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See detailEvaluation of End-To-End Learning for Autonomous Driving: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Varisteas, Georgios UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Sajadi Alamdari, Seyed Amin UL et al

in 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Singapore, Feb. 28 to Mar. 2, 2019 (2019, March 01)

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See detailMal die Sichtweise wechseln
Ganschow, Inna UL; Montebrusco, Lucien

Article for general public (2019)

Wenn politische Interessen Länder und Menschen auseinandertreiben, müssen Letztere sich bemühen, zusammenzufinden. Ihren akademischen Beitrag dazu leisten die Universitäten von Luxemburg und Tambow ... [more ▼]

Wenn politische Interessen Länder und Menschen auseinandertreiben, müssen Letztere sich bemühen, zusammenzufinden. Ihren akademischen Beitrag dazu leisten die Universitäten von Luxemburg und Tambow. Interview mit Studierenden und Lehrenden des interdisziplinären Seminars "Russland und Luxemburg an den Kreuzungen der Geschichte". [less ▲]

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See detailRT-ByzCast: Byzantine-Resilient Real-Time Reliable Broadcast
Kozhaya, David; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Verissimo, Paulo UL

in IEEE Transactions on Computers (2019), 68(3),

Today’s cyber-physical systems face various impediments to achieving their intended goals, namely, communication uncertainties and faults, relative to the increased integration of networked and wireless ... [more ▼]

Today’s cyber-physical systems face various impediments to achieving their intended goals, namely, communication uncertainties and faults, relative to the increased integration of networked and wireless devices, hinder the synchronism needed to meet real-time deadlines. Moreover, being critical, these systems are also exposed to significant security threats. This threat combination increases the risk of physical damage. This paper addresses these problems by studying how to build the first real-time Byzantine reliable broadcast protocol (RTBRB) tolerating network uncertainties, faults, and attacks. Previous literature describes either real-time reliable broadcast protocols, or asynchronous (non real-time) Byzantine ones. We first prove that it is impossible to implement RTBRB using traditional distributed computing paradigms, e.g., where the error/failure detection mechanisms of processes are decoupled from the broadcast algorithm itself, even with the help of the most powerful failure detectors. We circumvent this impossibility by proposing RT-ByzCast, an algorithm based on aggregating digital signatures in a sliding time-window and on empowering processes with self-crashing capabilities to mask and bound losses. We show that RT-ByzCast (i) operates in real-time by proving that messages broadcast by correct processes are delivered within a known bounded delay, and (ii) is reliable by demonstrating that correct processes using our algorithm crash themselves with a negligible probability, even with message loss rates as high as 60%. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Encryption, Extended
Geraud, Remi; Naccache, David; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Matsui, Mitsuru (Ed.) The Cryptographers' Track at the RSA Conference 2019, San Francisco, CA, USA, March 4–8, 2019, Proceedings (2019, March 01)

Robustness is a notion often tacitly assumed while working with encrypted data. Roughly speaking, it states that a ciphertext cannot be decrypted under different keys. Initially formalized in a public-key ... [more ▼]

Robustness is a notion often tacitly assumed while working with encrypted data. Roughly speaking, it states that a ciphertext cannot be decrypted under different keys. Initially formalized in a public-key context, it has been further extended to key-encapsulation mechanisms, and more recently to pseudorandom functions, message authentication codes and authenticated encryption. In this work, we motivate the importance of establishing similar guarantees for functional encryption schemes, even under adversarially generated keys. Our main security notion is intended to capture the scenario where a ciphertext obtained under a master key (corresponding to Authority 1) is decrypted by functional keys issued under a different master key (Authority 2). Furthermore, we show there exist simple functional encryption schemes where robustness under adversarial key-generation is not achieved. As a secondary and independent result, we formalize robustness for digital signatures – a signature should not verify under multiple keys – and point out that certain signature schemes are not robust when the keys are adversarially generated. We present simple, generic transforms that turn a scheme into a robust one, while maintaining the original scheme’s security. For the case of public-key functional encryption, we look into ciphertext anonymity and provide a transform achieving it. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy policies for eco-friendly households in Luxembourg—a study based on the LuxHEI model
Poncin, Stéphane Louis Maxim UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the residential building sector is a major energy consumer and greenhouse gases emitter that is considered key in achieving the country's climate goals. The purpose of ... [more ▼]

