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See detailMultilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana

Book published by Routledge (2020)

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from ... [more ▼]

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from several officially monolingual,bilingual, and multilingual countries in Europe, discusses approaches to multilingual education which capitalise on students’ multilingual resources from early childhood to higher education. This book synthesises research on multilingual education, relates theory to practice, and discusses different pedagogical approaches from diverse perspectives. The first section of the book outlines multilingual approaches in early childhood education and primary school, the second looks at multilingual approaches in secondary school and higher education, and the third examines the influence of parents, policy-makers, and professional development on the implementation and sustainability of multilingual approaches. The book demonstrates that educators can leverage students’ multilingualism to promote learning and help students achieve their full potential. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of language education, psychology, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective professional development and sustainability of multilingual approaches
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana; Palviainen, Åsa

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an ... [more ▼]

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an overview of research studies on language policies, teacher agency and beliefs with a focus on multilingual settings. The intertwining of policy and teaching practice is then illustrated by means of the Finnish case, demonstrating how recent ECEC policies advocating diversity and plurilingualism have gradually changed teacher beliefs. The second part of the chapter focuses on professional development (PD) in so far as it is able to support teachers in implementing policies, changing pedagogical practices, and amending beliefs. This section presents different pathways for professional learning and explores the effectiveness of various models of professional development. These observations are taken up in two empirical studies on teachers’ professional development within multilingual preschool classes in Luxembourg and primary schools in the Netherlands. The interview and observation data provided in the two contexts point to the centrality of teacher beliefs and agency in moving towards multilingual practices and sustainable change. Furthermore, it unveils the ways in which teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices change over time, and how effective PD programmes can support teachers in interpreting policies and developing new practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalizing on multilingualism in European mainstream education. (2020)

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home ... [more ▼]

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home languages are given little space. For multilingual programmes to be inclusive and empowering, professionals need to break with monolingual practices based on monolingual ideologies. The resource-oriented pedagogy of translanguaging which challenges hegemonic practices, is one way in which professionals can give space to all languages, leverage children’s resources and contribute to their development. The present chapter presents the findings of a professional development on multilingual pedagogies in Luxembourg. Data stem from observations, video-recorded activities and interviews with four practitioners, two working in a formal education setting and two in a non-formal one. The findings show that the practitioners developed a positive stance towards translanguaging and multilingual education, learned to design a child-centred and holistic multilingual learning environment and used languages flexibly, deploying translation, code-switching and translanguaging. This dynamic language use facilitated communication, participation, language learning and well-being. There were differences between the practitioners’ flexible language use. The professionals in the school did not use pair talk, made less use of code-switching and used languages more strategically and responsibly than the caregivers in the crèche. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion and future research
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine (Ed.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

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See detailIntroduction: multilingual approaches to teaching and learning
Duarte, Joana; Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This introductory chapter outlines the monolingual mindset and language hierarchies that still exist in European education systems, and explains these are a result of the nation-forming movements of the nineteenth century. Next, four types of language instruction are presented: foreign language instruction; second language pedagogy; bilingual/monoglossic instruction; and plurilingual/heteroglossic instruction. The chapter continues with different types of multilingual approaches in mainstream educational settings that capitalise on multilingualism for teaching and learning, among them intercomprehension and translanguaging. Having explained these, the chapter explores the importance of partnerships with parents, professional development, and language policies because these actors and factors contribute to the effectiveness and sustainability of the approaches. The chapter concludes with a presentation of the structure of this volume as well as of the individual chapters. [less ▲]

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See detailDeniable encryption, authentication, and key exchange
Ostrev, Dimiter UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We present some foundational ideas related to deniable encryption, message authentication, and key exchange in classical cryptography. We give detailed proofs of results that were previously only sketched ... [more ▼]

We present some foundational ideas related to deniable encryption, message authentication, and key exchange in classical cryptography. We give detailed proofs of results that were previously only sketched in the literature. In some cases, we reach the same conclusions as in previous papers; in other cases, the focus on rigorous proofs leads us to different formulations of the results. [less ▲]

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See detailUne pandémie, cent ans plus tard
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailGene family information facilitates variant interpretation and identification of disease-associated genes in neurodevelopmental disorders
Lal, Dennis; May, Patrick UL; Perez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Genome Medicine (2020), 12(28),

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs ... [more ▼]

