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See detailUniversality in driven Potts models
Herpich, Tim UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E. (2019)

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See detailTransforming Collaboration Data into Network Layers for Enhanced Analytics
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Piyatumrong, Apivadee; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, February 25)

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental patterns and insights of the research collaborations. In this paper, we describe our data-to-networks method, which automatically generates a set of logical network layers from the relational input data using a linkage threshold. We, then, use a series of network metrics to analyze the impact of the linkage threshold on the individual network layers. Moreover, results from the network analysis also provide beneficial information to improve the network visualization. We demonstrate the feasibility and impact of our approach using real-world collaboration data. We discuss how the produced network layers can reveal insights and patterns to direct the data analytics more intelligently. [less ▲]

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See detailPre- and in-service teachers´ attitudes toward students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior.
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2019), 10(327), 1-10

The implementation of inclusive policies is largely dependent on teachers´ willingness to accommodate students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream classrooms, which is affected by their ... [more ▼]

The implementation of inclusive policies is largely dependent on teachers´ willingness to accommodate students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream classrooms, which is affected by their perceived competence and attitudes. This study investigated attitudes of pre- and in-service teachers toward students with two types of SEN: challenging behavior and learning difficulties. The three components of attitude (affective, cognitive, and behavioral) were assessed using indirect and direct measures. Results revealed that teachers held negative implicit attitudes toward challenging behavior and learning difficulties, however implicit attitudes did not vary as a function of the type of SEN. Ratings of the stereotypical dimensions warmth and competence and overall ratings of scholastic achievement were affected by professional status and type of SEN. Professional status, implicit attitudes and stereotypical knowledge together explained 52 and 43% of the variance in teachers´ ratings of academic proficiency for students with challenging behavior and learning difficulties, respectively. Results are interpreted within the theoretical framework and implications for teacher training are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAVATAR: Fixing Semantic Bugs with Fix Patterns of Static Analysis Violations
Liu, Kui UL; Koyuncu, Anil UL; Dongsun, Kim et al

in The 26th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER-2019) (2019, February 24)

Fix pattern-based patch generation is a promising direction in Automated Program Repair (APR). Notably, it has been demonstrated to produce more acceptable and correct patches than the patches obtained ... [more ▼]

Fix pattern-based patch generation is a promising direction in Automated Program Repair (APR). Notably, it has been demonstrated to produce more acceptable and correct patches than the patches obtained with mutation operators through genetic programming. The performance of pattern-based APR systems, however, depends on the fix ingredients mined from fix changes in development histories. Unfortunately, collecting a reliable set of bug fixes in repositories can be challenging. In this paper, we propose to investigate the possibility in an APR scenario of leveraging code changes that address violations by static bug detection tools. To that end, we build the AVATAR APR system, which exploits fix patterns of static analysis violations as ingredients for patch generation. Evaluated on the Defects4J benchmark, we show that, assuming a perfect localization of faults, AVATAR can generate correct patches to fix 34/39 bugs. We further find that AVATAR yields performance metrics that are comparable to that of the closely-related approaches in the literature. While AVATAR outperforms many of the state-of-the-art pattern-based APR systems, it is mostly complementary to current approaches. Overall, our study highlights the relevance of static bug finding tools as indirect contributors of fix ingredients for addressing code defects identified with functional test cases. [less ▲]

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See detailShould You Consider Adware as Malware in Your Study?
Gao, Jun UL; Li, Li; Kong, Pingfan UL et al

in 26th edition of the IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (2019, February 24)

Empirical validations of research approaches eventually require a curated ground truth. In studies related to Android malware, such a ground truth is built by leveraging Anti-Virus (AV) scanning reports ... [more ▼]

Empirical validations of research approaches eventually require a curated ground truth. In studies related to Android malware, such a ground truth is built by leveraging Anti-Virus (AV) scanning reports which are often provided free through online services such as VirusTotal. Unfortunately, these reports do not offer precise information for appropriately and uniquely assigning classes to samples in app datasets: AV engines indeed do not have a consensus on specifying information in labels. Furthermore, labels often mix information related to families, types, etc. In particular, the notion of “adware” is currently blurry when it comes to maliciousness. There is thus a need to thoroughly investigate cases where adware samples can actually be associated with malware (e.g., because they are tagged as adware but could be considered as malware as well). In this work, we present a large-scale analytical study of Android adware samples to quantify to what extent “adware should be considered as malware”. Our analysis is based on the Androzoo repository of 5 million apps with associated AV labels and leverages a state-of-the-art label harmonization tool to infer the malicious type of apps before confronting it against the ad families that each adware app is associated with. We found that all adware families include samples that are actually known to implement specific malicious behavior types. Up to 50% of samples in an ad family could be flagged as malicious. Overall the study demonstrates that adware is not necessarily benign. [less ▲]

