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See detailDepressionen am Arbeitsplatz in Luxemburg: ein Handlungsfeld
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird das aktuelle Depressionsrisiko am Arbeitsplatz in Luxemburg vorgestellt. Im Vergleich zu anderen europäischen Ländern weist Luxemburg einen relativ hohen Anteil an ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird das aktuelle Depressionsrisiko am Arbeitsplatz in Luxemburg vorgestellt. Im Vergleich zu anderen europäischen Ländern weist Luxemburg einen relativ hohen Anteil an Arbeitnehmern mit Depressionsrisiko. Weibliche Arbeitnehmer sind im Vergleich zu männlichen geringfügig häufiger von einem Depressionsrisiko betroffen. Differenziert nach Beruf sind vor allem Hilfsarbeitskräfte, Manager sowie Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungsberufen besonders von einem Depressionsrisiko betroffen. Arbeitnehmer mit Depressionsrisiko berichten über nachteilige Arbeitsbedingungen und weisen auch eine geringere Arbeitsplatzzufriedenheit sowie weitere gesundheitliche Probleme auf. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching DevOps in Academia and Industry: Reflections and Vision
Bobrov, Evgeny; Bucchiarone, Antonio; Capozucca, Alfredo UL et al

in Bruel, Jean-Michel; Mazzara, Manuel; Meyer, Bertrand (Eds.) Software Engineering Aspects of Continuous Development and New Paradigms of Software Production and Deployment (2020, January 19)

The new century brought us a kind of renaissance in software development methods. The advent of the Agile manifesto has led to greater appreciation of methodologies aimed at producing valuable software ... [more ▼]

The new century brought us a kind of renaissance in software development methods. The advent of the Agile manifesto has led to greater appreciation of methodologies aimed at producing valuable software through continuous incremental cycles. More recently, a new set of practices enclosed under the term DevOps has appeared to attain manifesto's objectives in more efficient manner. The software development community has already noticed the benefits brought by DevOps. Thus, the necessity of education in the field becomes more and more important, both from the technical and organisational point of view. This paper describes parallel experiences of teaching both undergraduate and graduate students at the university, and junior professional developers in industry, compares the two approaches and sums up the lessons learnt. A vision driven by the DevOps practices aimed at implementing a shift in the Software Engineering Higher Education curricula to takeover its current limitations is also reported at the end of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailExponential contraction in Wasserstein distance on static and evolving manifolds
Cheng, Li Juan UL; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Zhang, Shao-Qin

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this article, exponential contraction in Wasserstein distance for heat semigroups of diffusion processes on Riemannian manifolds is established under curvature conditions where Ricci curvature is not ... [more ▼]

In this article, exponential contraction in Wasserstein distance for heat semigroups of diffusion processes on Riemannian manifolds is established under curvature conditions where Ricci curvature is not necessarily required to be non-negative. Compared to the results of Wang (2016), we focus on explicit estimates for the exponential contraction rate. Moreover, we show that our results extend to manifolds evolving under a geometric flow. As application, for the time-inhomogeneous semigroups, we obtain a gradient estimate with an exponential contraction rate under weak curvature conditions, as well as uniqueness of the corresponding evolution system of measures. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool-Class Co-Ethnic and Immigrant Density and Current Smoking among Immigrant Adolescents
Kern, Matthias Robert UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut UL

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 17(2),

Although the school-class is known to be an important setting for adolescent risk behavior, little is known about how the ethnic composition of a school-class impacts substance use among pupils with a ... [more ▼]

Although the school-class is known to be an important setting for adolescent risk behavior, little is known about how the ethnic composition of a school-class impacts substance use among pupils with a migration background. Moreover, the few existing studies do not distinguish between co-ethnic density (i.e., the share of immigrants belonging to one’s own ethnic group) and immigrant density (the share of all immigrants). This is all the more surprising since a high co-ethnic density can be expected to protect against substance use by increasing levels of social support and decreasing acculturative stress, whereas a high immigrant density can be expected to do the opposite by facilitating inter-ethnic conflict and identity threat. This study analyses how co-ethnic density and immigrant density are correlated with smoking among pupils of Portuguese origin in Luxembourg. A multi-level analysis is used to analyze data from the Luxembourg Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study (N = 4268 pupils from 283 classes). High levels of co-ethnic density reduced current smoking. In contrast, high levels of immigrant density increased it. Thus, in research on the health of migrants, the distinction between co-ethnic density and immigrant density should be taken into account, as both may have opposite effects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette: rereading the economy of Luxembourg
Taylor Aiken, Gerald UL; Schulz, Christian UL; Schmid, Benedikt UL

in Voluntary Sector Review (2020)

