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See detailEncadrement des cryptomonnaies en droit pénal européen: réflexions sur la mise en réseau du droit
Jolly, Loren UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The project is to conduct an interdisciplinary research which follows a theoretical approach motivated by systems theory. This theory observes a dynamic within society which has consequences on ... [more ▼]

The project is to conduct an interdisciplinary research which follows a theoretical approach motivated by systems theory. This theory observes a dynamic within society which has consequences on sovereignty and which ends up in the development of fragmented legal frameworks. This change is observed through the example of the ecosystem of cryptocurrency developing its own functional rules and the reaction of the criminal justice system (especially through the anti-money laundering legal framework) which is used as means of social control upon the ecosystem. This has consequences not only on the legitimacy and on fundamental principles of criminal law but also on fundamental rights. The goal is to develop an autonomous legal order that would enable to address these issues. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxemburg und der Zweite Weltkrieg: Über den nationalen Tellerrand hinausschauen
Brüll, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailSemantic and Relational Spaces in Science of Science: Deep Learning Models for Article Vectorisation
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Pang, Jun UL et al

in Scientometrics (2021)

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a ... [more ▼]

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a field and between fields based on manual inspection impossible. Automatic techniques to support the process of literature review are required to find the epistemic and social patterns that are embedded in scientific publications. In computer sciences, new tools have been developed to deal with large volumes of data. In particular, deep learning techniques open the possibility of automated end-to-end models to project observations to a new, low-dimensional space where the most relevant information of each observation is highlighted. Using deep learning to build new representations of scientific publications is a growing but still emerging field of research. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential and limits of deep learning for gathering insights about scientific research articles. We focus on document-level embeddings based on the semantic and relational aspects of articles, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). We explore the different outcomes generated by those techniques. Our results show that using NLP we can encode a semantic space of articles, while with GNN we are able to build a relational space where the social practices of a research community are also encoded. [less ▲]

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See detailUnification of functional annotation descriptions using text mining
Queirós, Pedro; Novikova, Polina UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Biological Chemistry (2021)

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference ... [more ▼]

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference data used, as such, choosing the appropriate sources is crucial. Unfortunately, no single reference data source can be universally considered the gold standard, thus using multiple references could potentially increase annotation quality and coverage. However, this comes with challenges, particularly due to the introduction of redundant and exclusive annotations. Through text mining it is possible to identify highly similar functional descriptions, thus strengthening the confidence of the final protein functional annotation and providing a redundancy-free output. Here we present UniFunc, a text mining approach that is able to detect similar functional descriptions with high precision. UniFunc was built as a small module and can be independently used or integrated into protein function annotation pipelines. By removing the need to individually analyse and compare annotation results, UniFunc streamlines the complementary use of multiple reference datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the diversity of the teacher workforce: Socio-political challenges to reducing inequalities in access to teacher education programs.
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

in Frontiers in Education (2021), 6

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio ... [more ▼]

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio-economic characteristics. However, this diversity is only to a limited extent reflected in the teacher population, even though teachers from different backgrounds can bring specific intercultural competencies, have more positive attitudes toward multicultural heterogeneity and act as role models. To facilitate the diversification of the teaching profession, it is imperative that the cohorts of students entering teacher education programs represent the diversity of societies, however studies have shown students with migration background or from families with lower socio-economic status are underrepresented in such programs. This study considered the demographic constellation of applicants for admission into the teacher education program in Luxembourg (2015-2019) and investigated to what extent the admission process (dis)advantages certain groups. Results revealed that although applications come from diverse backgrounds, proficiency in the country´s native languages poses a disadvantage for students with migration background. In addition, applicants coming from more privileged families stand a better chance of being admitted. Results are interpreted within the framework of social mobility and social reproduction. Implications for the admission to the teachers education program are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Cultural Heritage and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2021, May 11)

This talk deals with a question that is becoming increasingly important for historians who work with digitised cultural heritage: what are the politics of digitisation and what are its implications for ... [more ▼]

This talk deals with a question that is becoming increasingly important for historians who work with digitised cultural heritage: what are the politics of digitisation and what are its implications for historical research? Is the often-lauded democratising potential of digitisation also offset by challenges, inherent in selection processes that might privilege the digitisation of heritage corresponding to existing national master narratives, the availability of funding and/or the priorities set by cultural policies and certain research agendas? How does transnational heritage fit into this picture when most digitisation projects are, in one way or another, nationally framed? What biases can digital archives introduce in our work and how does that differ from issues of bias and selection in the ‘paper’ archive? A key point to highlight is that professional historians can and should be more open to learn from the experience of digital archivists and librarians who are at the forefront of the digital turn in heritage wsk. the talk will conclude with a brief plea and suggestion for transparancy guidelines for digital resources. [less ▲]

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See detailMonolingual cringe and ideologies of English: Anglophone migrants to Luxembourg draw their experiences in a multilingual society
de Bres, Julia; Lovrits, Veronika UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2021)

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language ... [more ▼]