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See detailOPTICAL ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY LIMITATIONS OF CU(IN,GA)SE2 GROWN UNDER COPPER EXCESS
Babbe, Finn UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Solar cells made from the compound semiconductor Cu(In,Ga)Se2 reach efficiencies of 22:9 % and are thus even better than multi crystalline silicon solar cells. All world records are achieved using ... [more ▼]

Solar cells made from the compound semiconductor Cu(In,Ga)Se2 reach efficiencies of 22:9 % and are thus even better than multi crystalline silicon solar cells. All world records are achieved using absorber layers with an overall copper deficient composition, but Cu-rich grown samples have multiple favourable properties. However, especially losses in the open circuit voltage limit the device performance. Within this work these efficiency limitations of chalcopyrites grown with copper excess are investigated. The work has been divided into four chapters addressing different scientific questions. (i) Do alkali treatments improve Cu-rich absorber layers? The alkali treatment, which lead to the recent improvements of the efficiency world record, is adapted to CuInSe2 samples with Cu-rich composition. The treatment leads to an improvement of the VOC which originates roughly equally from an improvement of the bulk and the removal of a defect close to the interface. The treatment also improves the VOC of Cu-poor samples. In both cases, the treatment increases the fill factor (FF) and leads to a reduction of copper content at the surface. (ii) Is the VOC limited by deep defects in Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2? A deep defect, which likely limits the VOC, is observed in photoluminescence measurements (PL) independent of a surface treatment. The defect level is proposed to originate from the second charge transition of the CuIn antisite defect (CuIn(-1/-2)). During the investigation also a peak at 0:9 eV is detected and attributed to a DA-transition involving a third acceptor situated (135 ± 10) meV above the valence band. The A3 proposed to originate from the indium vacancy (VIn). Furthermore the defect was detected in admittance measurements and in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 samples with low gallium content. (iii) Is the diode factor intrinsically higher in Cu-rich chalcopyrites? Cu-rich solar cells exhibit larger diode ideality factors which reduce the FF. A direct link between the power law exponent from intensity dependent PL measurements of absorbers and the diode factor of devices is derived and verified using Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se2 samples. This optical diode factor is the same in Cu-rich and Cu-poor samples. (iv) Is the quasi Fermi level splitting (qFLs) of Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers comparable to Cu-poor samples? Measuring the qFLs of passivated Cu-rich and Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se2 samples, on average a 120 meV lower splitting is determined for Cu-rich samples. This difference increases with gallium content and is likely linked to a defect moving deeper into the bandgap, possibly related to the second charge transition of the CuIn antisite defect. Overall, samples with Cu-rich composition are not limited by the diode factor. However, a deep defect band causes recombination lowering the qFLs and thus the VOC. This defect is not removed by alkali treatments. A key component to improve Cu-rich solar cells in the future, especially Cu(In,Ga)Se2, will be to remove or passivate this defect level. [less ▲]

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See detailLa proposition franco-allemande d'un instrument budgétaire pour la zone euro: le "millefeuille" continue
Allemand, Frederic UL

in Revue de l'euro (2019)

Le 22 février 2019, la France et l'Allemagne ont diffusé le texte arrêté en commun la veille sur les principales caractéristiques d'un instrument budgétaire de convergence et de compétitivité pour la zone ... [more ▼]

Le 22 février 2019, la France et l'Allemagne ont diffusé le texte arrêté en commun la veille sur les principales caractéristiques d'un instrument budgétaire de convergence et de compétitivité pour la zone euro. Ce document vise à nourrir les réflexions de l'Eurogroupe sur le sujet, ainsi que le Sommet de la zone euro de décembre 2018 en a chargé ce dernier. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Design of Power Minimizing Symbol-Level Precoder under Channel Uncertainty
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Kayhan, Farbod UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Abu Dhabi 9-13 December 2018 (2019, February 21)

In this paper, we investigate the downlink transmission of a multiuser multiple-input single-output (MISO) channel under a symbol-level precoding (SLP) scheme, having imperfect channel knowledge at the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the downlink transmission of a multiuser multiple-input single-output (MISO) channel under a symbol-level precoding (SLP) scheme, having imperfect channel knowledge at the transmitter. In defining the SLP design problem, a general category of constructive interference regions (CIR) called distance preserving CIR (DPCIR) is adopted. In particular, we are interested in a robust SLP design minimizing the total transmit power subject to individual quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. We consider two common models for the channel uncertainty region, namely, spherical (norm-bounded) and stochastic. For the spherical uncertainty model, a worst-case robust precoder is proposed, while for the stochastically known uncertainties, we derive a convex optimization problem with probabilistic constraints. We simulate the performance of the proposed robust approaches, and compare them with the existing methods. Through the simulation results, we also show that there is an essential trade-off between the two robust approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailHomotopical algebraic context over differential operators
Di Brino, Gennaro; Pistalo, Damjan UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures (2019), 14(1), 293-347

