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See detailThe Convergence of Systems and Reductionist Approaches in Complex Trait Analysis.
Williams, Evan UL; Auwerx, Johan

in Cell (2015), 162(1), 23-32

Research into the genetic and environmental factors behind complex trait variation has traditionally been segregated into distinct scientific camps. The reductionist approach aims to decrypt phenotypic ... [more ▼]

Research into the genetic and environmental factors behind complex trait variation has traditionally been segregated into distinct scientific camps. The reductionist approach aims to decrypt phenotypic variability bit by bit, founded on the underlying hypothesis that genome-to-phenome relations are largely constructed from the additive effects of their molecular players. In contrast, the systems approach aims to examine large-scale interactions of many components simultaneously, on the premise that interactions in gene networks can be both linear and non-linear. Both approaches are complementary, and they are becoming increasingly intertwined due to developments in gene editing tools, omics technologies, and population resources. Together, these strategies are beginning to drive the next era in complex trait research, paving the way to improve agriculture and toward more personalized medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a direct effect of the NAD+ precursor acipimox on muscle mitochondrial function in humans.
van de Weijer, Tineke; Phielix, Esther; Bilet, Lena et al

in Diabetes (2015), 64(4), 1193-201

Recent preclinical studies showed the potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) precursors to increase oxidative phosphorylation and improve metabolic health, but human data are lacking. We ... [more ▼]

Recent preclinical studies showed the potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) precursors to increase oxidative phosphorylation and improve metabolic health, but human data are lacking. We hypothesize that the nicotinic acid derivative acipimox, an NAD(+) precursor, would directly affect mitochondrial function independent of reductions in nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. In a multicenter randomized crossover trial, 21 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 57.7 +/- 1.1 years, BMI 33.4 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) received either placebo or acipimox 250 mg three times daily dosage for 2 weeks. Acipimox treatment increased plasma NEFA levels (759 +/- 44 vs. 1,135 +/- 97 mumol/L for placebo vs. acipimox, P < 0.01) owing to a previously described rebound effect. As a result, skeletal muscle lipid content increased and insulin sensitivity decreased. Despite the elevated plasma NEFA levels, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle increased. Subsequently, we showed that acipimox treatment resulted in a robust elevation in expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene sets and a mitonuclear protein imbalance, which may indicate activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Further studies in C2C12 myotubes confirmed a direct effect of acipimox on NAD(+) levels, mitonuclear protein imbalance, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that NAD(+) boosters can also directly affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of High Frequency Dielectric Constant and Surface Potential of Graphene Oxide and Influence of Humidity by KPFM.
Salomão, Francisco Carneiro; Martin Lanzoni, Evandro UL; Costa, Carlos et al

in Langmuir (2015)

We use Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and capacitance coupling (dC/dz) to study the electrical properties of graphene oxide (GO). We propose using the dC/dz signal to probe the high frequency ... [more ▼]

We use Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and capacitance coupling (dC/dz) to study the electrical properties of graphene oxide (GO). We propose using the dC/dz signal to probe the high frequency dielectric constant of mono- and few-layer GO. Our measurements suggest that the dynamic dielectric constant of GO is on the order of εGO ? 3.0 ε0, in the high frequency limit, and independent of the number of GO layers. The measurements are performed at a humidity controlled environment (5 of humidity). The effects of increasing humidity on both the dC/dz and KPFM measurements are analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the Poincaré theorem to generators of the unit group of integral group rings of finite groups
Jespers, E.; Juriaans, S. O.; Kiefer, Ann UL et al

in Math. Comp. (2015), 84(293), 1489--1520

We give an algorithm to determine finitely many generators for a subgroup of finite index in the unit group of an integral group ring ZG of a finite nilpotent group G, this provided the rational group ... [more ▼]

We give an algorithm to determine finitely many generators for a subgroup of finite index in the unit group of an integral group ring ZG of a finite nilpotent group G, this provided the rational group algebra QG does not have simple components that are division classical quaternion algebras or two-by-two matrices over a classical quaternion algebra with centre Q. The main difficulty is to deal with orders in quaternion algebras over the rationals or a quadratic imaginary extension of the rationals. In order to deal with these we give a finite and easy implementable algorithm to compute a fundamental domain in the hyperbolic three space H 3 (respectively hyperbolic two space H 2 ) for a discrete subgroup of PSL 2 (C) (respectively PSL 2 (R)) of finite covolume. Our results on group rings are a continuation of earlier work of Ritter and Sehgal, Jespers and Leal. [less ▲]