This article outlines the community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette, the ‘second city’ of Luxembourg. ‘Community economies’ – an approach outlined by J.K. Gibson-Graham – draws attention to alternative ... [more ▼]

This article outlines the community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette, the ‘second city’ of Luxembourg. ‘Community economies’ – an approach outlined by J.K. Gibson-Graham – draws attention to alternative narratives of economic development and the representation of economic identity. Despite (the Grand Duchy of) Luxembourg’s reputation as a European Union centre, with substantial finance and tax activity, Esch-sur-Alzette is a post-industrial and multilingual melting pot. The alternative narrative here is of the multiple community-based organisations and movements in Esch-sur-Alzette: an energy cooperative, urban gardening, an upcycling clothing factory, a local food shop and restaurant, and vibrant civil society discussions and interventions in (inter)national politics. Civil society, while central to both understandings of grassroots environmental action and the community economies framework of Gibson-Graham, takes on quite a different flavour in Luxembourg. This article then takes the case of Luxembourg to reread the relationship of the state to the so-called third sector, in doing so defending the political possibilities of community economies. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents’ perceptions of instructional quality: Validating 3 dimensions on a lesson-to-lesson basis
Talic, Irma UL; Möller, Jens; Niepel, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January 17)

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See detail„Entweder man kann’s oder man lässt es bleiben.“ Kritische Gedanken zur Ausbildung von Blasmusikdirigenten
Sagrillo, Damien UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January 17)

Diesen Karl Böhm in den Mund gelegten Satz passt zu seinem Naturell. Sein Sarkasmus und Zynismus waren bekannt. Karl Böhm hat nie ein Dirigierstudium absolviert. Dennoch gehörte er zu den Großen seines ... [more ▼]

Diesen Karl Böhm in den Mund gelegten Satz passt zu seinem Naturell. Sein Sarkasmus und Zynismus waren bekannt. Karl Böhm hat nie ein Dirigierstudium absolviert. Dennoch gehörte er zu den Großen seines Fachs. In der Fachzeitschrift „das Orchester“ ist im Zusammenhang mit dem berufsausbildenden Angebot für Blasorchesterdirigenten folgendes zu lesen: „Marschmusik oder leichtere Muse haben keinen Platz im Curriculum, die Konzentration liegt auf der Literatur für Sinfonisches Blasorchester“ Diese Aussage gehört kritisch hinterfragt. In meinem Vortrag steht infolgedessen zweierlei im Vordergrund. Zum einen: Was ist ein sinfonisches Blasorchester bzw. eine Bläserphilharmonie – wo kommen die Begriffe her, worauf zielen sie ab? Zum anderen: Marchmusik und sog. „leichte Muse“ gehören zum Wesen lokaler Musikvereine. Wieso finden diese als Tradition zu bezeichnenden Genres der Blasmusik in der Ausbildung keinen Platz? In der Zusammenfassung der beiden voraus gestellten Fragen lassen sich Schlussfolgerungen für die Ausbildung von Blasmusikdirigenten ziehen. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Cultural Identity in a Multicultural Context—the Special Case of Luxembourg
Bichler, Samantha; Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL et al

in Human Arenas (2020), online first

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural ... [more ▼]

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural identity of immigrants, less is known about the identity constructions of non-immigrants and receiving country nationals living in a multicultural setting. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg with a foreign population of 48% provides an excellent example case here. The present study examined the cultural identity of two generations of native Luxembourgers, drawing on a content analysis of qualitative interviews with N = 18 participants belonging to nine family dyads, each composed of one (young) adult child and one parent. As Luxembourg’s cultural diversity has increased continuously in the last decades, we focussed here on similarities and differences between (young) adults and their parents in order to find out in how far age (i.e., different points in the individual life span) or generation (i.e., growing up in different times and historical contexts) might be highlighted in their cultural identity constructions. Five main domains pertaining to Luxembourger’s cultural identity were found through qualitative content analysis: ‘the Luxembourgish language’, ‘Belongingness to Luxembourg and the love for Luxembourg as a homeland’, ‘Europeanization and multiculturalism in Luxembourg’, ‘Representing Luxembourg as a native in international contexts’ and ‘Luxembourgish traditions and history’. While the older generation focused more on the feeling of belongingness to their home country, the younger generation made more specific links to Europe and multiculturalism. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailRadio-Feature "100 Jahre Ostbelgien": Folge 1 "2x50 Jahre Geschichte Ostbelgiens"
Brüll, Christoph UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