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See detailIndexing for Graph Query Evaluation
Fletcher; Theobald, Martin UL

in Sakr, Sharif; Zomaya, Albert Y. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Big Data Technologies (2019)

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See detailDihedral Universal Deformations
Wiese, Gabor UL

Presentation (2019, February 19)

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See detailHochbegabung – was nun?
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL

Presentation (2019, February 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 270 (3 UL)
See detailDer hybride Historiker. Geschichtsforschung im digitalen Zeitalter
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2019, February 18)

Dieser Vortrag argumentiert für einen hybriden Ansatz der historischen Forschung, der "traditionelle" mit digitalen hermeneutischen Ansätzen in einer neuen geschichtswissenschaftlichen Praxis kombiniert ... [more ▼]

Dieser Vortrag argumentiert für einen hybriden Ansatz der historischen Forschung, der "traditionelle" mit digitalen hermeneutischen Ansätzen in einer neuen geschichtswissenschaftlichen Praxis kombiniert. Da der "digital turn" den gesamten historische Forschungsprozess betrifft und verändert, ist dies eine dringende Herausforderung für alle Historiker, nicht nur für diejenigen, die an "big data" Projekten beteiligt sind. Tatsächlich ist Hybridität "the new normal", sowohl Chance als Herausforderung. Doch während die meisten Historiker in der Phase der Informationsbeschaffung schon digital arbeiten (oft ohne bewusste Reflexion), verzichten sie oft auf digitale Ansätze in der Verarbeitungs- und vor allem in der Analysephase. Digitale Ansätze erweitern aber das methodische Repertoire, das durch “traditionelle” close reading bereitgestellt wird. Hybride Ansätze erweitern so unseren intellektuellen Möglichkeitsraum und das analytische Potential, das wir auf unsere Quellen anwenden. Als Beispiel wird im Vortrag auch kurz erläutert, wie digital Ansätze in die Arbeit an den Tagebüchern von Anne Frank eingeflossen wurden und zeigt somit den Mehrwert ihrer Einbeziehung digitaler Ansätze in alle Phasen der historischen Forschung. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and Improvement of Differential Computation Attacks against Internally-Encoded White-Box Implementations
Rivain, Matthieu UL; Wang, Junwei UL

in IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (2019), 2019(2), 225-255

White-box cryptography is the last security barrier for a cryptographic software implementation deployed in an untrusted environment. The principle of internal encodings is a commonly used white-box ... [more ▼]

White-box cryptography is the last security barrier for a cryptographic software implementation deployed in an untrusted environment. The principle of internal encodings is a commonly used white-box technique to protect block cipher implementations. It consists in representing an implementation as a network of look-up tables which are then encoded using randomly generated bijections (the internal encodings). When this approach is implemented based on nibble (i.e. 4-bit wide) encodings, the protected implementation has been shown to be vulnerable to differential computation analysis (DCA). The latter is essentially an adaptation of differential power analysis techniques to computation traces consisting of runtime information, e.g., memory accesses, of the target software. In order to thwart DCA, it has then been suggested to use wider encodings, and in particular byte encodings, at least to protect the outer rounds of the block cipher which are the prime targets of DCA. In this work, we provide an in-depth analysis of when and why DCA works. We pinpoint the properties of the target variables and the encodings that make the attack (in)feasible. In particular, we show that DCA can break encodings wider than 4-bit, such as byte encodings. Additionally, we propose new DCA-like attacks inspired from side-channel analysis techniques. Specifically, we describe a collision attack particularly effective against the internal encoding countermeasure. We also investigate mutual information analysis (MIA) which naturally applies in this context. Compared to the original DCA, these attacks are also passive and they require very limited knowledge of the attacked implementation, but they achieve significant improvements in terms of trace complexity. All the analyses of our work are experimentally backed up with various attack simulation results. We also verified the practicability of our analyses and attack techniques against a publicly available white-box AES implementation protected with byte encodings –which DCA has failed to break before– and against a “masked” white-box AES implementation –which intends to resist DCA. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Roumanie, une synthèse des diversités
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2019)

