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See detailAlles anders? Was Digital Natives vom Arbeitsmarkt erwarten
Samuel, Robin UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

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See detailIntegration of omics data for biotechnology-relevant microbial communities
Herold, Malte UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Naturally occurring and artificial bacterial communities play an import role in many biotechnological processes. To elucidate bacterial interactions that are important for potential optimized ... [more ▼]

Naturally occurring and artificial bacterial communities play an import role in many biotechnological processes. To elucidate bacterial interactions that are important for potential optimized biotechnological applications, high-throughput measurements of biomolecules, metagenomics, metratranscriptomics,metaproteomics, and meta-metabolomics provide a detailed snapshot of mixed microbial consortia. Integration of multiple layers of omics data allows to reconstruct structure and function of complex microbial communities and is demonstrated for two different model systems. The first chapter focuses on synthetic communities consisting of strains representing key species found in biomining operations and acid mine drainage and that are of economical interest for copper production. A high-quality closed reference genome for L. ferriphilum was obtained by DNA sequencing and was subsequently used to integrate functional omics data, i.e. transcriptomic and proteomic profiling. The combination of genomics, genome annotation, and functional omics data allowed an in-depth characterization of L. ferriphilum in culture medium and in the presence of the iron sulfide mineral chalcopyrite, an economically relevant copper ore. Subsequently, analyses were performed for co-cultures of up to three organisms highlighting specific interaction mechanisms. The cultures without L. ferriphilum showed higher copper solubilisation rates, as the highly efficient iron oxidiser might raise the redox potential above the optimal range. For in situ studies, reference-based analyses are of limited use, e.g. due to a lack in reference genomes of culturable isolates. Hence, the second chapter focuses on an approach to study mixed microbial communities independent of prior knowledge and available reference genomes. A timeseries of oleaginous floating sludge samples that spans over one and a half years was analysed by integrating metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic, and meta-metabolomic data. This allowed the reconstruction of population level genomes and the characterization of the niches of the respective populations. The functional potential was assessed, as well as expression profiles over time, yielding a detailed view on lifestyle strategies and the potential impact of abiotic factors. Understanding the niche ecology of the predominant lipid accumulators in the system could lead towards optimized biofuel production. [less ▲]

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See detailSwitchable dissociation of excitons bound at strained CdTe/CdS interfaces
Enders, Florian; Budweg, Arne; Zeng, Peng et al

in Nanoscale (2018)

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See detailLa confrontation Est-Ouest: une analyse d’images de la guerre froide
Mouton, Victoria UL

Presentation (2018, November 19)

Ce séminaire s’est focalisé sur l’examen des problématiques posées par la confrontation Est-Ouest et proposait une analyse critique d’images de la guerre froide à l’aide d’un outil numérique.

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See detailThe viability of C-tests: Which place do they have among other language tests?
Reichert, Monique UL

Presentation (2018, November 17)

C-tests are language tests that consist of a small number of short texts. In each one of those texts, and starting with the second sentence, the second half of each second word is omitted, and test takers ... [more ▼]

C-tests are language tests that consist of a small number of short texts. In each one of those texts, and starting with the second sentence, the second half of each second word is omitted, and test takers are asked to provide the missing word parts. In addition to their appealing characteristic as language measurement instruments which are easy to create, administer and score, they generally yield highly objective and reliable results. These features might explain why C-tests have in the meantime been used for a multitude of purposes and languages. However, the recurrent question about the validity of C-tests makes aware that caution needs to be exercised with regard to the contexts in which these language tests can ideally be used. The presentation will give an introduction about the process(es) of c-test development, and highlight different purposes for which C-tests can be used by placing them in the context of other, more “classical” language tests. [less ▲]

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See detailZ4 parafermions in one-dimensional fermionic lattices
Calzona, Alessio UL; Meng, Tobias; Sassetti, Maura et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2018), 98

Parafermions are emergent excitations which generalize Majorana fermions and are potentially relevant to topological quantum computation. Using the concept of Fock parafermions, we present a mapping ... [more ▼]

Parafermions are emergent excitations which generalize Majorana fermions and are potentially relevant to topological quantum computation. Using the concept of Fock parafermions, we present a mapping between lattice Z4-parafermions and lattice spin-1/2 fermions which preserves the locality of operators with Z4 symmetry. Based on this mapping, we construct an exactly solvable, local one-dimensional fermionic Hamiltonian which hosts parafermionic edge states. We numerically show that the parafermionic phase remains stable in a wide range of parameters, and discuss its signatures in the fermionic spectral function. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-Principles Modeling of Molecular Crystals: Crystal Structure Prediction and Vibrational Properties
Hoja, Johannes UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Understanding the structure and stability, as well as response properties of molecular crystals at certain thermodynamic conditions is crucial for the engineering of new molecular materials and the design ... [more ▼]

