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See detailIdentifier, contrôler, réprimer. L'impact de 14-18 sur la circulation des personnes
Scuto, Denis UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailBildungswerte und Schulentfremdung: Institutions- und Kompositionseffekte in den Bildungskontexten Luxemburgs und der Schweiz
Scharf, Jan UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Values and attitudes towards schooling – as the core concepts of this research – are increasingly recognized as important factors affecting educational achievement and attainment. Values of Education (VoE ... [more ▼]

Values and attitudes towards schooling – as the core concepts of this research – are increasingly recognized as important factors affecting educational achievement and attainment. Values of Education (VoE) are conceptualised along the five instrumental goals outlined in the social production function theory by Lindenberg (1991; Ormel et al., 1999). School alienation (SAL) is defined as negative attitudes towards academic domains of schooling, namely teachers and learning (Hascher & Hadjar, 2018: 179). Based on the assumption that SAL depicts a process intensified over the course of secondary education (Finn, 1989), this dissertation finds evidence for developmental trends between grade seven and grade eight comparatively across country settings and to show how educational contexts and the perceived VoE affect SAL. This sociological study provides an in-depth comparison of the stratified school systems of Luxembourg and of the Canton of Berne (Switzerland) based upon newly-collected panel data of the international research project School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg (SASAL) (N = 465/508). Following the distinction of primary and secondary effects of social origin by Boudon (1974), these core concepts are discussed in the frames of Bourdieu’s (1982 [1979], 1992) habitus theory, emphasizing the transmission of cultural capital in families, and of rational choice approaches (e.g. Esser, 1999). Moreover, theoretical approaches on disparities structured by gender (e.g. Breen et al., 2010) and migration background (Kristen & Dollmann, 2010) as well as further axes of educational inequalities are considered to explain found differences in students’ educational values and attitudes towards schooling. The validation of the measurement instrument of VoE by means of factor analysis indicates four dimensions of VoE among school students in these contexts: stimulation as an intrinsic value, comfort and status related to standards of living and future career goals, behavioural confirmation in terms of expectations of significant others, and the social goal affection. Structural equation models demonstrate that the lower value of stimulation through education among boys mediates their higher level of SAL across country contexts. Yet, a higher value of comfort/status among students increases the development of negative attitudes. Whereas immigrant students’ higher behavioural confirmation in the Canton of Bern backs the immigrant optimism thesis (Kao & Tienda, 1995), immigrant students in Luxembourg reveal a general lower VoE and are more alienated from teachers. Contextual effects estimated in multilevel models explain the higher prevalence of alienation from learning in Luxembourgish classrooms. Within the stratified and segregated secondary schooling, students in the academic track are more alienated compared to students in technical secondary education. This result contradicts the differentiation–polarization theory (Van Houtte, 2006) in the context of Luxembourg. On the other hand, in Berne, alienation from learning does not differ between school tracks, but is overall lower in the less segregated, more permeable schools. Classroom composition effects, however, show no clear pattern. In line with prior research, alienation from learning is lower in Luxembourgish classrooms with a higher percentage of immigrant students. With regard to the consequences of SAL, the results show a negative impact of alienation from learning on school achievement in both country settings. Deriving implications, the findings provide some arguments in favour of comprehensive school models. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation Laws in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics: Stochastic Processes, Chemical Reaction Networks, and Information Processing
Rao, Riccardo UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Thermodynamics has a long history. It was established during the 19th century as a phenomenological theory grasping the principles underlying heat engines. In the 20th and 21st centuries its range of ... [more ▼]

Thermodynamics has a long history. It was established during the 19th century as a phenomenological theory grasping the principles underlying heat engines. In the 20th and 21st centuries its range of applicability was extended to nonequilibrium stochastic and chemical processes. However a systematic procedure to identify the thermodynamic forces at work in these systems was lacking. In this thesis, we provide one by making use of conservation laws. Of particular importance are the conservation laws which are broken when putting the system in contact with different reservoirs (thermostats or chemostats). These laws depend on the internal structure of the system and are specific to each system. We introduce a systematic procedure to identify them and show how they shape the entropy production (i.e. the dissipation) into fundamental contributions. Each of these provides precious insight on how to drive and control the system out of equilibrium. We first present our results at the level of phenomenological thermodynamics. We then show that they can be systematically derived for various dynamics: Markov jump processes used in stochastic thermodynamics, also including the chemical master equation, and deterministic chemical rate equations with and without diffusion, which are used to describe chemical reaction networks. Generalized nonequilibrium Landauer principles ensue form our theory. They predict that the minimal thermodynamic cost necessary to transform the system from an arbitrary nonequilibrium state to another can be expressed in terms of information metrics such as relative entropies between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Geschichte des Radios im Osten Belgiens (1920-1980)
Sproten, Vitus UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
See detail(Dis-)Continuities and Disruptions in Young People’s Transitions out of Residential and Foster Care
Göbel, Sabrina UL