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). While orthologous gene conservation is commonly employed in variant annotation, approximately 80% of known disease-associated genes belong to gene families. The use of gene family information for disease gene discovery and variant interpretation has not yet been investigated on genome-wide scale. We empirically evaluate whether paralog conserved or non-conserved sites in human gene families are important in NDDs. Methods: Gene family information was collected from Ensembl. Paralog conserved sites were defined based on paralog sequence alignments. 10,068 NDD patients and 2,078 controls were statistically evaluated for de novo variant burden in gene families. Results: We demonstrate that disease-associated missense variants are enriched at paralog conserved sites across all disease groups and inheritance models tested. We developed a gene family de novo enrichment framework that identified 43 exome-wide enriched gene families including 98 de novo variant carrying genes in NDD patients of which 28 represent novel candidate genes for NDD which are brain expressed and under evolutionary constraint. Conclusion: This study represents the first method to incorporate gene-family information into a statistical framework to interpret variant data for NDDs and to discover newly NDD -associated genes. [less ▲]

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See detailBitcoin Governance as a Decentralized Financial Market Infrastructure
Nabilou, Hossein UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Bitcoin is the oldest and most widely established cryptocurrency network with the highest market capitalization among all cryptocurrencies. Although bitcoin (with lowercase b) is increasingly viewed as a ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin is the oldest and most widely established cryptocurrency network with the highest market capitalization among all cryptocurrencies. Although bitcoin (with lowercase b) is increasingly viewed as a digital asset belonging to a new asset class, the Bitcoin network (with uppercase B) is a decentralized financial market infrastructure (dFMI) that clears and settles transactions in its native asset without relying on the conventional financial market infrastructures (FMIs). To be a reliable asset class as well as a dFMI, however, Bitcoin needs to have robust governance arrangements; whether such arrangements are built into the protocol (i.e., on-chain governance mechanisms) or relegated to the participants in the Bitcoin network (i.e., off-chain governance mechanisms), or are composed of a combination of both mechanisms (i.e., a hybrid form of governance). This paper studies Bitcoin governance with a focus on its alleged shortcomings. In so doing, after defining Bitcoin governance and its objectives, the paper puts forward an idiosyncratic governance model whose main objective is to preserve and maximize the main value proposition of Bitcoin, i.e., its censorship-resistant property, which allows participants to transact in an environment with minimum social trust. Therefore, Bitcoin governance, including the processes through which Bitcoin governance crises have been resolved and the standards against which the Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs) are examined, should be analyzed in light of the prevailing narrative of Bitcoin as a censorship-resistant store of value and payment infrastructure. Within such a special governance model, this paper seeks to identify the potential shortcomings in Bitcoin governance by reference to the major governance crises that posed serious threats to Bitcoin in the last decade. It concludes that the existing governance arrangements in the Bitcoin network have been largely successful in dealing with Bitcoin’s major crises that would have otherwise become existential threats to the Bitcoin network. [less ▲]

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See detailCollective Effects in Stochastic Thermodynamics
Herpich, Tim UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

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See detailSuicidal Behaviour in Youth in Luxembourg - Findings from the HBSC 2014 Luxembourg Study
Catunda, Carolina UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL et al

Report (2020)

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on ... [more ▼]

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on suicidal behaviours among adolescents were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. These can be used to identify suicide risk factors and to develop comprehensive suicide prevention programs. In Luxembourg, the suicide rate has fluctuated around 15 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants per year, for more than ten years. In the period 2006 – 2016, 20 deaths were registered as suicide in the age group of 10 to 19-year-olds. These suicides represent approximately 19% of all deaths registered in this age group. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study conducted in 2014, 875 adolescents indicated to have contemplated suicide in the last 12 months, which amounts to 15.1% of the adolescents in the study. In the same year, 811 adolescents (14.0%) indicated to have made a suicide plan in the last 12 months, and 448 adolescents (7.7%) to have attempted suicide (at least once) in the last year. In first instance, bivariate logistic regressions analyses were conducted for 24 independent variables with three suicidal behaviours (contemplation of suicide, planning of suicide and suicide attempt) and sadness as dependent variables in order to identify potential risk factors. These risk factors were further tested in multivariate logistic regressions, in order to make a statement about the relevance of these factors for suicidal behaviour of adolescents in Luxembourg, while taking into account the dependence between the risk factors. Results from multivariate logistic regressions indicate that subjective health complaints are the most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents who have recurrent multiple health complaints are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who do not have health complaints. Life satisfaction is the second most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents with lower levels of life satisfaction are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who have higher levels of life satisfaction. Gender-specific analyses show that the risk factors differ between girls and boys for suicidal behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailLogistics: Situating flows in a spatial context
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geography Compass (2020)

