMTG automates the generation of acceptance test cases based on use case specifications and a domain model for the system under test, which are commonly produced in many development environments. Unlike existing approaches, it does not impose strong restrictions on the expressiveness of use case specifications. We rely on recent advances in natural language processing to automatically identify test scenarios and to generate formal constraints that capture conditions triggering the execution of the scenarios, thus enabling the generation of test data. In two industrial case studies, UMTG automatically and correctly translated 95% of the use case specification steps into formal constraints required for test data generation; furthermore, it generated test cases that exercise not only all the test scenarios manually implemented by experts, but also some critical scenarios not previously considered. [less ▲]

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See detailTkT: Automatic Inference of Timed and Extended Pushdown Automata
Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Micucci, Daniela; Guzman, Michell et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2020)

To mitigate the cost of manually producing and maintaining models capturing software specifications, specification mining techniques can be exploited to automatically derive up-to-date models that ... [more ▼]

To mitigate the cost of manually producing and maintaining models capturing software specifications, specification mining techniques can be exploited to automatically derive up-to-date models that faithfully represent the behavior of software systems. So far, specification mining solutions focused on extracting information about the functional behavior of the system, especially in the form of models that represent the ordering of the operations. Well-known examples are finite state models capturing the usage protocol of software interfaces and temporal rules specifying relations among system events. Although the functional behavior of a software system is a primary aspect of concern, there are several other non-functional characteristics that must be typically addressed jointly with the functional behavior of a software system. Efficiency is one of the most relevant characteristics. In fact, an application delivering the right functionalities inefficiently has a big chance to not satisfy the expectation of its users. Interestingly, the timing behavior is strongly dependent on the functional behavior of a software system. For instance, the timing of an operation depends on the functional complexity and size of the computation that is performed. Consequently, models that combine the functional and timing behaviors, as well as their dependencies, are extremely important to precisely reason on the behavior of software systems. In this paper, we address the challenge of generating models that capture both the functional and timing behavior of a software system from execution traces. The result is the Timed k-Tail (TkT) specification mining technique, which can mine finite state models that capture such an interplay: the functional behavior is represented by the possible order of the events accepted by the transitions, while the timing behavior is represented through clocks and clock constraints of different nature associated with transitions. Our empirical evaluation with several libraries and applications show that TkT can generate accurate models, capable of supporting the identification of timing anomalies due to overloaded environment and performance faults. Furthermore, our study shows that TkT outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in terms of scalability and accuracy of the mined models. [less ▲]

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See detailThe D²Rwanda mixed-methods study including a cluster-randomised controlled clinical trial
Lygidakis, Charilaos UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Diabetes mellitus prevalence has been estimated at 5.1% in Rwanda. Several factors, including an increase in screening and diagnosis programmes, the urbanization of the population, and changes in ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus prevalence has been estimated at 5.1% in Rwanda. Several factors, including an increase in screening and diagnosis programmes, the urbanization of the population, and changes in lifestyle are likely to contribute to a sharp increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the next decade. Patients with low health literacy levels are often unable to recognise the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, and may access their health provider late, hence presenting with more complications. The Rwandan health care system is facing a severe shortage in human resources. In response to the need for a better management of non-communicable diseases at primary health care level, a new type of community health workers was introduced: the home-based care practitioners (HBCPs). Approximately 200 HBCPs were trained and deployed in selected areas (“cells”) in nine hospitals across the country. There is growing evidence for the efficacy of interventions using mobile devices in low- and middle-income countries. In Rwanda, there is an urgent call to using mobile health interventions for the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases. The D²Rwanda (Digital Diabetes in Rwanda) research project aims at responding to this call. The overall objectives of the D²Rwanda project are: a) to determine the efficacy of an integrated programme for the management of diabetes in Rwanda, which would include monthly patient assessments by HBCPs and an educational and self-management mobile health patient tool, and; b) to qualitatively explore the ways these interventions would be enacted, their challenges and effects, and changes in the patients’ health behaviours and HBCPs’ work satisfaction. The project employed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design consisting of a one-year cluster randomised controlled trial with two interventions and followed by focus group discussions with patients and HBCPs. The dissertation presents three studies from the D²Rwanda project. The first study aimed at describing the protocol of the research project, reporting the research questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, primary and secondary outcomes, measurements, power calculation, randomisation methods, data collection, analysis plan, implementation fidelity and ethical considerations. The aim of the second study was to report on the translation and cultural adaptation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire and the evaluation of its psychometric properties. First, the questionnaire was translated following a standard protocol. Second, 29 participants were interviewed before producing a final version. Third, we examined a sample of 266 adult patients living with diabetes to determine the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire. The full scale showed good internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.88). A four-factor model with subdimensions of emotional, treatment, food-related and social-support problems was found to be an adequately approximate fit (RMSEA = 0.056; CFI = 0.951; TLI = 0.943). The mean total PAID score of the sample was high (48.21). Important cultural and contextual differences were noted, urging a more thorough examination of conceptual equivalence with other cultures. The third study aimed at reporting on the disease-related quality of life of patients living with diabetes mellitus in a non-representative sample in Rwanda and to identify potential predictors. This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline assessment of the clinical controlled trial. Between January and August 2019, 206 adult patients living with diabetes were recruited. Disease-specific quality of life was measured using the Kinyarwanda version of the Diabetes-39 (D-39) questionnaire, which was translated and cross-culturally adapted beforehand by the same group of researchers. A haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test was performed on all patients. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected, including medical history, disease-related complications and comorbidities. “Anxiety and worry” and “sexual functioning” were the two most affected dimensions. Hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (49.0% of participants). The duration of the disease and HbA1c values were not correlated with any of the D-39 dimensions. The five dimensions of quality of life were predicted differentially by gender, age, years of education, marital status, achieving a HbA1c of 7%, hypertension, presence of complications and hypoglycaemic episodes. A moderating effect was identified between use of insulin and achieving a target HbA1c of 7% in the “diabetes control” scale. Further prospective studies are needed to determine causal relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic Decision Theory: Lecture notes and presentation slides
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Learning material (2020)