Scientific Conference (2018, October 05)

The project “TransCare. Young People's Transitions out of Residential and Foster Care” of the University of Luxembourg focuses on researching the achievement of agency in constellations of transitions ... [more ▼]

The project “TransCare. Young People's Transitions out of Residential and Foster Care” of the University of Luxembourg focuses on researching the achievement of agency in constellations of transitions. One part of the project sheds a light on former care leaver’s perspectives on their transition processes out of institutional care settings. Therefore, it looks at the experiences of young people themselves.The retrospective and biographical interviews with people who had left the care system, three to seven years ago, give us the opportunity to reconstruct different forms and patterns of transition. On closer inspection, the analysis of the interviews reveals many disruptions, discontinuities, turning points and overlays in the trajectories of the young people already within the care system. There are multiple breaks that influence transitions in other systems, e.g. in the system of education. This leads to various challenges and uncertainties that respondents face. Moreover, in phases of transition specific constructions and changes of affiliation/belongings appear to be handled by the young people. The biographical approach shows in which dimensions young people positioning themselves towards their own person and the institutional setting. It also illustrates in which ways the former care leavers experience themselves in various ways as agentic subjects in their transitions and which conditions and resources play a role in this process of leaving an institutional organized setting. By contrasting the interviews, the reconstructive analysis reveals the relevance of belongings and social relations in leaving care processes. It is asking “how, in a context of increasingly fluid, unstable and mobile lives, young people build meaning through their connections with people and places over time” (Cuervo & Wyn 2017, p. 220) and how different ways and forms of agency are achieved during transition processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAppunti di storia dell'immigrazione italiana a Lussemburgo
Scuto, Denis UL

Presentation (2018, October 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 UL)
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See detailA new ALK isoform transported by extracellular vesicles confers drug resistance to melanoma cells
Cesi, Giulia; Philippidou, Demetra UL; Kozar, Ines UL et al

in Molecular Cancer (2018), (17:145),

Abstract BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains an unsolved clinical issue in oncology. Despite promising initial responses obtained with BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors, resistance to treatment develops ... [more ▼]

Abstract BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains an unsolved clinical issue in oncology. Despite promising initial responses obtained with BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors, resistance to treatment develops within months in virtually all melanoma patients. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and resistant cell lines to identify changes in the transcriptome that might play a role in resistance. siRNA approaches and kinase inhibitors were used to assess the involvement of the identified Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in drug resistance. The capability of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to transfer drug resistant properties was investigated in co-culture assays. RESULTS: Here, we report a new mechanism of acquired drug resistance involving the activation of a novel truncated form of ALK. Knock down or inhibition of ALK re-sensitised resistant cells to BRAF inhibition and induced apoptosis. Interestingly, truncated ALK was also secreted into EVs and we show that EVs were the vehicle for transferring drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the functional involvement of EVs in melanoma drug resistance by transporting a truncated but functional form of ALK, able to activate the MAPK signalling pathway in target cells. Combined inhibition of ALK and BRAF dramatically reduced tumour growth in vivo. These findings make ALK a promising clinical target in melanoma patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (27 UL)
See detailDH Master Class
Lucchesi, Anita UL; König, Maraike

Presentation (2018, October 04)

Guest lecturer at DH Master Class 2018 (October 4th, DHIP-IHA, Paris), full day workshop with an introduction of a tool kit for digital public history, followed by hands-on work in group

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 UL)
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See detailReport: The European Commission's e-Evidence Proposal
Robinson, Gavin UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2018), 4(3), 347-352

In April 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative package intended to enable, foster and formalise cross-border access by national judicial authorities to electronic evidence controlled by ... [more ▼]