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and ... [more ▼]

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and engineering. Logistics systems are now the conveyor belts of the global system of trade, commerce and production, and its associated techniques and strategies aim at optimizing flows and throughput within discrete units (such as firms), in economic networks and across geographical space. Because flows are important determinants for the development of places, logistics has the power to structure territories. Therefore, it has raised considerable interest in the field of geography, not only with regard to cities and their dense agglomeration of people, buildings and infrastructure, but also in geopolitical terms as it fosters the exploration, control and surveillance of areas. The paper presents a critical account of logistics operations and their relevance for the making (and unmaking) of territories, related policy dimensions and future challenges for research. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutionnalisation des politiques sociales: catégorisation des publics - études de cas
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL

Presentation (2020, March 13)

Ce travail présente aux participants les zones de tension dans le travail social qui surgissent avec la mise en œuvre de la CRDPH (La Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées, 2006). Sur ... [more ▼]

Ce travail présente aux participants les zones de tension dans le travail social qui surgissent avec la mise en œuvre de la CRDPH (La Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées, 2006). Sur le plan conceptuel, on examinera si le concept central « l'inclusion » convient comme concept directeur pour le travail social. En ce qui concerne le Luxembourg, des exemples sont utilisés pour montrer à quel point le travail social avec les personnes handicapées est soumis à une politique sociale empreinte de néolibéralisme. Dans une approche prospective, les tendances d'une économisation, de la numérisation et de la prise en compte épigénétique des tâches du travail social sont discutées. Comment le travail social doit-il traiter cette problématique et s'y préparer ? [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Alphabet Inc. plans Toronto's waterfront: New post-political modes of urban governance
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Urban Planning (2020), 5(1), 69-83

‘Smart cities’ has become a hegemonic concept in urban discourses, despite substantial criticism presented by scholarly research and activism. The aim of this research was to understand what happens when ... [more ▼]

‘Smart cities’ has become a hegemonic concept in urban discourses, despite substantial criticism presented by scholarly research and activism. The aim of this research was to understand what happens when one of the big digital corporations enters the field of real estate and land use development and urban planning, how existing institutions respond to this, and how modes of urban governance are affected. Alphabet Inc.’s plans for Toronto’s waterfront provided insights into these questions. Our investigations traced a complex web of place-making practices that involved all levels of government, the general public, and networks of actors throughout the private sector. Methodologically, the discourse was reconstructed with local fieldwork, interviews with key actors, participating in tours and public meetings, and secondary sources. It was found that Alphabet Inc.’s plan to build a world-class digital city contained some lessons for urban studies and urban planning practice. First, Alphabet Inc.’s plans, which unfolded amidst initiatives to expand the knowledge economy, confirmed concerns that the trajectory of neoliberal, market-driven land use and speculation along the waterfront remains unchanged. Second, digital infrastructures are potentially a Trojan Horse. Third, it was seen that municipalities and their modes of urban planning are vulnerable to the political economic manoeuvrings of large corporate power. Fourth, Alphabet Inc. operates as a post-political package driven by a new coalition of politics, where the smart city is sold as a neutral technology. The controversies surrounding the project, however, stirred a civic discourse that might signal a return of the political. [less ▲]

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See detailCrime, Security, and Data Adequacy in the UK: The Next Sting in Brexit’s Tail
Robinson, Gavin UL

in Robinson, Gavin (Ed.) Blog, Brexit Institute (Dublin City University) (2020)

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See detailAgentenbasierte, hybride Steuerungsarchitektur für cyberphysische Refabrikationssysteme
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Jäkel, Jens; Thiel, Robert (Eds.) Tagungsband AALE 2020 Automatisierung und Mensch-Technik-Interaktion (2020, March 05)

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See detailMensch-Roboter-Kollaboration in der Domäne Refabrikation – State-of-the-Art und Ausblick
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Jäkel, Jens; Thiel, Robert (Eds.) Tagungsband AALE 2020 Automatisierung und Mensch-Technik-Interaktion (2020, March 05)

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See detailTHE NETWORKS OF SCIENCE. DATA-DRIVEN UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION.
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Presentation (2020, March 05)

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