The objective of this course is to introduce students to ADT, a new interdisciplinary field at the intersection of decision theory, discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science and artificial ... [more ▼]

The objective of this course is to introduce students to ADT, a new interdisciplinary field at the intersection of decision theory, discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. ADT proposes new ideas, approaches and tools for supporting decision making processes in presence of massive databases, combinatorial structures, partial and/or uncertain information, and distributed, possibly inter-operating, decision makers. Such problems arise in several real-world decision making problems such as humanitarian logistics, epidemiology, risk assessment and management, e-government, electronic commerce, and the implementation of recommender systems [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness in everyday life: Between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

in Current Psychology (2020)

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing ... [more ▼]

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing with situations of motivational conflict. For this purpose, we conducted an experience sampling study with 56 university students who replied to a total of N = 1889 short questionnaires, which they received via their smartphones over a period of eight consecutive days. In addition to a state mindfulness questionnaire with the facets presence and non-judgment (focusing attention on the experience of the current action and a momentary non-judgmental stance towards these, respectively), the participants received questions about their current affective well-being and perceived intensity of want or should conflict experiences. Multi-level analyses revealed that want conflicts were predicted by both state mindfulness facets, even after momentary affect was controlled. In addition, to be non-judgmental (as a trait), and having momentary presence (as a state), related to lower intensity of should conflicts. The results suggest that being mindful might be a particularly beneficial way of dealing with daily motivational conflicts, which is an essential and frequent task of self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn idempotent n-ary semigroups
Devillet, Jimmy UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

This thesis, which consists of two parts, focuses on characterizations and descriptions of classes of idempotent n-ary semigroups where n >= 2 is an integer. Part I is devoted to the study of various ... [more ▼]

This thesis, which consists of two parts, focuses on characterizations and descriptions of classes of idempotent n-ary semigroups where n >= 2 is an integer. Part I is devoted to the study of various classes of idempotent semigroups and their link with certain concepts stemming from social choice theory. In Part II, we provide constructive descriptions of various classes of idempotent n-ary semigroups. More precisely, after recalling and studying the concepts of single-peakedness and rectangular semigroups in Chapters 1 and 2, respectively, in Chapter 3 we provide characterizations of the classes of idempotent semigroups and totally ordered idempotent semigroups, in which the latter two concepts play a central role. Then in Chapter 4 we particularize the latter characterizations to the classes of quasitrivial semigroups and totally ordered quasitrivial semigroups. We then generalize these results to the class of quasitrivial n-ary semigroups in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 is devoted to characterizations of several classes of idempotent n-ary semigroups satisfying quasitriviality on certain subsets of the domain. Finally, Chapter 7 focuses on characterizations of the class of symmetric idempotent n-ary semigroups. Throughout this thesis, we also provide several enumeration results which led to new integer sequences that are now recorded in The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS). For instance, one of these enumeration results led to a new definition of the Catalan numbers. [less ▲]

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See detailZur Bedeutsamkeit des Sportunterrichtes: Der Einfluss der Motivation im Sportunterricht auf den außerschulischen Kontext - ein longitudinaler Ansatz
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, May 22)

Hintergrund: Hinsichtlich der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, rückt die Stärkung der Motivation als Ansatz zur Sportaktivierung immer mehr in den Fokus ... [more ▼]