In einer achtteiligen Reihe setzen sich die beiden Historiker Christoph Brüll und Andreas Fickers im BRF mit "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" auseinander. Zum Auftakt ihrer Serie würdigen sie die Pionierleistung ... [more ▼]

In einer achtteiligen Reihe setzen sich die beiden Historiker Christoph Brüll und Andreas Fickers im BRF mit "100 Jahre Ostbelgien" auseinander. Zum Auftakt ihrer Serie würdigen sie die Pionierleistung der früheren BHF-Journalisten Peter Thomas und Hubert Jenniges. Sie hatten zu Beginn der 1970er Jahre die Sendereihe "50 Jahre Geschichte der Ostkantone" erstellt. Fickers und Brüll nennen ihre erste Episode denn auch "Zweimal 50 Jahre Ostbelgien". [less ▲]

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See detailSexual abuse of adolescents - methodological problems of victimisation surveys
Heinz, Andreas UL

Presentation (2020, January 15)

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See detailComputers and Computing in Society
Schafer, Valerie UL

in NTM (2020)

This review essay aims to highlight some of these recent trends within the history of computing and information technology through the consideration of three recently published books : 1/ Frank Bösch (Ed ... [more ▼]

This review essay aims to highlight some of these recent trends within the history of computing and information technology through the consideration of three recently published books : 1/ Frank Bösch (Ed.) 2018. Wege in die Gesellschaft. Computernutzung in der Bundesrepublik (1955–1990). Geschichte der Gegenwart, Bd. 20. Göttingen: Wallstein, geb.; 2/ Marie Hicks 2017. Programmed Inequality. How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 3/ Joy Lisi Rankin 2018. A People’s History of Computing in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. They are increasingly opening up to approaches that are oriented towards society and actors, whether the latter are producers, regulators, users, or even maintainers. This is achieved with historical rigour by the authors, who highlight the history of a field that is not only scientific, technical, industrial and economic, but also profoundly social, and which is marked by multiple debates, negotiations and power relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailMobility policy through the lens of policy mobility: The post-political case of introducing free transit in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Journal of Transport Geography (2020), 83

This viewpoint paper addresses the issue of fare-free public transport (FFPT) in the context of policy mobility, the strand of urban studies literature that examines how policy formulations developed in ... [more ▼]

This viewpoint paper addresses the issue of fare-free public transport (FFPT) in the context of policy mobility, the strand of urban studies literature that examines how policy formulations developed in one place tend to ‘travel’ and inform and inspire plans elsewhere as good or best practices. We argue that the promotion of policies may not reflect a serious attempt to solve a sustainability or socio-economic issue. Rather, the institutions in charge have different targets in mind. FFPT in Luxembourg is thus more a reflection of a post-political process where politics are severed from the political. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceptions of Society’s Necessary Standard of Living: Are Perceptions Determined by What People Have, or Do They Reflect a Social Consensus?
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Andreß, Hans-Jürgen

in Social Indicators Research (2020)

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls ... [more ▼]

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls below a certain threshold, the individual is assumed to be materially deprived. Also state-guaranteed minimum income payments are often based on a basket of goods, which are assumed to represent a minimal living standard in the respective society. However, this approach rests on the assumption that a social consensus exists about what constitutes society’s necessary standard of living, which has never been tested in a theoretically and methodologically sound way. Our paper provides a model of the main determinants of standard of living perceptions in the public, develops a measurement model for a survey of necessary items, and tests whether these perceptions are expressions of a consensual normative standard or reflections of the respondent’s idiosyncratic individual living situation. We have used two waves of the GESIS Panel in 2016 to survey the current opinions about the necessary standard of living in the German population. Estimating cross-lagged auto-correlated structural equation models, we find that necessity evaluations are quite homogeneous across social groups but are influenced by individuals’ possessions, which vary within society and hence, challenge the social consensus assumption. Moreover, instead of using only the most necessary items, survey instruments should include both necessary and less necessary items to reflect the whole distribution of possible standard of living perceptions. Our results further suggest that analyses using single items should be avoided due to possible measurement errors. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimum Autofrettage Pressure of Hydrogen Valve Using Finite Element and Fatigue Analysis
Kedziora, Slawomir UL; Cao, Thanh Binh

in Engineering (2020), 12(01), 1--24

The presented article shows an estimation method of optimum autofrettage pressure taking into consideration subsequent cyclic loading. An autofrettage process is used in pressure vessel applications for ... [more ▼]