Lors de la onzième présidence luxembourgeoise du Conseil de l’UE, l’Europe accueille deux nouveaux membres – la Roumanie et la Bulgarie – qui signent le Traité d’adhésion le 25 avril 2005, à l’Abbaye de ... [more ▼]

Lors de la onzième présidence luxembourgeoise du Conseil de l’UE, l’Europe accueille deux nouveaux membres – la Roumanie et la Bulgarie – qui signent le Traité d’adhésion le 25 avril 2005, à l’Abbaye de Neumünster. En ce début d’année, la Roumanie entame sa première présidence européenne, dont le point d’orgue est le sommet de Sibiu (Hermannstadt) du 9 mai 2019. Si son passé récent est plus connu car souvent présent dans les médias, l’histoire ancienne de la Roumanie, ses affinités multiséculaires avec le Luxembourg et leur héritage culturel commun le sont moins et méritent d’être davantage mis en exergue. [less ▲]

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See detailUne double légende fête ses cent ans
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailThe real problem with Rawlsian reasonableness
Burks, Deven UL

Scientific Conference (2019, February 16)

Rawlsian “reasonableness” has been the object of considerable and varied criticism. Reactions range from its being “loaded” (Stout 2004: 184) or “chimerical” (Young 2005: 308) to “entirely circular” ... [more ▼]

Rawlsian “reasonableness” has been the object of considerable and varied criticism. Reactions range from its being “loaded” (Stout 2004: 184) or “chimerical” (Young 2005: 308) to “entirely circular” (Mulhall and Swift 2003: 483). Yet more critical reactions often employ external standards or equivocal senses of reasonableness to their detriment (Freeman 2004: 2045, 2063-5) or marshal apparently conflicting materials from Rawls’s broader theory (Young 2005, 2006). In this paper, I put forward a narrow, immanent criticism whereon the two basic aspects of reasonableness are shown to be in tension: the “burdens of judgment” may give the person reason to disagree over the need to propose and to abide by a common basis of fair terms of cooperation. My aims in doing so are threefold. First, I try to make sense of and set on firmer ground Stout’s (2004) critique of reasonableness as being epistemologically untenable. My second and third aims stem from the first. The second consists in carving out a middling conceptual space wherein the negation of Rawlsian “reasonableness” is not merely “unreasonable” in the sense of being willing to impose one’s comprehensive doctrine on others as the terms of political justification and coercion (Rawls 1996: 60-1; Freeman 2004: 2049) nor “unreasonable” in the sense of persons’ culpably endorsing a doctrine inconsistent with acceptance of the burdens of judgment (Rawls 2001: 184, 190; Freeman 2004: 2064) but, instead, “reasonably unreasonable” in the sense of the person’s nonculpably or justifiably rejecting the requirement to offer and to abide by fair terms of cooperation in view of the burdens of judgment. Third, I attempt to salvage a minimal core of reasonableness from the two-conjunct Rawlsian reasonableness, a core which contemporary political philosophers are hard-pressed to do without: the second conjunct consisting in the person’s acknowledgement of the burdens of judgment (Rawls 1996: 54-8). To that end, I proceed in two steps. First, I shall recall the two aspects of reasonableness and hold that their conjunction is necessary for a person to qualify as “reasonable”. In particular, this involves showing that a biconditional obtains: a person is reasonable if and only if the two basic aspects of reasonableness obtain, i.e. if and only if she is willing to propose fair terms of cooperation and she is willing to recognize the burdens of judgment. I also briefly define the site wherefrom one checks a person’s reasonableness: the “you and me” standpoint (Rawls 1996: 28). Secondly, I shall examine whether any burden gives reason to doubt the need to propose and to abide by a common basis of fair terms of cooperation. I find that each of the burdens, in its own way, leaves room to doubt whether reasonable persons in a well-ordered society would assent to such a need. For the first burden (complexity of evidence), the evidence backing the requirement of shared terms of cooperation defined ex ante is not obviously less complex than that contained in reasonable comprehensive doctrines. Regarding the second (relative weight of reasons), even supposing agreement on which reasons are relevant to deciding questions of justice, there may be still be disagreement over the relative priority of those reasons in deciding a given question. As to the third (conceptual indeterminacy and hard cases), such concepts as justice and fairness, cooperation and equality are all subject to the difficulties of identifying hard cases and probing a concept’s limits. Of the fourth (divergent total life experience), it is clear that, through her life experience, a person acquires a set of beliefs (political, moral, epistemological, religious, etc.) which could give the person reason to doubt or otherwise reject the first basic aspect of reasonableness, especially given its significant complexity. Finally, for the fifth burden (conflicting distinct normative considerations), persons may disagree over whether the first basic aspect in fact realizes these different considerations, the priority ordering to be fixed for such considerations and whether a common currency might be found so as to make such considerations commensurable, any of which may suffice for persons to be unable to reach agreement on the requirement, not simply on the reasons why it holds, but also on whether it holds at all. In reaching these findings, I parallel Clarke’s (1999: 639-41) claim that the burdens of judgment apply both to contractarianism’s “reasonable rejection procedure” and principles but do so from narrower, immanent grounds rather than the stronger claim that Rawls’s approach must be committed to substantive epistemological positions. This analysis yields two striking conclusions: First, public reason – the demand to present others with reasons which the person could reasonably expect them to accept – becomes looser and shifts to the domain of politics where one sees what public reasons others may in fact accept (Laden 2001). Seen from a different angle, one need not accept the idea that the first basic aspect and, hence, Rawlsian reasonableness are necessary conditions of political justification under conditions of reasonable pluralism (contra Krasnoff 2014: 696-7): rejecting this aspect and reasonableness in no way means that there can be no political justification under conditions of (reasonable) pluralism. Second, when conceiving justification and discourse, Rawls may be committed, despite himself, to accepting “reasonableness pluralism”, i.e. the view that there exist distinct, possibly irreconcilable accounts of reasonableness to which one may appeal when conceiving justification and discourse. Their combination may lead to a public reason liberalism framework which is at once looser and more actionable. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Interpretation of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in 1,330 Disease-Associated Genes
Iqbal, Sumaiya; Jespersen, Jakob Berg; Perez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Biophysical Journal (2019, February 15), 116(3), 420-421