Hintergrund: Hinsichtlich der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, rückt die Stärkung der Motivation als Ansatz zur Sportaktivierung immer mehr in den Fokus (Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005). In ihrem trans-kontextuellen Modell postulieren Hagger und Chatzisarantis (2016) einen Zusammenhang zwischen intrinsischer Motivation im Sportunterricht und in der Freizeit. Dabei spielt die Unterstützung der Bedürfnisse durch die Sportlehrkraft eine wichtige Rolle, um die intrinsische Motivation der SchülerInnen im Sportunterricht und längerfristig in der Freizeit zu fördern, welche ein selbstbestimmtes körperliches Aktivitätsverhalten begünstigen soll. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden diese Annahmen in erweiterter Form im Längsschnitt geprüft. Methode: Es wurden N = 1681 SchülerInnen zwischen 10 und 23 Jahren (M = 14.7 Jahre; 50.7% weiblich) aus 14 luxemburgischen Schulen zu Beginn des Schuljahres (t1) und sechs Monate später am Ende des Schuljahres (t2) getestet. Neben der wahrgenommenen Bedürfnisunterstützung (Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005) wurden die Motivationsregulation im Sportunterricht (PLOC-R; Vlachopoulos, Katartzi, Kontou, Moustaka, & Goudas, 2011) und in der Freizeit (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004), sowie alle Konstrukte der Theorie des geplanten Handelns (Ajzen, 1991), und die körperliche Aktivität erhoben. Ergebnisse: Cross-Lagged-Panel Analysen zeigen, dass die intrinsische Motivation im Sportunterricht (t1) kontextübergreifend die intrinsische Motivation zur körperlichen Aktivität in der Freizeit (t2) vorhersagt (β = .12, p < .05). Selbiger Befund konnte auch für die Amotivation gefunden werden (β = .15, p < .05). Allerdings wurde kein kontextübergreifender Zusammenhang der extrinsischen Motivation gefunden (p > .05). Entgegen der postulierten Richtung des Modells, sagt eine höhere intrinsische Motivation der SchülerInnen (t1) eine höhere Wahrnehmung der Unterstützung der Grundbedürfnisse durch den Sportlehrer (t2) vorher (β = .10, p < .05). Die intrinsische Motivation in der Freizeit (t1) hängt zudem mit der Einstellung (β = .24, p < .05), subjektiven Norm (β = .11, p < .05), wahrgenommenen Verhaltenskontrolle (β = .12, p < .05), Intention (β = .16, p < .05) und der körperlichen Aktivität (β = .18, p < .05) zu t2 zusammen. Schlussfolgerung: Die Befunde bestätigen die Bedeutsamkeit des Sportunterrichts in dem Sinne, dass die intrinsische Motivation im Sportunterricht die Wahrnehmung der Bedürfnisunterstützung des Sportlehrers erhöht und kontextübergreifend mit der intrinsischen Motivation im Freizeitbereich zusammenhängt, welche wiederum ein selbstbestimmtes körperliches Aktivitätsverhalten in der Freizeit positiv bedingt. Eine Interventionsstudie im Sportunterricht bekräftigt diese Befunde in dem Sinne, dass die Autoren positivere Effekte fanden, wenn, zusätzlich zur alleinigen Autonomieunterstützung, internale Zielsetzungen in der Lehre eingesetzt wurden (Cheon, Reeve, & Song, 2019). [less ▲]

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See detailIntersectionality and Adolescent Mental Well-being: A Cross-Nationally Comparative Analysis of the Interplay Between Immigration Background, Socioeconomic Status and Gender
Kern, Matthias Robert UL; Duinhof, Elisa L.; Walsh, Sophie D. et al

in Journal of Adolescent Health (2020), 66(6), 12-20

Purpose: Intersectionality theory highlights the importance of the interplay of multiple social group memberships in shaping individual mental well-being. This article investigates elements of adolescent ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Intersectionality theory highlights the importance of the interplay of multiple social group memberships in shaping individual mental well-being. This article investigates elements of adolescent mental well-being (life dissatisfaction and psychosomatic complaints) from an intersectional perspective. It tests mental well-being consequences of membership in combinations of multiple social groups and examines to what extent such intersectional effects depend on the national context (immigration and integration policies, national-level income, and gender equality). Methods: Using Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy, we assessed the role of the national context in shaping the interplay between immigration background, socioeconomic status, and gender, using data from 33 countries from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Results: We found no uniform intersectionality effects across all countries. However, when allowing the interplay to vary by national context, results did point toward some intersectional effects. Some aggravated negative effects were found for members of multiple disadvantaged social groups in countries with low levels of income equality and restrictive migration policies, whereas enhanced positive effects were found for members of multiple advantaged groups in these countries. Similarly, mitigated negative effects of membership in multiple disadvantaged groups were shown in countries with higher levels of income equality and more inclusive migration policies, whereas mitigated positive effects were found for multiply advantaged individuals. Although for national-level gender equality results pointed in a similar direction, girls’ scores were counterintuitive. High national-level gender equality disproportionately benefitted groups of disadvantaged boys, whereas advantaged girls were doing worse than expected, and reversed effects were found for countries with low gender equality. Conclusions: To fully understand social inequalities in adolescent mental well-being, the interplay between individual-level and national-level indicators must be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailRadio-Feature "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" Folge 5: Auf der Suche nach dem „wir“
Brüll, Christoph UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