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the residential building sector is a major energy consumer and greenhouse gases emitter that is considered key in achieving the country's climate goals. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of the most important policy instruments in achieving savings in the final energy consumption and direct CO2 emissions of Luxembourgish households. Our study is based on the LuxHEI model, which is an enhanced and upgraded version of the well-known French simulation model Res-IRF. This variant has been adjusted to the particular problems of a small country with growing economy and a quickly increasing population. The LuxHEI model goes beyond standard energy-economy models by incorporating global warming as a decision-making factor. The model outcomes reveal that total environmental and economic effectiveness increases if energy policy tools are applied concurrently. In 2060, and compared to the no-policy baseline scenario, the most aspirational policy mix enables energy savings of 42% and an emission mitigation of 60%. From our results we can draw the following policy implications: for a significant improvement of the sector's energy efficiency and sufficiency, (1) the implementation of a remediation duty for existing buildings and (2) the tightening of the performance standards for new constructions, (3) combined with a national carbon tax, are crucial. [less ▲]

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See detailAchievable Data Rate of DCT-based Multicarrier Modulation Systems
Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Sergio Ramirez Diniz, Paulo et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2019), 18(3), 1739-1749

This paper aims at studying the achievable data rate of discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based multicarrier modulation (MCM) systems. To this end, a general formulation is presented for the full ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at studying the achievable data rate of discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based multicarrier modulation (MCM) systems. To this end, a general formulation is presented for the full transmission/reception process of data in Type-II even DCT and Type-IV even DCT-based systems. The paper focuses on the use of symmetric extension (SE) and zero padding (ZP) as redundancy methods. Furthermore, three cases related to the channel order and the length of the redundancy are studied. In the first case, the channel order is less than or equal to the length of the redundancy. In the second and third cases, the channel order is greater than the length of the redundancy; the interference caused by the channel impulse response is calculated, and theoretical expressions for their powers are derived. These expressions allow studying the achievable data rate of DCT-based MCM systems, besides enabling the comparison with the conventional MCM based on the discrete Fourier Transform. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslingual Discursive Spaces in Language and Arts Lessons
Degano, Sarah UL

in Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (2019, March), 10(1), 3094-3102

Flexible multilingual pedagogies such as translanguaging pedagogies are promising stepping stones towards a more equitable access to educational resources for students of different backgrounds. Recent ... [more ▼]

Flexible multilingual pedagogies such as translanguaging pedagogies are promising stepping stones towards a more equitable access to educational resources for students of different backgrounds. Recent research in Luxembourgish preschool, Year 1 and Year 2 classes, show that teachers have begun to implement such pedagogies by encouraging the deployment of the students’ full linguistic repertoires, including their home languages. Little attention has however been paid to the later years of primary school where the achievement gap between students with and without a migration background is particularly high. The present qualitative longitudinal study focusses on students in Years 4 and 5 and examines to what extent they deploy their linguistic repertoires in interaction with their peers. Drawing on observations, recordings and interviews, this paper explores the language use of two Portuguese-speaking 4th graders in Language and Arts lessons. Findings show that the students mobilize their linguistic and cultural resources to different extents and, hereby, open or close translingual discursive spaces for further exchange. The findings should contribute to the understanding of multilingual students’ language practices and provide insight into how their linguistic and cultural resources can be capitalized on. [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporating trip chaining within online demand estimation
Cantelmo, Guido; Qurashi, Moeid; Prakash, Arun et al

in Transportation Research. Part B, Methodological (2019)

Time-dependent Origin–Destination (OD) demand flows are fundamental inputs for Dy- namic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems and real-time traffic management. This work in- troduces a novel state-space ... [more ▼]

