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See detailSelective blockade of HCN1/HCN2 channels as a potential pharmacological strategy against pain
Dini, Leonardo; Del Lungo, Martina; Resta, Francesco et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2018), 9

A prominent role of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels has been suggested based on their expression and (dys)function in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, being likely ... [more ▼]

A prominent role of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels has been suggested based on their expression and (dys)function in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, being likely involved in peripheral nociception. Using HCN blockers as antinociceptive drugs is prevented by the widespread distribution of these channels. However, tissue-specific expression of HCN isoforms varies significantly, HCN1 and HCN2 being considered as major players in DRG excitability. We characterized the pharmacological effect of a novel compound, MEL55A, able to block selectively HCN1/HCN2 isoforms, on DRG neuron excitability in-vitro and for its antiallodynic properties in-vivo. HEK293 cells expressing HCN1, HCN2, or HCN4 isoforms were used to verify drug selectivity. The pharmacological profile of MEL55A was tested on mouse DRG neurons by patch-clamp recordings, and in-vivo in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy by means of thermal hypersensitivity. Results were compared to the non-isoform-selective drug, ivabradine. MEL55A showed a marked preference toward HCN1 and HCN2 isoforms expressed in HEK293, with respect to HCN4. In cultured DRG, MEL55A reduced h amplitude, both in basic conditions and after stimulation by forskolin, and cell excitability, its effect being quantitatively similar to that observed with ivabradine. MEL55A was able to relieve chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. In conclusion, selective blockade of HCN1/HCN2 channels, over HCN4 isoform, was able to modulate electrophysiological properties of DRG neurons similarly to that reported for classical Ih blockers, ivabradine, resulting in a pain-relieving activity. The availability of small molecules with selectivity toward HCN channel isoforms involved in nociception might represent a safe and effective strategy against chronic pain. [less ▲]

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See detailExemplarische Bildungsverläufe von Jugendlichen in den Erziehungshilfen und im Übergang
Göbel, Sabrina UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 08)

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See detailThe influence of a professional development on teachers’ and carers’ multilingual practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 08)

The need for multilingual pedagogies has been recognized and several multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood in Europe. In Luxembourg, where this study is based, laws were voted ... [more ▼]

The need for multilingual pedagogies has been recognized and several multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood in Europe. In Luxembourg, where this study is based, laws were voted in 2017 that require early years practitioners to develop Luxembourgish, familiarize children with French, and value home languages. To develop inclusive multilingual practices, the authors of this presentation developed a 30-hour professional development programme (thereafter PD) which was long-term, collaborative, inquiry-based, performance-oriented, and included coaching. The participants carried out and video-record activities based on books and rhymes in several languages, reflected on these, and received feedback. This case-study examines the influence of the PD on the understanding of language learning and practices of two teachers and five carers working in schools and crèches. The data stem from a questionnaire completed three times; twelve interviews; six observations of the training; 30 video-recorded activities; ten coaching reports, and emails. The methods of data analysis comprise paired samples t-test, correlational analysis, content analysis and triangulation. The findings show a positive effect of the PD on understanding of language learning and practices. The teachers and some carers developed a better understanding of social constructivist learning theories which influenced their practices that began to focus on interactions between adults and children, and amongst children. The other carers understood the relevance of dialogue and carried out activities in several languages but their overall practice did not change. The findings confirm that collaborative, inquiry-based PD can be transformative (Gaikhorst et al., 2017; Prenger et al., 2017) and change perspectives and practices to some extent (Buschmann & Sachse, 2018). In addition, they add to the dearth of literature on PD on multilingual education in early years (Egert, 2015). Buschmann, A., & Sachse, S. (2018). Heidelberg interaction training for language promotion in early childhood settings. European Journal of Education, 53(1), 66-78. Egert, F. (2015). Meta-analysis on the impact of in-service professional development programs for preschool teachers on quality ratings and child outcomes. Gaikhorst, L., Beishuizen, J. J. J., Zijlstra, B. J. H., & Volman, M. L. L. (2017) The sustainability of a teacher professional development programme for beginning urban teachers, Cambridge Journal of Education, 47(1), 135-154. Prenger, R., Poortman, C. L., & Handelzalts, A. (2017). Factors influencing teachers’ professional development in networked professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68(1), 77-90. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la recherche du Web perdu …
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2018, November 07)

