Results 61-80 of 10953.     Supporting DNN Safety Analysis and Retraining through Heatmap-based Unsupervised LearningFahmy, Hazem ; Pastore, Fabrizio ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba et alin IEEE Transactions on Reliability (in press)Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the ... [more ▼]Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the functional safety of DNN-based components. We observe three major challenges with existing practices regarding DNNs in safety-critical systems: (1) scenarios that are underrepresented in the test set may lead to serious safety violation risks, but may, however, remain unnoticed; (2) char- acterizing such high-risk scenarios is critical for safety analysis; (3) retraining DNNs to address these risks is poorly supported when causes of violations are difficult to determine. To address these problems in the context of DNNs analyzing images, we propose HUDD, an approach that automatically supports the identification of root causes for DNN errors. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to heatmaps capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. We evaluated HUDD with DNNs from the automotive domain. HUDD was able to identify all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 UL) Blockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash EquilibriumKhan, Nida ; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et alin 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 231 (20 UL) Wüllner, AdolfKrebs, Stefan ; Tschacher, Werner in Neue Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 28 (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 UL) "Aktion 18 und Quiz 3000"Nonoa, Koku Gnatuloma in Kovacs, Teresa; Scheinpflug, Peter; Wortmann, Thomas (Eds.) Schlingensief-Handbuch Leben – Werk – Wirkung (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 70 (7 UL) Humanitarian Photography Beyond the Picture: David “CHIM” Seymour’s Children of EuropePriem, Karin ; Herman, Frederikin Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 UL) Challenges and Methodologies in the Visual History of EducationAllender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et alin Allender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian (Eds.) et al Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational History (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 UL) Appearances Matter: The Visual in Educational HistoryAllender, Tim; Dussel, Inés; Grosvenor, Ian et alBook published by De Gruyter - Appearances: Studies in Visual Research (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL) Societal Emotional Environments and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: A Forty-Nine Country StudyKrys, Kuba; Yeung, June; Capaldi, Colin et alin Journal of Positive Psychology (in press)In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a ... [more ▼]In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12,888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well-being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 312 (11 UL) Invariant density adaptive estimation for ergodic jump diffusion processes over anisotropic classesAmorino, Chiara ; Gloter, Arnaudin Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference (in press)We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of ... [more ▼]We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of observations is available. In the case without jumps, Reiss and Dalalyan [7] and Strauch [24] have found convergence rates of invariant density estimators, under respectively isotropic and anisotropic H ̈older smoothness constraints, which are considerably faster than those known from standard multivariate density estimation. We extend the previous works by obtaining, in presence of jumps, some estimators which have the same convergence rates they had in the case without jumps for d ≥ 2 and a rate which depends on the degree of the jumps in the one-dimensional setting. We propose moreover a data driven bandwidth selection procedure based on the Goldenshluger and Lepski method [11] which leads us to an adaptive non-parametric kernel estimator of the stationary density μ of the jump diffusion X. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (5 UL) Biomedical and Clinical Research Data ManagementGanzinger, Matthias; Glaab, Enrico ; Kerssemakers, Jules et alin Wolkenhauer, Olaf (Ed.) Systems Medicine - Integrative, Qualitative and Computational Approaches (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 188 (11 UL) Process analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firingPeters, Bernhard ; Rousset, Alban ; Besseron, Xavier et alin 12th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers (in press)Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 160 (32 UL) Reducibility of n-ary semigroups: from quasitriviality towards idempotencyCouceiro, Miguel; Devillet, Jimmy ; Marichal, Jean-Luc et alin Beiträge zur Algebra und Geometrie (in press)Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the ... [more ▼]Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the elements $x_1,\ldots,x_n$ are equal to each other. The elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ are said to be quasitrivial and those of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are said to be idempotent. We show that $\mathcal{F}^n_1=\cdots =\mathcal{F}^n_{n-2}\subseteq\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\subseteq\mathcal{F}^n_n$ and we give conditions on the set $X$ for the last inclusions to be strict. The class $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ was recently characterized by Couceiro and Devillet \cite{CouDev}, who showed that its elements are reducible to binary associative operations. However, some elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are not reducible. In this paper, we characterize the class $\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\setminus\mathcal{F}^n_1$ and show that its elements are reducible. We give a full description of the corresponding reductions and show how each of them is built from a quasitrivial semigroup and an Abelian group whose exponent