In April 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative package intended to enable, foster and formalise cross-border access by national judicial authorities to electronic evidence controlled by private service providers.1 In particular the public-private character of the ‘cooperation’ envisaged in the proposed set-up raises several questions at the interface of criminal procedure and data protection law. This report provides a brief overview of the proposed EUlegislation and an introduction to themost salient attendant legal and policy-related issues. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (13 UL)
See detailModels for reusage and recycling of architecture
Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL

Scientific Conference (2018, October 04)

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See detailThe Significance of the Place of Performance in Commercial Contracts under the European Union Choice of Law Rules
Okoli, Chukwuma UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The central theme of this thesis is that the place of performance is of considerable significance as a connecting factor in international commercial contracts. This thesis challenges and questions the ... [more ▼]

The central theme of this thesis is that the place of performance is of considerable significance as a connecting factor in international commercial contracts. This thesis challenges and questions the approach of the European legislator, which does not explicitly give the place of performance special significance in the determination of the applicable law in the absence of choice for commercial contracts. This thesis proposes that the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. Second, it is argued that the absolute significance given to the place of performance in determining foreign country overriding mandatory rules is a good reason why the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. Third, inspired by the coherence between matters of European Union jurisdiction and choice of law in civil and commercial matters, it is argued that the place of performance which is given special significance under the European Union rules on the allocation of jurisdiction for commercial contracts is a good reason why the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. This thesis then concludes by proposing a model revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation that could be used as an international solution by legislators, judges, arbitrators, and other decision makers who wish to reform their choice of law rules in determining the applicable law in the absence of choice for international commercial contracts. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative Food Networks in Luxembourg
Reckinger, Rachel UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

Dr. Rachel Reckinger is a food sociologist and anthropologist at the University of Luxembourg. She is the principal investigator of Sustainable Food Practices, spanning Luxembourg’s foodscape from ... [more ▼]

Dr. Rachel Reckinger is a food sociologist and anthropologist at the University of Luxembourg. She is the principal investigator of Sustainable Food Practices, spanning Luxembourg’s foodscape from production, governance, distribution to consumption. Her research focuses on policy gaps and changes of everyday practices within the transition towards a more circular economy (https://food.uni.lu). During this lunch debate, she will critically discuss a few emerging alternative food networks in Luxembourg: currently still a heterodox minority, they contribute to a cultural shift with the creation of resourcefulness for biodiversity, environmental and social justice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Levodopa Response Trial and the Parkinson Disease Digital Biomarker Challenge: Monitoring symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the lab and home using wearable sensors
Daneault, J.; Vergara-Diaz, G.; Costante, G. et al

in Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2018, October 03), 33(S2), 525

Objective: To leverage a community of researchers and shared wearable data to develop algorithms to estimate the severity of PD specific symptoms. Background: People with Parkinson’s disease (PwPD) often ... [more ▼]

Objective: To leverage a community of researchers and shared wearable data to develop algorithms to estimate the severity of PD specific symptoms. Background: People with Parkinson’s disease (PwPD) often experience fluctuations in motor symptom severity. Wearable sensors have the potential to help clinicians monitor symptoms over time, outside the clinic. However, to gather accurate and clinically-relevant measures, there is a need to develop robust algorithms based on clinically- labelled data. Methods: The Levodopa Response Trial captured three-axis acceleration from two wrist-worn sensors and a smartphone located at the waist from 29 PwPD continuously over 4 days. On day 1, in an in-clinic visit, participants performed clinical assessments and motor tasks on their regular medication regimen. During these visits, a clinician also provided symptom severity scores for tremor, bradykinesia, and dyskinesia. On days 2 & 3, sensor data was collected while participants were at home. On day 4, participants returned to the clinic for the same assessments as day 1, but arrived without having taken their medication for at least 10 hours. Leveraging this dataset, Sage Bionetworks, the Michael J Fox Foundation and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation launched the PD Digital Biomarker DREAM Challenge which made a subset of the data available to researchers to develop robust and accurate algorithms for the estimation of specific symptoms’ severity. Results: Teams participating in the challenge used several technical approaches, from signal processing to deep learning. 35 submissions were received for the estimation of action tremor severity. Teams achieved an area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR) of 0.444 to 0.75. As for dyskinesia during movement, 37 submissions were received and the teams achieved an AUPR of 0.175 to 0.477. Finally, 39 submissions were received for the estimation of bradykinesia and the teams achieved an AUPR of 0.413 to 0.95. Null expectations for the testing datasets were 0.432, 0.195, and 0.266, respectively. Conclusions: Making datasets available to the community leverages the creativity of different groups to develop robust and accurate algorithms for the estimation of PD symptom severity. This will lead to better quality and interpretability of data collected in unsupervised settings within the community. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating Vulnerability Prediction Models
Jimenez, Matthieu UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Today almost every device depends on a piece of software. As a result, our life increasingly depends on some software form such as smartphone apps, laundry machines, web applications, computers ... [more ▼]