Understanding the structure and stability, as well as response properties of molecular crystals at certain thermodynamic conditions is crucial for the engineering of new molecular materials and the design of pharmaceuticals. A reliable description of the polymorphic energy landscape of a molecular crystal would provide an extensive insight into the development of drugs in terms of the existence and the likelihood of late-appearing polymorphs. Furthermore, accurate modeling of low-frequency vibrational spectra would be important for the characterization of molecular crystal polymorphs. However, an accurate description of molecular crystals is very challenging since many properties highly depend on the crystal-packing arrangement of the involved molecules and the temperature. The difficulties for computational predictions of molecular crystal polymorphs lie in the high dimensionality of crystallographic and conformational space, and the need for very accurate relative free energies. It was shown that accurate lattice energies can be obtained by using density-functional theory (DFT) calculations supplemented by a high-level model for long-range van der Waals (vdW) dispersion interactions, such as the many-body dispersion (MBD) model. Therefore, this thesis utilizes throughout vdW-inclusive DFT using the MBD and the related pairwise Tkatchenko-Scheffler (TS) dispersion model and the importance of dispersion interactions is highlighted for several properties. A hierarchical stability-ranking approach based on the DFT+MBD framework for the final stage of a molecular crystal structure prediction procedure is presented and analyzed. This approach provides excellent stability rankings over the diverse set of molecular crystals studied in the latest blind test of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. The results suggest that accounting for many-body dispersion effects and vibrational free energies can be crucial for the description of relative stabilities, especially for highly polymorphic systems. The presented approach enables the calculation of reliable structures and thermodynamic stabilities for pharmaceutically relevant systems, contributing to a better understanding of complex polymorphic energy landscapes. Furthermore, many first-principles calculations are performed by using fully optimized structures and free energies obtained within the harmonic approximation, neglecting the thermal expansion of the studied molecular crystal and further anharmonic effects. Therefore, this thesis illustrates that the majority of the thermal expansion of molecular crystals can be captured with the used methods by applying the quasi-harmonic approximation. In addition, we estimate further anharmonic effects on the vibrational frequencies by utilizing Morse oscillators. [less ▲]

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See detailConcrete-Filled Steel Tubular (CFTS) Columns Subjected to Eccentric Compressive Load
KEDZIORA, SLAWOMIR UL; Anwaar, Muhammad Omer

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2018, November 15)

Concrete-steel composite structures are very efficient in carrying high loads as they combine benefits of both materials concrete and steel. The combination of them can significantly improve the strength ... [more ▼]

Concrete-steel composite structures are very efficient in carrying high loads as they combine benefits of both materials concrete and steel. The combination of them can significantly improve the strength of the composite structure by taking advantage of high compression resistance of concrete and high strength of steel in tension. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the composite structures used in different forms, as beams, slabs, sandwich structures and columns and many methods of structural analyses were utilised. However, none of them was able to eliminate concrete material when it fractured. The presented work concerns circular composite columns CFST under eccentric compression. The principal objective of the project was to investigate a straightforward method based on a finite element analysis employed to estimate the load carrying capacity of columns. This study has also been set out to determine whether the Drucker-Prager material model of concrete without a crack capability could be used for analyses of the CFST columns with the additional elimination of the concrete material when concrete is damaged. The elaborated finite element model was verified with existing test data from the literature. The findings show that the correlation between the test results and the numerical analysis was excellent confirming the feasibility of usage of the proposed method for the assessment of complex cases of the CFST columns. A new part of the work is the employment of a death element feature to eliminate concrete material, which theoretically is not taking any load after reaching its tensile strength. A criterion to eliminate elements from the model is the maximum principal stress greater than tensile strength. The obtained results are excellent; the established goal was met entirely. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallographic Studies of Dissimilar Al-Cu Laser-Welded Joints Using Various Etchants
Schmalen, Pascal Guy UL; Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis (2018)

The welding of Al and Cu is considered as difficult due to the formation of intermetallic compounds, which cause a brittle joint with increased electrical resistance. This paper investigates etching ... [more ▼]