The presented article shows an estimation method of optimum autofrettage pressure taking into consideration subsequent cyclic loading. An autofrettage process is used in pressure vessel applications for strength improvement. The process relies on applying massive pressure that causes internal portions of the part to yield plastically, resulting in internal compressive residual stresses when pressure is released. Later applied working pressure (much lower than autofrettage pressure) creates stress reduced by the residual compressive stress improving the structural performance of the pressure vessels. The optimum autofrettage pressure is a load that maximizes the fatigue life of the structure at the working load. The estimation method of that pressure of a hydrogen valve is the subject of the presented work. Finite element and fatigue analyses were employed to investigate the presented problem. An automated model was developed to analyze the design for various autofrettage pressures. As the results of the procedure, the optimum autofrettage pressure is determined. The research has shown that the developed method can profitably investigate the complex parts giving the autofrettage load that maximizes the fatigue life. The findings suggest that the technique can be applied to a large group of products subjected to the autofrettage process. [less ▲]

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See detailReal Time Holding Control for Multiline Networks
Laskaris, Georgios UL; Cats, Oded; Jenelius, Erik et al

Poster (2020, January 12)

We introduce a rule based multiline holding criterion for regularity in branch and trunk networks accounting for all passenger groups. On the shared transit corridor, we consider synchronization at the ... [more ▼]

We introduce a rule based multiline holding criterion for regularity in branch and trunk networks accounting for all passenger groups. On the shared transit corridor, we consider synchronization at the merging or the diverging stop. The decision between holding for regularity or synchronization is taken by comparing the expected passenger cost of each control action. The proposed criterion is tested through simulation in a synthetic double fork network with different shares of transferring passengers, control schemes for regularity and synchronization. The results show that multiline control outperforms the state of the art schemes at the network level, stemming from benefits occurring at the first part of the route and the shared transit corridor and a 3.5% more stable joint headway compared to the other schemes. Additionally, it is advised to perform the synchronization at the diverging stop, as it proves to result in a more stable transferring time equal to the joint frequency of the corridor while reducing the transfer time variability up to -42.7%. [less ▲]

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See detailComprendre l'état du parlementarisme contemporain en Europe
Poirier, Philippe UL

in Le Parlement depuis 2008 : Renforcement, statu quo ou retour au(x) fondement(s) de la Ve République (2020, January 10)

Cet ouvrage reprend les actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence de 2018 consacré au bilan de dix ans de mise en oeuvre de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008 dans son volet parlementaire. Faisant intervenir ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage reprend les actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence de 2018 consacré au bilan de dix ans de mise en oeuvre de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008 dans son volet parlementaire. Faisant intervenir des acteurs de la révision de 2008, des parlementaires, des membres du Conseil constitutionnel, des hauts fonctionnaires des assemblées et des universitaires, ce colloque a été construit autour des trois fonctions essentielles du Parlement : l'élaboration de la loi, le contrôle de l'exécutif et l'évaluation des politiques publiques afin de répondre à cette question : un changement pour quoi faire ? [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Privileged Information to Limit Distraction in End-to-End Lane Following
Robinet, François UL; Demeules, Antoine; Frank, Raphaël UL et al

in 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC) (2020)

Convolutional Neural Networks have been successfully used to steer vehicles using only road-facing cameras. In this work, we investigate the use of Privileged Information for training an end-to-end lane ... [more ▼]

Convolutional Neural Networks have been successfully used to steer vehicles using only road-facing cameras. In this work, we investigate the use of Privileged Information for training an end-to-end lane following model. Starting from the prior assumption that such a model should spend a sizeable fraction of its focus on lane markings, we take advantage of lane geometry information available at training time to improve its performance. To this end, we constrain the class of learnable functions by imposing a prior stemming from a lane segmentation task. For each input frame, we compute the set of pixels that most contribute to the prediction of the model using the VisualBackProp method. These pixel-relevance heatmaps are then compared with ground truth lane segmentation masks. A Distraction Loss term is added to the objective to regularize the training process. We learn from real-world data collected using our experimental vehicle and compare the results to those obtained using the simple Mean Squared Error objective. We show that the presence of our regularizer benefits both the performance and the stability of the model across a variety of evaluation metrics. We use a pretrained lane segmentation model without fine-tuning to extract lane marking masks and show that valuable learning signals can be extracted even from imperfect privileged knowledge. This method can be implemented easily and very efficiently on top of an existing architecture, without requiring the addition of any trainable parameter. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep dive into Interledger: Understanding the Interledger ecosystem - Part 4
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Cassagnes, Cyril UL; State, Radu UL