Elucidating molecular consequences of amino-acid-altering missense variants at scale is challenging. In this work, we explored whether features derived from three-dimensional (3D) protein structures can ... [more ▼]

Elucidating molecular consequences of amino-acid-altering missense variants at scale is challenging. In this work, we explored whether features derived from three-dimensional (3D) protein structures can characterize patient missense variants across different protein classes with similar molecular level activities. The identified disease-associated features can advance our understanding of how a single amino acid substitution can lead to the etiology of monogenic disorders. For 1,330 disease-associated genes (>80%, 1,077/1,330 implicated in Mendelian disorders), we collected missense variants from the general population (gnomAD database, N=164,915) and patients (ClinVar and HGMD databases, N=32,923). We in silico mapped the variant positions onto >14k human protein 3D structures. We annotated the protein positions of variants with 40 structural, physiochemical, and functional features. We then grouped the genes into 24 protein classes based on their molecular functions and performed statistical association analyses with the features of population and patient variants. We identified 18 (out of 40) features that are associated with patient variants in general. Specifically, patient variants are less exposed to solvent (p<1.0e-100), enriched on b-sheets (p<2.37e-39), frequently mutate aromatic residues (p<1.0e-100), occur in ligand binding sites (p<1.0e-100) and are spatially close to phosphorylation sites (p<1.0e-100). We also observed differential protein-class-specific features. For three protein classes (signaling molecules, proteases and hydrolases), patient variants significantly perturb the disulfide bonds (p<1.0e-100). Only in immunity proteins, patient variants are enriched in flexible coils (p<1.65e-06). Kinases and cell junction proteins exhibit enrichment of patient variants around SUMOylation (p<1.0e-100) and methylation sites (p<9.29e-11), respectively. In summary, we studied shared and unique features associated with patient variants on protein structure across 24 protein classes, providing novel mechanistic insights. We generated an online resource that contains amino-acid-wise feature annotation-track for 1,330 genes, summarizes the patient-variant-associated features on residue level, and can guide variant interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailMany ways to resistance: How melanoma cells evade targeted therapies
Kozar, Ines UL; Margue, Christiane UL; Rothengatter, Sonja et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer (2019), 1871(2), 313-322

Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy originating from pigment-producing melanocytes. The development of targeted therapies (MAPK pathway inhibitors) and immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) led ... [more ▼]

Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy originating from pigment-producing melanocytes. The development of targeted therapies (MAPK pathway inhibitors) and immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) led to a substantial improvement in overall survival of patients. However, the long-term efficacy of such treatments is limited by side effects, lack of clinical effects and the rapidly emerging resistance to treatment. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying this resistant phenotype have already been elucidated. In this review, we summarise currently available treatment options for metastatic melanoma and the known resistance mechanisms to targeted therapies. A focus will be placed on “phenotype switching” as a mechanism and driver of drug resistance, together with an overview of novel approaches to circumvent resistance. A large body of recent data and literature suggests that tumour progression and phenotype switching could be better controlled and development of resistance prevented or at least delayed, by combining drugs targeting fast- and slow-proliferating cells. [less ▲]

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