The welding of Al and Cu is considered as difficult due to the formation of intermetallic compounds, which cause a brittle joint with increased electrical resistance. This paper investigates etching techniques that were used to contrast the intermetallic compounds for optical microscope analysis. A 0.5 mm AA-1050 sheet was welded to a 0.5 mm SF-Cu sheet in overlap configuration. The cross sections were etched by using 17 different reagents, including common Al-grade 2xxx etchants, Al-bronze etchants, and specific IMC etchants. A complete microstructural characterization, including the formation of intermetallic compounds, is presented. The experimental result showed that a clear distinction of metallurgic structures is possible, thus enabling a more detailed analysis of Al-Cu welds. It was found that etchants #09, #14, and #16 revealed best the four different intermetallic compounds θ-Al2Cu, η-AlCu, ζ-Al3Cu4, and γ-Al4Cu9. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sortie de guerre au pays de Malmedy 1918-1920
Brüll, Christoph UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

Avec l’armistice en novembre 1918, la région de Malmedy s’apprête à sortir de la guerre. Comme dans de nombreuses autres régions européennes, le passage de la guerre à la paix ne s’identifie pas au ... [more ▼]

Avec l’armistice en novembre 1918, la région de Malmedy s’apprête à sortir de la guerre. Comme dans de nombreuses autres régions européennes, le passage de la guerre à la paix ne s’identifie pas au silence des canons et des armes, mais prend la forme d’un processus lent. Toutefois, la région devient également l’objet des négociations diplomatiques qui commencent à Versailles au printemps 1919. Finalement, Malmedy ne sortira pas seulement de la guerre, mais aussi de l’Allemagne pour être rattachée à la Belgique. La conférence se propose de jeter un regard serré sur les deux ans qui séparent l’armistice et l’aval du transfert de souveraineté par la Société des Nations en septembre 1920. Sur base de publications récentes, elle se livre à une analyse à plusieurs niveaux : vie quotidienne de la population sous l’Occupation britannique, arrivée des troupes belges en été 1919, débuts du Gouvernement Baltia en janvier 1920 et « consultation populaire » y trouveront tout autant leur place que les regards des autorités belges et les regards étrangers sur l’espace frontalier belgo-allemand durant cette période. [less ▲]

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See detailPersistent Identifiers. What? Why? How?
Park, Beth Anne UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

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See detailAn international case-vignette study to assess general practitioners’ willingness to deprescribe (LESS)
Tabea Jungo, Katharina; Mantelli, Sophie; Rozsnyai, Zsofia et al

in Collins, Claire (Ed.) Abstract Book of the 87th EGPRN Meeting (2018, November 14)

Background: Globally, many oldest-old (>80 years of age) suffer from several chronic conditions and take multiple medications. Ideally, their general practitioners (GPs) regularly and systematically ... [more ▼]

Background: Globally, many oldest-old (>80 years of age) suffer from several chronic conditions and take multiple medications. Ideally, their general practitioners (GPs) regularly and systematically search for inappropriate medications and, if necessary, deprescribe those. However, deprescribing is challenging due to numerous barriers not only within patients, but also within GPs. Research questions: How does the willingness to deprescribe in oldest-old with polypharmacy differ in GPs from different countries? What factors do GPs in different contexts perceive as important for deprescribing? Method: We assess GPs' willingness to deprescribe and the factors GPs perceive to influence their deprescribing decisions in a cross-sectional survey using case-vignettes of oldest-old patients with polypharmacy. We approach GPs in 28 European countries as well as in Israel, Brazil and New Zealand through national coordinators, who administer the survey in their GP network. The case vignettes differ in how dependent patients are and whether or not they have a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For each case vignette, GPs are asked if and which medication they would deprescribe. GPs further rate to what extent pre-defined factors influence their deprescribe decisions. We will compare the willingness to deprescribe and the factors influencing deprescribing across countries. Multilevel models will be used to analyze the proportions of the deprescribed medications per case along the continuum of dependency and history of CVD and to analyze the factors perceived as influencing deprescribing decisions. Results: As of early-July 2018, the survey has been distributed in 14 countries and >650 responses have been returned. We will present first results at the conference. Conclusions: First, assessing GPs’ willingness to deprescribe and comparing the factors influencing GPs’ deprescribing decisions across countries will allow an understanding of the expected variation in the willingness to deprescribe across different contexts. Second, it will enable the tailoring of specific interventions that might facilitate deprescribing in oldest-old patients. Points for discussion: How can we explain differences across countries? How can the results be translated into practice in order to help GPs to optimize deprescribing practices? What factors could help GPs to implement deprescribing in oldest-old patients with polypharmacy? [less ▲]