Time-dependent Origin–Destination (OD) demand flows are fundamental inputs for Dy- namic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems and real-time traffic management. This work in- troduces a novel state-space framework to estimate these demand flows in an online con- text. Specifically, we propose to explicitly include trip-chaining behavior within the state- space formulation, which is solved using the well-established Kalman Filtering technique. While existing works already consider structural information and recursive behavior within the online demand estimation problem, this information has been always considered at the OD level. In this study, we introduce this structural information by explicitly representing trip-chaining within the estimation framework. The advantage is twofold. First, all trips belonging to the same tour can be jointly calibrated. Second, given the estimation during a certain time interval, a prediction of the structural deviation over the whole day can be obtained without the need to run additional simulations. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated first on a toy network and then on a large real-world net- work. Results show that the model improves the prediction performance with respect to a conventional Kalman Filtering approach. We also show that, on the basis of the estimation of the morning commute, the model can be used to predict the evening commute without need of running additional simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailShape optimization of structures with cutouts by an efficient approach based on XIGA and chaotic particle swarm optimization
Wang, Chao; Yu, Tiantang; Shao, Guojian et al

in European Journal of Mechanics. A, Solids (2019), 74

Structural shape optimization is one important and crucial step in the design and analysis of many engineering applications as it aims to improve structural characteristics, i.e., reducing stress ... [more ▼]

Structural shape optimization is one important and crucial step in the design and analysis of many engineering applications as it aims to improve structural characteristics, i.e., reducing stress concentration and structural weight, or improving the stiffness, by changing the structural boundary geometries. The goal of this paper is to present an efficient approach, which goes beyond limitations of conventional methods, by combining extended isogeometric analysis (XIGA) and chaotic particle swarm optimization algorithm for shape optimization of structures with cutouts. In this setting, mechanical response of structures with cutouts is derived by the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and enrichment techniques. The computational mesh is hence independent of the cutout geometry, irrelevant to the cutout shape during the optimization process, representing one of the key features of the present work over classical methods. The control points describing the boundary geometries are defined as design variables in this study. The design model, analysis model, and optimization model are uniformly described with the NURBS, providing easy communication among the three aforementioned models, resulting in a smooth optimized boundary. The chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm is employed for conducting the optimization analysis. Apart from that, the CPSO has some advantages as it includes: (i) its structure is simple and easy to implement; (ii) without the need for the complicated sensitivity analysis as compared with the traditional gradient-based optimization methods; and (iii) effectively escaping from the local optimum. The accuracy and performance of the developed method are underlined by means of several representative 2-D shape optimization examples. [less ▲]

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See detailBig Moves of Mutual Funds
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Eurasian Economic Review (2019), 9(1), 1-27

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See detailArpanet (1969-2019)
Paloque-Bergès, Camille; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2019), 3(1),

This special issue, which includes a translation of part of the conclusion of Serres’ thesis on the emergence of ARPANET (a work which is relatively unknown in the English-speaking community), two ... [more ▼]

This special issue, which includes a translation of part of the conclusion of Serres’ thesis on the emergence of ARPANET (a work which is relatively unknown in the English-speaking community), two original articles and two interviews, is linked to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the ARPANET and the desire to reconsider, 50 years on, the birth of this heterogeneous network that has left such a deep mark on the history of data networks. If we consider ARPANET as a first step towards the Internet, how did it determine – and how does it continue to determine – our current understanding of the Internet? What is left to explore and discover in ARPANET’s history? And if ARPANET is dead today, are its legacy and spirit still alive, and if so, in what way? While the few texts collected are of course not intended to provide all the answers, we hope that they will at least give food for thought. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmful Tax Competition from the European Union towards Third Countries?
Haslehner, Werner UL; Schwarz, Paloma

in Martín Jiménez, Adolfo (Ed.) The External Tax Strategy of the EU in a Post-BEPS Environment (2019)

The European Union does not have a harmonized – let alone centralized – tax system that offers specific tax incentives. It also does not explicitly regulate tax competition of its constituent parts (the ... [more ▼]