In Episode fünf der Sendereihe "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" befassen sich die Historiker Andreas Fickers und Christoph Brüll mit Sprachpolitik und Identitätsdebatten zwischen 1962 und 1980. „Sag mir, wie du ... [more ▼]

In Episode fünf der Sendereihe "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" befassen sich die Historiker Andreas Fickers und Christoph Brüll mit Sprachpolitik und Identitätsdebatten zwischen 1962 und 1980. „Sag mir, wie du sprichst, und ich sage dir, wer du bist“ – so lautet ein vielzitiertes Bonmot. Ohne Zweifel zählt die Sprachenfrage zu den zentralen Themen der Geschichte unserer Region, durchzieht sie doch gleichermaßen die politischen, sozialen wie kulturellen Dimensionen dessen, was wir als Identität bezeichnen. Diese Episode von „100 Jahre Ostbelgien“ ist der engen Verzahnung von Sprachenpolitik und Identitätsdiskursen gewidmet, deren zahlreiche Facetten und Wendungen problemlos eine eigene Sendereihe füllen könnten. [less ▲]

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See detailFormal Framework for Verifying Implementations of Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Protocols Under Various Models
Vukotic, Ivana UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The complexity of critical systems our life depends on (such as water supplies, power grids, blockchain systems, etc.) is constantly increasing. Although many different techniques can be used for proving ... [more ▼]

The complexity of critical systems our life depends on (such as water supplies, power grids, blockchain systems, etc.) is constantly increasing. Although many different techniques can be used for proving correctness of these systems errors still exist, because these techniques are either not complete or can only be applied to some parts of these systems. This is why fault and intrusion tolerance (FIT) techniques, such as those along the well-known Byzantine Fault-Tolerance paradigm (BFT), should be used. BFT is a general FIT technique of the active replication class, which enables seamless correct functioning of a system, even when some parts of that system are not working correctly or are compromised by successful attacks. Although powerful, since it systematically masks any errors, standard (i.e., ``homogeneous'') BFT protocols are expensive both in terms of the messages exchanged, the required number of replicas, and the additional burden of ensuring them to be diverse enough to enforce failure independence. For example, standard BFT protocols usually require 3f+1 replicas to tolerate up to f faults. In contrast to these standard protocols based on homogeneous system models, the so-called hybrid BFT protocols are based on architectural hybridization: well-defined and self-contained subsystems of the architecture (hybrids) follow system model and fault assumptions differentiated from the rest of the architecture (the normal part). This way, they can host one or more components trusted to provide, in a trustworthy way, stronger properties than would be possible in the normal part. For example, it is typical that whilst the normal part is asynchronous and suffers arbitrary faults, the hybrids are synchronous and fail-silent. Under these favorable conditions, they can reliably provide simple but effective services such as perfect failure detection, counters, ordering, signatures, voting, global timestamping, random numbers, etc. Thanks to the systematic assistance of these trusted-trustworthy components in protocol execution, hybrid BFT protocols dramatically reduce the cost of BFT. For example, hybrid BFT protocols require 2f+1 replicas instead of 3f +1 to tolerate up to f faults. Although hybrid BFT protocols significantly decrease message/time/space complexity vs. homogeneous ones, they also increase structural complexity and as such the probability of finding errors in these protocols increases. One other fundamental correctness issue not formally addressed previously, is ensuring that safety and liveness properties of trusted-trustworthy component services, besides being valid inside the hybrid subsystems, are made available, or lifted, to user components at the normal asynchronous and arbitrary-on-failure distributed system level. This thesis presents a theorem-prover based, general, reusable and extensible framework for implementing and proving correctness of synchronous and asynchronous homogeneous FIT protocols, as well as hybrid ones. Our framework comes with: (1) a logic to reason about homogeneous/hybrid fault-models; (2) a language to implement systems as collections of interacting homogeneous/hybrid components; and (3) a knowledge theory to reason about crash/Byzantine homogeneous and hybrid systems at a high-level of abstraction, thereby allowing reusing proofs, and capturing the high-level logic of distributed systems. In addition, our framework supports the lifting of properties of trusted-trustworthy components, first to the level of the local subsystem the trusted component belongs to, and then to the level of the distributed system. As case studies and proofs-of-concept of our findings, we verified seminal protocols from each of the relevant categories: the asynchronous PBFT protocol, two variants of the synchronous SM protocol, as well as two versions of hybrid MinBFT protocol. [less ▲]

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