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See detailDefining feasibility of Primary care strategies to disclose, counsel and provide access to advocacy on family violence.
Pas; Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Clavería, Ana et al

in Collins, Claire (Ed.) Abstract Book of the 87th EGPRN Meeting (2018, November 14)

Background: Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem and serious consequences. One third of European women suffer from partner violence in their adult lifetime while on fourth of ... [more ▼]

Background: Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem and serious consequences. One third of European women suffer from partner violence in their adult lifetime while on fourth of situations of partner violence children are present. Elderly abuse is present between 10 to 20 % of the population above 60 General practice is often a point of contact for victims but they tend to hesitate or feel ashamed to ask for assistance. GPs generally lack training in disclosing and supporting FV, feel uncomfortable about asking and may be hindered by lack of facilities where to refer. In 2018, WONCA encourages all national colleges and academies to develop policy and implementation strategies on family violence identification and response for intimate partner violence, child abuse and elder abuse. This recommendation states it is needed to develop research and define performance and outcome measures for general practitioners/family doctors and primary care teams in each of our member nations; implementation strategies for comprehensive family violence care should be enabled and evaluated. Research questions: To define needs and concerns of practice teams and analyze possibilities for practice management across European Countries. Method: A Delphi approach modified according to RAND is proposed to develop a consensus using online collection of data. A steering group will be composed of delegates recruited form EGPRN and EUROPREV members to constitute a nominal group validating questions and authorising feedback to respondents for each Delphi round. Country representatives in the project will select a representative sample in each country to allow for generalisability of conclusions per country and European wise. Collaboration with national colleges is encouraged. A meeting at EGPRN in October 2018 will further detail the methodology. A constant comparative methodology using computer software (eg. NVIVO or similar) will be followed analysing data on each question highlighting similarities and differences between answers thus constructing an underlying model about concerns and possible solutions proposed. Points for discussion: How to constitute a sample per country to allow for generalisability. What are main focuses for consensus development? [less ▲]

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See detailComment transformer de bons Allemands en bons Belges? L'annexion et l'intégration d'Eupen-Malmedy à la Belgique (1918-1925)
Brüll, Christoph UL

Presentation (2018, November 13)

A la suite du Traité de Versailles, la Belgique s’agrandit de quelques 60.000 habitants et de 1.000 km², en annexant les deux Kreise allemands d’Eupen et de Malmedy. Tandis que le premier est largement ... [more ▼]

A la suite du Traité de Versailles, la Belgique s’agrandit de quelques 60.000 habitants et de 1.000 km², en annexant les deux Kreise allemands d’Eupen et de Malmedy. Tandis que le premier est largement germanophone, le deuxième compte env. 10.000 franco- ou wallonophones autour de Malmedy. La conférence retrace d’abord les origines de cette annexion, des projets d’expansion territoriale, conçus pendant la guerre, aux négociations du Traité de Versailles. Un accent sera mis sur l’élaboration de l’article 34 de ce traité, qui prévoit une forme de « consultation populaire » unique en son genre et dont l’application a lourdement hypothéqué l’intégration des « Nouveaux Belges » dans leur nouvelle patrie. La deuxième partie de la conférence est consacrée au régime de transition que la Belgique y instaure en 1920. Ce gouvernement provisoire placé sous le Haut Commissaire Herman Baltia est alors en charge de l’intégration des habitants dans l’Etat belge. Comment peut-on « gagner les cœurs et les esprits » d’une population qui, encore en 1918, ne se serait jamais vue devenir belge ? La troisième partie traite de la loi d’intégration du 6 mars 1925 qui met fin au régime de transition et intègre les trois cantons d’Eupen-Malmedy-Saint-Vith dans l’arrondissement de Verviers et la province de Liège. Dans ce contexte, des propositions voient le jour qui seront encore d’actualité lors des débats sur l’autonomie culturelle dans les années 1960. La recherche scientifique a montré depuis longtemps que la politique d’intégration belge menée dans la région pendant l’entre-deux-guerres a été un échec – révélé au plus tard en mai 1940. La conférence jette une nouvelle lumière sur les débuts de celle-ci et sur sa perception par la population et les acteurs politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitaler historischer Atlas der Stadt Luxemburg
Uhrmacher, Martin; Kass, Steve UL

Presentation (2018, November 13)

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See detailThe Case Against Hard Interest Rate Caps for Microfinance Institutions
Dewi, Tsany Ratna UL

Presentation (2018, November 13)

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