Alors que la durée de vie d’une page Web est estimée en moyenne à deux mois et celle d’un site Internet à moins de cinq ans, les internautes qui ont suivi les premiers développements du Web grand public ... [more ▼]

Alors que la durée de vie d’une page Web est estimée en moyenne à deux mois et celle d’un site Internet à moins de cinq ans, les internautes qui ont suivi les premiers développements du Web grand public dans les années 1990 ont déjà vu disparaître plusieurs communautés virtuelles et certains de leurs espaces en ligne favoris, à l’instar de Geocities, Myspace, ou Vine. Ce Web perdu invite à penser à la fois la nostalgie et la « fabrique de la désuétude » (pour reprendre Gustavo Gomez-Meijia in Schafer V. dir., Temps et temporalités du Web, Presses de Nanterre, 2018) qui marquent la Toile, et les enjeux de mémoire et de patrimonialisation qui leur sont attachés. Mais c’est aussi la manière dont le Web du passé peut être retrouvé, reconstruit, étudié, que ce soit en histoire ou en archéologie des médias, qui est en jeu. C’est rechercher un Web inscrit dans des temporalités, espaces, pratiques et matérialités propres et qui doit être recontextualisé. Il faut faire face aux silences mais aussi au trop plein d’archives du Web, qui s’avèrent à la fois pléthoriques et lacunaires, et se confronter au risque d’une perte d’intelligibilité. La quête des origines du Web, le sentiment d’un âge d’or du Web des débuts, les bruits et les silences des archives du Web, ou encore le risque de perte de sens seront au cœur de cette intervention pour interroger les sources, pratiques et défis d’une histoire foisonnante. [less ▲]

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See detailScarring Due to Unemployment: Employers' Hiring Decisions in Relation to Young People
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2018, November 07)

The long-term consequences of experiencing early unemployment for future labor market outcomes and individual well-being have been widely documented in the literature. As youth unemployment remains one of ... [more ▼]

The long-term consequences of experiencing early unemployment for future labor market outcomes and individual well-being have been widely documented in the literature. As youth unemployment remains one of the main challenges of our time, it is important to understand the mechanisms on both sides of the job matching process. However, the majority of previous research only highlights issues on the supply side of this process by analyzing observational or administrative data. Empirical evidence on the demand side of youth unemployment is still scarce. Against this background, we examine how employers evaluate hiring chances of young job applicants with special emphasis on scarring due to unemployment. Specifically, we aim at addressing the shortcomings of previous research in two ways: (1) We conduct a large-scale factorial survey experiment among recruiters in five occupational sectors in Luxembourg. Recruiters evaluate several hypothetical descriptions of applicants which randomly vary in their combination of attributes. (2) We test whether using hypothetical vs. real vacancies affects employers' evaluation of applicants - a question that has received little attention so far despite the potential implications for research studying employers' hiring decisions by means of factorial surveys. Preliminary findings from our pilot study show some hints for differences in recruiters' hiring decisions when confronted with real vs. hypothetical hiring problems. With our approach, we contribute to the literature on youth employment as well as to the methodological research on factorial surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of Professional Development on Multilingual Education in Early Childhood in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in Review of European Studies (2018), 10(4), 148-163

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries, professionals have shown to be unsure of how to deal with language diversity and promote home ... [more ▼]

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries, professionals have shown to be unsure of how to deal with language diversity and promote home languages. Therefore, there is a need for professional development. The present article discusses the outcomes of a professional course on multilingual education in early childhood delivered to 46 early-years practitioners in Luxembourg. Using a questionnaire administered prior to and after the course as well as interviews, we examined the influence of the training on attitudes to multilingual education and activities to develop Luxembourgish and home languages. The analysis drew on content analysis, paired samples t-test and correlational analysis. The findings show that the course positively influenced the professionals’ knowledge about multilingualism and language learning, their attitudes towards home languages, their interest in organising activities in the children’s home languages and the implementation of these activities. The results shed light on special interest areas such as the quality of input that future professional development courses could focus on. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Empirical Saddlepoint Approximation with Application to Asset Pricing
Holcblat, Benjamin UL; Sowell, Fallaw

Presentation (2018, November 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 UL)
See detailEntrepreneurial Teams, New Venture Direction and Growth: Evidence from Luxembourg
Tryba Geb. Fricke, Anne Karin UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