divides $n-1$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 133 (17 UL) William Shakespeare and John Florio: their common passion for words, things Italian and aristocracy. An inquiry on the natural, necessary, albeit controversial, relationship between the dramatist and the linguistCicotti, Claudio ; Connerad, Jean PatrickBook published by Peter Lang (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 68 (2 UL) Nous l'avions attendu pendant des moisCicotti, Claudio in Malvetti, Massimo (Ed.) Dante et Henri VII de Luxembourg: de l'utopie au prophetisme (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 49 (7 UL) Mediating the Right to Education: An Analysis of UNESCO’s Exhibition Album on Human Rights and Its Global Dissemination in 1951Kesteloot, Stefanie in Priem, Karin; Comas Rubi, Francisca; Gonzalez, Sara (Eds.) Media Matter: Images as Presenters, Mediators and Means of Observation (in press)The end of the Second World War was the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). As a UN organisation, UNESCO was assigned to present the UDHR towards ... [more ▼]The end of the Second World War was the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). As a UN organisation, UNESCO was assigned to present the UDHR towards the global population in an effort to guide them to peace. In 1949, their Department of Mass Communication created three tools to promote human rights: a large-scale exhibition at the Musée Galliera in Paris, a travel album, and teaching handbooks. In my chapter, I will focus on the travel album, and in particular, on article 26: “The Right to Education”. As in the album, the right is represented by a number of images and captions, all related to this article of the UDHR. I will analyse the visuals and the corresponding texts from an intermediate perspective. Does the narrative created by UNESCO actually relate to the meaning of the pictures? Then, I will analyse the global correspondence received on the travel album. How did the viewers understand the album and was it as comprehensible as UNESCO thought? This chapter argues that the promotion and mediation of human rights were based on Western standards of education, making it difficult to spread a universal message. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 UL) Besteuerung der digitalisierten Wirtschaft und Datenschutz in der Steuerverwaltung - Probleme einer destination-based corporate tax?Sinnig, Julia in Sinnig, Julia (Ed.) Tagungsband der 60. ATÖR (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 71 (3 UL) Between national language traditions and transnational competence: teaching multilingual academic discourse at the University of LuxembourgHuemer, Birgit in Donahue, Christiane (Ed.) Teaching and Studying Transnational Composition (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 42 (6 UL) Can Offline Testing of Deep Neural Networks Replace Their Online Testing?Ul Haq, Fitash ; Shin, Donghwan ; Nejati, Shiva et alin Empirical Software Engineering (in press)We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test ... [more ▼]We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application environment and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. Typically, DNNs are subjected to both types of testing during their development life cycle where offline testing is applied immediately after DNN training and online testing follows after offline testing and once a DNN is deployed within a specific application environment. In this paper, we study the relationship between offline and online testing. Our goal is to determine how offline testing and online testing differ or complement one another and if offline testing results can be used to help reduce the cost of online testing? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end controls of steering functions of self-driving vehicles. Our results show that offline testing is less effective than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. Further, we cannot exploit offline testing results to reduce the cost of online testing in practice since we are not able to identify specific situations where offline testing could be as accurate as online testing in identifying safety requirement violations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (7 UL) Spelling patterns of plural marking and learning trajectories in French taught as a foreign languageWeth, Constanze ; Ugen, Sonja ; Fayol, Michel et alin Written Language and Literacy (in press), 24Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and ... [more ▼]Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and verbal plural. This study investigates spelling profiles of French plural markers of 228 multilingual grade 5 pupils with French taught as a foreign language. Three analyses on the learner performances of plural spelling in nouns, verbs and pre- and postnominal attributive adjectives were conducted (1) to detect the pupils’ spelling profiles of plural marking on the basis of the performances in the pretest, (2) to test the profiles against two psycholinguistic theories, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the training on each spelling profile in the posttest. The first analysis confirms the existing literature that pupils’ learning of French plural is not random but ordered and emphasizes the role of the position for adjectives (pre- or postnominal) on correct plural spelling. The second analysis reveals the theoretical difficulties of predicting spelling of adjectival and verbal plural. The third analysis shows that strong and poor spellers both benefit from a morphosyntactic training and provides transparency and traceability of the learning trajectories. Together, the descriptive analyses reveal clear patterns of intra-individual spelling profiles. They point to a need for further research in those areas that have empirically provided the most inconsistent results to date and that are not supported by the theories: verbs and adjectives. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 UL) Migration in China: to Work or to Wed?Dupuy, Arnaud in Journal of Applied Econometrics (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 64 (0 UL)