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See detailDescribing units of integral group rings up to commensurability
Eisele, F.; Kiefer, Ann UL; Van Gelder, I.

in J. Pure Appl. Algebra (2015), 219(7), 2901--2916

We restrict the types of 2 × 2-matrix rings which can occur as simple components in the Wedderburn decomposition of the rational group algebra of a finite group. This results in a description up to ... [more ▼]

We restrict the types of 2 × 2-matrix rings which can occur as simple components in the Wedderburn decomposition of the rational group algebra of a finite group. This results in a description up to commensurability of the group of units of the integral group ring ZG for all finite groups G that do not have a non-commutative Frobenius complement as a quotient. [less ▲]

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See detailAMBER 2015
Case, D. A.; Berryman, Josh UL; Betz, R. M. et al

Book published by University of California (2015)

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See detailStudying against your will: Motivational interference in action
Grund, Axel UL; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

in Contemporary Educational Psychology (2015), 41

Motivational interference refers to affective, cognitive, and behavioral' impairments during a focal activity due to conflicting action tendencies. In the present study, we focused on antecedents and ... [more ▼]

Motivational interference refers to affective, cognitive, and behavioral' impairments during a focal activity due to conflicting action tendencies. In the present study, we focused on antecedents and domain-specific consequences of motivational interference during everyday study activities using an experience sampling approach. Fifty-eight university students provided real-time reports on their daily studying activities (N = 672) over the course of one week. They reported on their momentary affect, whether they experienced motivational conflict during their study activities, and, if so, indicated when this feeling emerged. After the experience sampling period, they reported on their academic and social adaptation as well as their study satisfaction, and rated their relative performance. Compared with non-conflicted studying activities, we found considerably lower positive affect during conflicted studying. Conflicts that existed before the initiation of the study activity, and conflicts that emerged during studying, yielded affective impairments. As expected, aggregated conflict experiences negatively predicted measures of academic functioning, but not students' social adaptation. The discussion focuses on motivational antecedents of interference effects during self-regulated learning. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasensitive and label-free molecular-level detection enabled by light phase control in magnetoplasmonic nanoantennas
Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; de Oliveira, Thales V. A. G. et al

in Nature Communications (2015), 6

Systems allowing label-free molecular detection are expected to have enormous impact on biochemical sciences. Research focuses on materials and technologies based on exploiting localized surface plasmon ... [more ▼]

Systems allowing label-free molecular detection are expected to have enormous impact on biochemical sciences. Research focuses on materials and technologies based on exploiting localized surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanostructures. The reason for this focused attention is their suitability for single-molecule sensing, arising from intrinsically nanoscopic sensing volume and the high sensitivity to the local environment. Here we propose an alternative route, which enables radically improved sensitivity compared with recently reported plasmon-based sensors. Such high sensitivity is achieved by exploiting the control of the phase of light in magnetoplasmonic nanoantennas. We demonstrate a manifold improvement of refractometric sensing figure-of-merit. Most remarkably, we show a raw surface sensitivity (that is, without applying fitting procedures) of two orders of magnitude higher than the current values reported for nanoplasmonic sensors. Such sensitivity corresponds to a mass of ~ 0.8 ag per nanoantenna of polyamide-6.6 (n=1.51), which is representative for a large variety of polymers, peptides and proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Magnetoplasmonic Ruler
Zubritskaya, Irina; Lodewijks, Kristof; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Nano Letters (2015), 15(5), 3204-3211

Plasmon rulers are an emerging concept in which the strong near-field coupling of plasmon nanoantenna elements is employed to obtain structural information at the nanoscale. Here, we combine ... [more ▼]

Plasmon rulers are an emerging concept in which the strong near-field coupling of plasmon nanoantenna elements is employed to obtain structural information at the nanoscale. Here, we combine nanoplasmonics and nanomagnetism to conceptualize a magnetoplasmonic dimer nanoantenna that would be able to report nanoscale distances while optimizing its own spatial orientation. The latter constitutes an active operation in which a dynamically optimized optical response per measured unit length allows for the measurement of small and large nanoscale distances with about 2 orders of magnitude higher precision than current state-of-the-art plasmon rulers. We further propose a concept to optically measure the nanoscale response to the controlled application of force with a magnetic field. [less ▲]