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language experiences, we examine the language ideologies Anglophone migrants adopt in response to the ideologies of English they encounter. Participants adopt various ideologies, sometimes aligning with the ideology of global English, sometimes with counter-ideologies of resistance to it, and sometimes a mix of the two. Visual features indexing affective states include colour, gesture, facial expression, and composition. Monolingual cringe – expressed as shame, embarrassment and being ‘bad at languages’ – performs several functions for the participants. Sometimes it serves as an affective disclaimer, allowing them to lean on their privilege in a more socially acceptable way. Sometimes it appears to express genuine distress, in the form of searing linguistic insecurity. Sometimes it performs a distancing function, enabling them to oppose themselves to the stereotype of the monolingual English speaker. The affective intensity of the drawings suggests the ideology of global English does have costs for Anglophone migrants. Fundamentally, though, monolingual cringe reinforces privilege, allowing participants to apologise for their monolingualism even as they continue to benefit from it. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregated hold-out for sparse linear regression with a robust loss function
Maillard, Guillaume UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Sparse linear regression methods generally have a free hyperparameter which controls the amount of sparsity, and is subject to a bias-variance tradeoff. This article considers the use of Aggregated hold ... [more ▼]

Sparse linear regression methods generally have a free hyperparameter which controls the amount of sparsity, and is subject to a bias-variance tradeoff. This article considers the use of Aggregated hold-out to aggregate over values of this hyperparameter, in the context of linear regression with the Huber loss function. Aggregated hold-out (Agghoo) is a procedure which averages estimators selected by hold-out (cross-validation with a single split). In the theoretical part of the article, it is proved that Agghoo satisfies a non-asymptotic oracle inequality when it is applied to sparse estimators which are parametrized by their zero-norm. In particular, this includes a variant of the Lasso introduced by Zou, Hastié and Tibshirani \cite{Zou_Has_Tib:2007}. Simulations are used to compare Agghoo with cross-validation. They show that Agghoo performs better than CV when the intrinsic dimension is high and when there are confounders correlated with the predictive covariates. [less ▲]

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See detail„Place de l’Etoile“/Stäreplaz. Goldgrube mit grünen Dächern
Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2021)

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von ... [more ▼]

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von Grund und Boden ansetzen. Solch ein Blick erklärt, in welche Richtung sich viele Städte gegenwärtig und zukünftig entwickeln werden. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple vulnerabilities: The effects of neighborhood structural changes upon older residents' mental health and perceptions of the broader community
Settels, Jason UL

Scientific Conference (2021, May 06)

Aims: Neighborhoods’ structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents’ well-being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily ... [more ▼]

Aims: Neighborhoods’ structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents’ well-being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily activities and social lives are more confined to their immediate communities. This study examines how changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage affects older residents’ depression and stress, as well as perceptions of neighborhood context. Methods: This study employed waves 2 (2010-2011) and 3 (2015-2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N=2,357) and fixed-effects linear regression models to study these relationships. Results: While rising neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more depression and stress, it was negatively associated with overall neighborhood social capital and neighborhood social cohesion, and was only associated with lower perceptions of neighborhood safety among respondents who relocated to new neighborhoods. Conclusions: Beyond cross-sectional associations, changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with changes in mental health and perceptions of neighborhood social context. [less ▲]

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See detailHagiography in the Digital Age. New Perspectives on Latin Legendaries
Dubuisson, Bastien UL; de Valeriola, Sébastien

Presentation (2021, May 06)

La dernière décennie du 20e siècle fut marquée par la mise en place d’un outil devenu indispensable aux historiens qui étudient l’hagiographie latine d’avant 1500 et qui s’intéressent à ses vecteurs ... [more ▼]

La dernière décennie du 20e siècle fut marquée par la mise en place d’un outil devenu indispensable aux historiens qui étudient l’hagiographie latine d’avant 1500 et qui s’intéressent à ses vecteurs manuscrits. Née de l’initiative visionnaire de Guy Philippart et de son équipe, ainsi que d’une collaboration avec la Société des Bollandistes, la base de données BHLms entendait rendre la Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina et ses Supplementa, couplés à l’ensemble des catalogues de manuscrits hagiographiques bollandiens, instantanément interrogeables . Deux décennies plus tard, le projet est toujours vivace et s’apprête à connaître une seconde vie sur les serveurs de l’Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes . Cependant, si les informations collectées, présentées sous la forme d’une interface graphique, permettent à tout utilisateur d’obtenir rapidement des renseignements sur un texte donné (identifié par un n° BHL) et les manuscrits qui le contiennent, les données brutes de la base n’avaient à ce jour jamais été exploitées de façon globale. C’est une analyse de ce genre que nous proposons ici, par le biais de méthodes quantitatives, et notamment d’outils d’apprentissage automatique (machine learning) . Pour ce faire, nous embrassons deux approches, qui considèrent la base de données globales sous deux angles de vue différents. D’une part, nous enquêtons sur le degré de similarité entre les manuscrits sur la base de leur contenu, à l’aide de techniques de partitionnement (clustering). D’autre part, nous étudions les relations qu’entretiennent entre eux les saints par le truchement de méthodes de fouille de règles d’association (rule mining) et de théorie des graphes. Si le but final de notre analyse est bel et bien d’appliquer ces méthodes à l’ensemble de la base, nous aborderons dans un premier temps un cas d’étude concret, celui des manuscrits hagiographiques et des saints de l’ancien diocèse de Trèves. Les résultats de l’analyse quantitative peuvent ainsi être confrontés aux conclusions qualitatives obtenues par l’historiographie. [less ▲]