Today almost every device depends on a piece of software. As a result, our life increasingly depends on some software form such as smartphone apps, laundry machines, web applications, computers, transportation and many others, all of which rely on software. Inevitably, this dependence raises the issue of software vulnerabilities and their possible impact on our lifestyle. Over the years, researchers and industrialists suggested several approaches to detect such issues and vulnerabilities. A particular popular branch of such approaches, usually called Vulnerability Prediction Modelling (VPM) techniques, leverage prediction modelling techniques that flag suspicious (likely vulnerable) code components. These techniques rely on source code features as indicators of vulnerabilities to build the prediction models. However, the emerging question is how effective such methods are and how they can be used in practice. The present dissertation studies vulnerability prediction models and evaluates them on real and reliable playground. To this end, it suggests a toolset that automatically collects real vulnerable code instances, from major open source systems, suitable for applying VPM. These code instances are then used to analyze, replicate, compare and develop new VPMs. Specifically, the dissertation has 3 main axes: The first regards the analysis of vulnerabilities. Indeed, to build VPMs accurately, numerous data are required. However, by their nature, vulnerabilities are scarce and the information about them is spread over different sources (NVD, Git, Bug Trackers). Thus, the suggested toolset (develops an automatic way to build a large dataset) enables the reliable and relevant analysis of VPMs. The second axis focuses on the empirical comparison and analysis of existing Vulnerability Prediction Models. It thus develops and replicates existing VPMs. To this end, the thesis introduces a framework that builds, analyse and compares existing prediction models (using the already proposed sets of features) using the dataset developed on the first axis. The third axis explores the use of cross-entropy (metric used by natural language processing) as a potential feature for developing new VPMs. Cross-entropy, usually referred to as the naturalness of code, is a recent approach that measures the repetitiveness of code (relying on statistical models). Using cross-entropy, the thesis investigates different ways of building and using VPMs. Overall, this thesis provides a fully-fledge study on Vulnerability Prediction Models aiming at assessing and improving their performance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Unnoticed Corssroads of Russian-Luxembourgish History
Ganschow, Inna UL

Presentation (2018, October 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)
See detailForum Z: Soziale Ungleichheiten in Luxemburg?
Majerus, Benoît UL; Tatarinov, Juliane UL; Santana, Dominique UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (11 UL)
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See detailSub-second dynamic phototuning of alignment in azodendrimer-doped nematic liquid crystal shells
Noh, Junghyun UL; Jampani, Venkata UL; Haba, Osamu et al

in Journal of Molecular Liquids (2018), 267

The alignment of nematic liquid crystal 5CB in micron-thick shells, suspended in and containing aqueous liquid phases, can be rapidly switched between radial (homeotropic) and tangential (planar) director ... [more ▼]

The alignment of nematic liquid crystal 5CB in micron-thick shells, suspended in and containing aqueous liquid phases, can be rapidly switched between radial (homeotropic) and tangential (planar) director field by doping them with a photoresponsive dendrimer with multiple azobenzene moieties in the branches. The dendrimer spontaneously segregates to the inner as well as outer shell interfaces, folding into an amphiphilic conformation irrespective of the sign of interface curvature. The branches are directed into the liquid crystal, inducing a homeotropic ground state. Upon UV irradiation, the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene triggers immediate switching to planar alignment. The very fast realignment and the simultaneous response throughout the shell leads to an initially random planar director field, with many topological defects of both positive and negative signs becoming visible within a second of irradiation. All but two +1 defects quickly annihilate, and the remaining defect pair moves up towards the thinnest part of the shell to form the planar steady state. By illuminating with visible light the homeotropic alignment is quickly recovered. By exchanging the solvent used for assisting the dendrimer dissolution, also dynamic phase separation phenomena can be studied in the shells, revealing that the dendrimer solubility in 5CB is greater in the UV-induced cis state than in the trans ground state. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 140 (36 UL)