The European Union does not have a harmonized – let alone centralized – tax system that offers specific tax incentives. It also does not explicitly regulate tax competition of its constituent parts (the EU Member States) with third countries, but only regulates “internal tax competition” among them, through the mechanism of the Code of Conduct and, even more strongly, by prohibiting State aid from being granted through tax measures. The question asked by the title of this chapter thus seems to be easily answerable in the negative: since the European Union does not make external tax policies for its Member States and does not itself provide specific tax incentives, it is not an agent of tax competition. Consequently, it would be challenging to argue that the European Union engages in harmful tax competition towards third countries. Taking a broader view, however, the notion that the European Union may engage in harmful tax competition may not be so easily dismissed, as it takes regulatory action that impacts Member States as primary agents of tax competition in a variety of ways, which can either improve or reduce the Member States’ and, by extension the European Union’s competitive position vis-à-vis third countries. Such impact takes three different routes: (i) primary EU law, affecting the design of domestic tax incentives; (ii) secondary EU law, determining certain kinds of tax incentives; and (iii) soft-law instruments, affecting domestic tax design. This contribution aims at analysing these three routes of tax competition of the European Union in order to get a deeper understanding of the ways in which the European Union may be said to engage in harmful tax competition. Before the different models can be analysed in this light, however, it is first necessary to enquire into the nature of “harmful tax competition”, a term that is all too often used without a clear definition of its content. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Grenzgänger. Überlegungen zu einem Gegenwartsphänomen.
Wille, Christian UL

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailLänderbericht Luxemburg: Koordination und Transfer nationaler Bildungsforschung
Lamy, Christian; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Presentation (2019, March)

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See detailIgnorance, Debt and Cryptocurrencies: The Old and the New in the Law and Economics of Concurrent Currencies
Nabilou, Hossein UL; Prüm, André UL

in Journal of Financial Regulation (2019), 5(1), 1-35

Cryptocurrencies are expected to have a significant impact on banking, finance, and monetary systems. Due to uncertainty as to the possible future trajectories of the evolving cryptocurrency ecosystem ... [more ▼]

Cryptocurrencies are expected to have a significant impact on banking, finance, and monetary systems. Due to uncertainty as to the possible future trajectories of the evolving cryptocurrency ecosystem, governments have taken a relatively hands-off approach to regulating such currencies. This approach may be justified within the theoretical information-economics framework of this paper, which draws parallels between the information economics of money and quasi-money creation within the current central banking, commercial banking and shadow banking systems with that of the cryptocurrency ecosystem. In particular, drawing lessons from the literature on the role of information in creating ‘safe assets’, this paper finds that by building on symmetric (common) knowledge as to the inner workings of the Bitcoin Blockchain - though in a different way - bitcoin possesses a degree of endogenous information insensitivity typical of safe assets. This endogenous information insensitivity could support bitcoin’s promise of maturing into a viable store of value and a niche medium of exchange. This finding should not be overlooked in the policy discussions for potential future regulatory interventions in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailCase Law Highlights September - December 2018
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Revue de Droit Fiscal (2019), (2), 34-39

This overview discusses recent judgments in Luxembourg tax law. Presented cases relate to the interpretation of the minimum holding period in the participation exemption regime and its tax procedural ... [more ▼]

This overview discusses recent judgments in Luxembourg tax law. Presented cases relate to the interpretation of the minimum holding period in the participation exemption regime and its tax procedural implications for the request of a withholding tax refund; the informal appeal procedure (recours gracieux) with regard to a company manager’s liability in respect of withholding obligations of the company; the interpretation of article 50bis LIR; the exchange of information on request in tax matters; the deduction of social security expenses as special expenses and the implications for employees with regard to the employer’s failure to withhold wage tax; and the tax treatment of equity-tainted loans as well as the binding character of information provided by the tax administration. [less ▲]

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See detailOn a Software-Defined CAN Controller for Embedded Systems
Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting UL et al

in Computer Standards & Interfaces (2019), 63

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The ... [more ▼]

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The recent standardization of CAN with flexible data rate (CAN FD), as well as other academic proposals, have highlighted the usefulness of enhancing the CAN physical and data link layers to attain better performance and other features. This paper describes a portable software-defined CAN controller called SDCC. Besides being handy as a research tool for experimenting with novel protocol concepts at the data link layer, SDCC is also fully capable of real-time execution. Hence, it can interact with real-world CAN devices through a physical bus interface. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational mobility in Europe: Home ownership as a facet of social reproduction?
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

Scientific Conference (2019, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (4 UL)