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See detailWWII: Sowjetische ZwangsarbeiterInnen in Luxemburg
Ganschow, Inna UL; Schroeder, Frank

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

In her lecture, Inna Ganschow presents the conditions that made it possible for almost 4,000 Soviet women to be abducted to Luxembourg during the Second World War. In addition to the working and living ... [more ▼]

In her lecture, Inna Ganschow presents the conditions that made it possible for almost 4,000 Soviet women to be abducted to Luxembourg during the Second World War. In addition to the working and living conditions of the so-called Eastern workers and prisoners of war, the focus of the evening is also on relations with the Luxembourg civilian population. It also deals with the forced returns to the Soviet Union and the fate of those affected after the war. [less ▲]

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See detailFinancial Difficulties and Gender as Moderators of How Workforce Involvement and Transitions Affect the Health of Older Europeans
Settels, Jason UL

Poster (2021, May 05)

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. In response to concerns about labor force shortages, many European nations have enacted policies aimed at keeping ... [more ▼]

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. In response to concerns about labor force shortages, many European nations have enacted policies aimed at keeping older persons employed. Understanding how later life paid work is associated with health is thus important. Using an older sample from waves six and seven of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 38,884), this study shows how a set of six workforce involvement/transitions patterns are associated with health. Also studied are whether these effects are moderated by financial difficulties. Later life paid work is found to be beneficial for health, and this benefit is accentuated by financial difficulties. The findings also reveal moderation by gender. Older women’s more fragmented employment histories cause stable paid work to be of less benefit for addressing their financial difficulties. Furthermore, older women are especially vulnerable to unemployment while undergoing financial troubles. [less ▲]

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See detailLove at the Psychiatric Ward
Harion, Dominic UL; Zink, Dominik; Loew, Sarah Francesca et al

in Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Vanderheiden, Elisabeth (Eds.) International Handbook of Love, Transcultural and Transdisciplinary Perspectives (2021)

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See detailModeling seizures in the Human Phenotype Ontology according to contemporary ILAE concepts makes big phenotypic data tractable
Lewis-Smith, David; Galer, Peter D.; Balagura, Ganna et al

in Epilepsia (2021), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy is essential in the study of causes, trajectories, and treatment responses. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is used widely in clinical and research genetics for concise communication and modeling of clinical features, allowing extracted data to be harmonized using logical inference. We sought to redesign the HPO seizure subontology to improve its consistency with current epileptological concepts, supporting the use of large clinical data sets in high-throughput clinical and research genomics. Methods We created a new HPO seizure subontology based on the 2017 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Operational Classification of Seizure Types, and integrated concepts of status epilepticus, febrile, reflex, and neonatal seizures at different levels of detail. We compared the HPO seizure subontology prior to, and following, our revision, according to the information that could be inferred about the seizures of 791 individuals from three independent cohorts: 2 previously published and 150 newly recruited individuals. Each cohort's data were provided in a different format and harmonized using the two versions of the HPO. Results The new seizure subontology increased the number of descriptive concepts for seizures 5-fold. The number of seizure descriptors that could be annotated to the cohort increased by 40 and the total amount of information about individuals' seizures increased by 38\%. The most important qualitative difference was the relationship of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure to generalized-onset and focal-onset seizures. Significance We have generated a detailed contemporary conceptual map for harmonization of clinical seizure data, implemented in the official 2020-12-07 HPO release and freely available at hpo.jax.org. This will help to overcome the phenotypic bottleneck in genomics, facilitate reuse of valuable data, and ultimately improve diagnostics and precision treatment of the epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailHSM-based Key Management Solution for Ethereum Blockchain
Shbair, Wazen UL; Gavrilov, Eugene; State, Radu UL

in IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency, 3-6 May 2021 (2021, May 03)

The security of distributed applications backed by blockchain technology relies mainly on keeping the associated cryptographic keys (i.e. private keys) in well-protected storage. Since they are the unique ... [more ▼]

The security of distributed applications backed by blockchain technology relies mainly on keeping the associated cryptographic keys (i.e. private keys) in well-protected storage. Since they are the unique proof of ownership of the underlying digital assets. If the keys are stolen or lost, there is no way to recover the assets. The cold wallet is a good candidate for basic use cases, but it has a substantial challenge for more complex applications as it does not scale. Warm and hot wallets are more convenient options for blockchain-based solutions that aim to transact in a cloud environment. In this work, we focus on Hardware Security Module (HSM) based wallet. The HSM is the de-facto standard device designed to manage high-value cryptographic keys and to protect them against hacks. In this demonstration, we present an HSM-based working prototype that secures the entire life cycle of Ethereum public and private keys. [less ▲]

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