New ventures can be an important driver of economic growth and technological progress. Yet, many new ventures fail and do not overcome the challenges of the early entrepreneurial phase. Extant research ... [more ▼]

New ventures can be an important driver of economic growth and technological progress. Yet, many new ventures fail and do not overcome the challenges of the early entrepreneurial phase. Extant research has acknowledged that the people who jointly start and manage a new venture have a key impact on its subsequent success and development. However, a discrepancy exists in how the interplay of their characteristics, cognition, and actions ultimately shape the way a new venture evolves. Therefore the primary purpose of this thesis is to contribute to this research stream by exploring the multifaceted role of entrepreneurial teams for new venture direction and growth. This is done with the aid of three research papers relying on a multiple case study and a specifically designed dataset from Luxembourg. The first paper illuminates how the shared pre-start-up transition moments of entrepreneurial team members influence the joint decision logic in the initial venture phase. Focusing on the composition of entrepreneurial teams, the second paper illustrates early activities that allow new ventures to leverage the diverse educational backgrounds of their team members to achieve financial growth. Lastly, the third paper explores aspects of leadership in new ventures and uncovers how agreement on an early shared vision affects subsequent changes in the entrepreneurial team, taking into account members’ relational ties. This thesis makes important contributions to research in entrepreneurship and strategic management, adding to a more fine-grained view on the micro-foundations and outcomes of entrepreneurial action. Also, it has practical implications for entrepreneurs, their mentors and investors, entrepreneurship education and policymakers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (23 UL)
See detailPhotography and Public History: Facing New Challenges
Duval, Cécile UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

Photography, together with written material, is one of the traditional communication channels of public history. Written material on its own, especially in our predominantly visual era, can often fail to ... [more ▼]

Photography, together with written material, is one of the traditional communication channels of public history. Written material on its own, especially in our predominantly visual era, can often fail to convey the desired message; but images on their own can be misunderstood if no text is added to place them in the context. The scientific use of photograph requires the contextualisation of images by verified data. With the growth of sources in the field of public history, it is vital to constantly check and compare any available data about images because it could be tempted to play on the emotions generated by some photographs to elicit a stronger reaction from the public. This is ignoring the fact that reinterpreting a photo in this way is essentially the same as rewriting history. [less ▲]

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See detailFAST: A MapReduce Consensus for High Performance Blockchains
Khan, Nida UL

in ACM BlockSys'18 Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Blockchain-enabled Networked Sensor Systems (2018, November 04)

Blockchain platforms when used as a database for IoT systems can resolve data reliability fault-tolerance, consistency and non-repudiation issues. However, their inherent shortcomings related to their ... [more ▼]

Blockchain platforms when used as a database for IoT systems can resolve data reliability fault-tolerance, consistency and non-repudiation issues. However, their inherent shortcomings related to their throughput in terms of processed transactions, limit their applicability in such environments in a decentralized way as the underlying network is unable to sustain high workloads. In this paper a fully decentralized high performance consensus mechanism, named FAST, is proposed for a public blockchain. FAST is based on mapreduce paradigm for aggregating and adding transactions on blockchain blocks. FAST was implemented and evaluated in a basic blockchain prototype. A light client for FAST using IPFS, was developed to bring about a reduction in the data stored locally. The obtained results from tests conducted on the prototype depict that FAST exceeds the performance of not just other existing blockchain platforms but comes very close to the throughput of traditional electronic payment networks such as Visa. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpowering reuse of digital cultural heritage in context-aware crosscuts of European history
Antoniou, A; Lopez-Nores, M; Yannick, N et al

in Wallace, M; Antoniou, A (Eds.) Proceedings of the Workshop on Cultural Informatics co-located with the EUROMED International Conference on Digital Heritage 2018 (EUROMED 2018) (2018, November 03)

The paper presents the H2020 CrossCult project, providing a short overview, a summary of the platform developed by the project, a description of the consortium, lessons learnt in three main dimensions ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the H2020 CrossCult project, providing a short overview, a summary of the platform developed by the project, a description of the consortium, lessons learnt in three main dimensions (humanities, technology and business), the open challenges and the main tools developed by the project. [less ▲]

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See detailIt's not only the game, it's also the player: The role of player personality in violent video game preference
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 03)