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See detailResonant Enhancement of Magneto-Optical Activity Induced by Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes Coupling in 2D Magnetoplasmonic Crystals
Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Inchausti, Xabier; Garcia-Martin, Antonio et al

in ACS Photonics (2015), 2(12), 1769-1779

Magnetoplasmonic crystals are spatially periodic nanostructured magnetic surfaces combining the features of surface plasmon polariton excitation and magneto-optical tunability. Here we present a ... [more ▼]

Magnetoplasmonic crystals are spatially periodic nanostructured magnetic surfaces combining the features of surface plasmon polariton excitation and magneto-optical tunability. Here we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical work demonstrating that in magnetoplasmonic crystals the coupling of free space radiation to surface plasmon polariton modes in conjunction with the inherent magneto-optical activity, enable cross-coupling of propagating surface plasmon polariton modes. We have explored the consequences of this unique magnetoplasmonic crystal optical feature by studying the light reflected from a two-dimensional periodic array of cylindrical holes in a ferromagnetic layer illuminated at oblique incidence and magnetized in the sample plane, namely, in the so-called longitudinal Kerr effect geometry. We observe that the magneto-optical spectral response arises from all the excitable surface plasmon polariton modes in the magnetoplasmonic crystal irrespective of the incoming light polarization. We show that this is a direct consequence of the magneto-optically mediated coupling of propagating surface plasmon polariton modes. We demonstrate that a large enhancement of the longitudinal Kerr effect is induced when special noncollinear surface plasmon polariton modes, which couple to both p- and s-polarized light, are resonantly excited. We show how the resonant enhancement of the Kerr effect can be set at desired radiation wavelengths and incidence angles by precise plasmonic band engineering achievable through the proper design of the magnetoplasmonic lattice structure. Our findings, besides clarifying the underlying physics that governs the peculiar magneto-optical properties of magnetoplasmonic crystals, open a path to the design of novel active metamaterials with tailored and enhanced magneto-optical activity. [less ▲]

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See detailMargret Steckel, Servais. Roman einer Familie (2010)
Thiltges, Sébastian UL

in Singh, Sikander; Gätje, Hermann (Eds.) Übergänge, Brüche, Annäherungen. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Literatur im Saarland, in Lothringen, im Elsass, in Luxemburg und Belgien (2015)

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See detailContenido y formas de la población sobrante y aproximaciones a su determinación cuantitativa en la Argentina a comienzos del siglo XXI
Cazón, Fernando; Graña, Juan M.; Kozlowski, Diego UL et al

in VIII Jornadas de Economía Crítica, Río Cuarto (2015)

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See detailNueva división internacional del trabajo, diferenciación y superpoblación relativa: un análisis de sus relaciones y determinaciones
Cazón, Fernando; Graña, Juan M.; Kozlowski, Diego UL et al

in VIII Jornadas de Economía Crítica, Río Cuarto (2015)

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See detailPatterns and Sources of Personality Development in Old Age
Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hagemeyer, Birk et al

in JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (2015), 109(1), 175-191

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends ... [more ▼]

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailHope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst? Future Self-Views and Preparation for Age-Related Changes
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2015), 30(4), 967-976

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more ... [more ▼]

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more preparation for age-related changes. Drawing on recent evidence regarding the domain specificity of aging-related developmental processes, we assumed this relationship to be moderated by the relevance of preparation in different life domains for different age groups. We investigated these research questions in a longitudinal study that assessed future self-views and preparation for different life domains in a sample covering a large part of the adult life span. Findings supported our hypotheses: More positive/negative personal views of one's own aging at T1 predicted subsequent increases/decreases in preparation, with influences being strongest for those domains in which relevant age-related changes are expected to occur for the respective age groups. Our study provides additional evidence for the idea that views on aging shape development, identifying age-related provision making as an important mediating process. Furthermore, our findings highlight the added value of a domain-specific approach that takes the differential relevance of life domains and age-related developmental tasks into account. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Parental Migration and the Psychological Well-being of Children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola
Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor UL; Veale, Angela et al

in Social Science and Medicine (2015), 132(May), 215224

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See detailDeprivation and poverty among children in Tajikistan: A multiple overlapping deprivation analysis
Neubourg, Chris De; Karpati, Julia; Cebotari, Victor UL

Report (2015)

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See detailThe Determinants of National Pride of Ethnic and Immigrant Minorities in Europe
Cebotari, Victor UL

in Nationalism and Ethnic Politics (2015), 21(3), 269-288

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