Learning material (2020)

At the technical level, the goal of Interledger is to provide an architecture and a minimal set of protocols to enable interoperability for any value transfer system. The Interledger protocol is literally ... [more ▼]

At the technical level, the goal of Interledger is to provide an architecture and a minimal set of protocols to enable interoperability for any value transfer system. The Interledger protocol is literally a protocol for interledger payments. To understand how is it possible to achieve this goal, several aspects of the technology require a deeper analysis. For this reason, in our journey to become knowledgeable and active contributor we decided to create our own test-bed on our premises. By doing so, we noticed that some aspects are well documented but we found that others might need more attention and clarification. Despite a large community effort, the task to keep information on a fast evolving software ecosystem is tedious and not always the priority for such a project. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to guide, through several hands-on activities, community members who want to engage at different levels. The document consolidates all the relevant information from generating a simple payment to ultimately create a test-bed with the Interledger protocol suite between Ripple and other distributed ledger technology. [less ▲]

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See detailPERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MODELLING OF SAAS WEB SERVICES IN THE CLOUD
Ibrahim, Abdallah Ali Zainelabden Abdallah UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

This thesis studies the problem of performance evaluation and assurance of communications and services quality in cloud computing. The cloud computing paradigm has significantly changed the way of doing ... [more ▼]

This thesis studies the problem of performance evaluation and assurance of communications and services quality in cloud computing. The cloud computing paradigm has significantly changed the way of doing business. With cloud computing, companies and end-users can access the vast majority of services online through a virtualized environment. The main three services typically consumed by cloud users are Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Cloud Services Providers (CSPs) deliver cloud services to cloud customers on a pay-per-use model while the quality of the provided services is defined using Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Unfortunately, there is no standard mechanism which exists to verify and assure that delivered services satisfy the signed SLA agreement in an automatic way, which impedes the possibility to measure accurately the Quality of Service (QoS). In this context, this thesis aims at offering an automatic framework to evaluate the QoS and SLA compliance of Web Services (WSs) offered across several CSPs. Yet unlike other approaches, the framework aims at quantifying in a fair and by stealth way the performance and scalability of the delivered WS. By stealthiness, it refers to the capacity of evaluating a given Cloud service through multiple workload patterns that makes them indistinguishable from regular user traffic from the provider point of view. This thesis work is motivated by recent scandals in the automotive sector, which demonstrate the capacity of solution providers to adapt to the behavior of their product when submitted to an evaluation campaign to improve the performance results. The framework defines a set of Common performance metrics handled by a set of agents within customized clients for measuring the behavior of cloud applications on top of a given CSP. Once modeled accurately, the agent behavior can be dynamically adapted to hide the true nature of the framework client to the CSP. In particular, the following contributions are proposed: • A new framework of performance metrics for communication systems of cloud computing SaaS. The proposed framework evaluates and classifies in a fair and stealth way the performance and scalability of the delivered WS across multiple CSPs. • Analysis of the performance metrics for the cloud SaaS Web Service (WS) by analyzing all the possible metrics which could be used to evaluate and monitor the behavior of the cloud applications. • Benchmarking the cloud SaaS applications and web services by using referenced benchmarking tools and frameworks. • Modeling the SaaS WS by providing a set of Gaussian models. These models can be used to help the other researchers to generate data representing the CSP’s behavior under a high load and under the normal usage in just a couple of minutes without any experiments. • A novel optimization model to obfuscate the testing from the CSP and to achieve stealthiness. The optimization process relies on meta-heuristic and machine learning algorithms, such as Genetic Algorithm and Gaussian Process Regression accordingly. • A virtual QoS aggregator and SLA checker which takes care of evaluating the QoS and SLA compliance of the WS offered across the considered CSPs. • Ranking multiple CSPs based on multi-criteria decision analysis. [less ▲]

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