In contrast to the effects of game content, violent video games have less been researched with regard to players' preferences for these games, and whether these preferences are related to certain ... [more ▼]

In contrast to the effects of game content, violent video games have less been researched with regard to players' preferences for these games, and whether these preferences are related to certain personality characteristics. Using a novel brief and uni-dimensional self-report measure, the present research examined the role of personality factors and preferences for violent video games. A scale of five items was administrated in two studies that involved 292 and 180 respondents, respectively. The same scale with two additional items was presented to 190 respondents in the third study, which included measures revealed by prior research to be relevant for understanding violent video game motivation and preference. More specifically, we measured participants' trait aggression, the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism. To test for the scale's discriminant validity, trait empathy was also included. In line with other findings in the literature (e.g., Greitemeyer, 2015), results obtained with the self-report measure indicated that players with a propensity for games featuring violent themes show callous, impulsive and exploitative attributes, whereas narcissism was not a significant predictor. However, and as already suggested by some authors (Hartmann, Möller, & Krause, 2014), a lack of empathy was found to predict violent game preferences. The present findings are important with regard to future research on video games that should focus more on the players and their gaming motivation than on the effects of playing alone. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition and Workplace Bullying. The moderating role of passive avoidant leadership style.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 02)

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We proposed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are positive related to workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. An online survey design was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The final sample consists of 1,408 respondents. Workplace bullying exposure and perpetration were cross-sectionally assessed via self-labeling and behavioral experience method. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are important predictors for workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, the results indicated that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure (measured via behavioral method) and self-labeled workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. However, for workplace bullying perpetration (measured via behavioral method) no moderation effect was found. The findings underline the importance of the supervisor’s behavior in the occurrence of workplace bullying. Organizations may decrease workplace bullying incidents by training their supervisors to apply a more constructive leadership style. [less ▲]

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See detailVisualizing the Learning Progress of Self-Driving Cars
Mund, Sandro; Frank, Raphaël UL; Varisteas, Georgios UL et al

in 21st International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2018, November 02)

Using Deep Learning to predict lateral and longitudinal vehicle control, i.e. steering, acceleration and braking, is becoming increasingly popular. However, it remains widely unknown why those models ... [more ▼]

Using Deep Learning to predict lateral and longitudinal vehicle control, i.e. steering, acceleration and braking, is becoming increasingly popular. However, it remains widely unknown why those models perform so well. In order for them to become a commercially viable solution, it first needs to be understood why a certain behavior is triggered and how and what those networks learn from human-generated driving data to ensure safety. One research direction is to visualize what the network sees by highlighting regions of an image that influence the outcome of the model. In this vein, we propose a generic visualization method using Attention Heatmaps (AHs) to highlight what a given Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) learns over time. To do so, we rely on a novel occlusion technique to mask different regions of an input image to observe the effect on a predicted steering signal. We then gradually increase the amount of training data and study the effect on the resulting Attention Heatmaps, both in terms of visual focus and temporal behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting Deniability in Quantum Key Exchange via Covert Communication and Entanglement Distillation
Atashpendar, Arash UL; Policharla, Guru Vamsi; Roenne, Peter UL et al

in Secure IT Systems, 23rd Nordic Conference, NordSec 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11252. Springer, Cham (2018, November 02)

We revisit the notion of deniability in quantum key exchange (QKE), a topic that remains largely unexplored. In the only work on this subject by Donald Beaver, it is argued that QKE is not necessarily ... [more ▼]

We revisit the notion of deniability in quantum key exchange (QKE), a topic that remains largely unexplored. In the only work on this subject by Donald Beaver, it is argued that QKE is not necessarily deniable due to an eavesdropping attack that limits key equivocation. We provide more insight into the nature of this attack and how it extends to other constructions such as QKE obtained from uncloneable encryption. We then adopt the framework for quantum authenticated key exchange, developed by Mosca et al., and extend it to introduce the notion of coercer-deniable QKE, formalized in terms of the indistinguishability of real and fake coercer views. Next, we apply results from a recent work by Arrazola and Scarani on covert quantum communication to establish a connection between covert QKE and deniability. We propose DC-QKE, a simple deniable covert QKE protocol, and prove its deniability via a reduction to the security of covert QKE. Finally, we consider how entanglement distillation can be used to enable information-theoretically deniable protocols for QKE and tasks beyond key exchange. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 197 (56 UL)