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See detailIncome and Wealth Volatility: Evidence from Italy and the U.S. in the Past Two Decades
Menta, Giorgia UL; Wolff, Edward; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19(2), 293-313

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective ... [more ▼]

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective for the same individuals in Italy and the U.S. over the last two decades. We find that in both countries wealth volatility reaches significantly higher values than income volatility, the effect being mostly driven by changes in the market value of real estate assets. We also show that there is more volatility in both dimensions in the U.S. and that the overall trend in both countries is increasing over time. We conclude by exploring volatility in consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency Optimization Technique for SWIPT-enabled Multi-Group Multicasting Systems with Heterogeneous Users
Gautam, Sumit UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in The international Conference on Acoustics, Speech, & Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2021, June)

We consider a multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) system wherein a multi-antenna transmitter serves heterogeneous users capable of either information decoding (ID) or energy harvesting (EH), or both. In ... [more ▼]

We consider a multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) system wherein a multi-antenna transmitter serves heterogeneous users capable of either information decoding (ID) or energy harvesting (EH), or both. In this context, we investigate a precoder design framework to explicitly serve the ID and EH users categorized within certain MC and EH groups. Specifically, the ID users are categorized within multiple MC groups while the EH users are a part of single (last) group. We formulate a problem to optimize the energy efficiency in the considered scenario under a quality-of-service (QoS) constraint. An algorithm based on Dinkelback method, slack-variable replacement, and second-order conic programming (SOCP)/semi-definite relaxation (SDR) is proposed to obtain a suitable solution for the above-mentioned fractional-objective dependent non-convex problem. Simulation results illustrate the benefits of proposed algorithm under several operating conditions and parameter values, while drawing a comparison between the two proposed methods. [less ▲]

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See detailA design strategy for phase synchronization in Precoding-enabled DVB-S2X user terminals
Martinez Marrero, Liz UL; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Querol, Jorge UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

This paper address the design of a phase tracking block for the DVB-S2X user terminals in a satellite precoding system. The spectral characteristics of the phase noise introduced by the oscillator, the ... [more ▼]

This paper address the design of a phase tracking block for the DVB-S2X user terminals in a satellite precoding system. The spectral characteristics of the phase noise introduced by the oscillator, the channel, and the thermal noise at the receiver are taken into account. Using the expected phase noise mask, the optimal parameters for a second-order PLL intended to track channel variations from the pilots are calculated. To validate the results a Simulink model was implemented considering the characteristics of the hardware prototype. The performance of the design was evaluated in terms of the accuracy and stability for the frame structure of superframe Format 2, as described in Annex E of DVB-S2X. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of self-reflection in Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School - Educational implications in light of OECD frameworks
Chiba, Miwa UL

in Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (2021), 5(2), 8-21

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both philosophies emphasize the importance of reflective experiences in education, criticising the specific knowledge-skill-based instruction approach. In this sense, the two views are similar. However, this article further explains the significant difference in how the self is considered in relation to the world within each thought, and therefore, how each educational approach is different, namely as seen in the idea of negative education from the Kyoto School. In the latter section, this article develops the discussion of reflection in the process of learning provided in the OECD Education 2030 framework, which was initiated in 2015 and that is still ongoing. Criticising didactic learning as the sole approach for knowledge and skill acquisition, the OECD Education framework advocates instead for the importance of student self-reflection in relation to society to support a broader development of necessary competencies. By comparing the two schools of thought, the article reveals the underlying assumption of self in Western mainstream educational philosophy, and it argues for the importance of open-mindedness toward the other worldview. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island & NO2 with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, May 28)

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See detailFirst results of the iterative STEAM design process in 3D modelling and printing with pre-service teachers
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2021, May 28)

While we examined mathematical modelling of architectures with CAD software during the last years, we intended in our higher education courses in pre-service elementary school teachers' initial training ... [more ▼]

While we examined mathematical modelling of architectures with CAD software during the last years, we intended in our higher education courses in pre-service elementary school teachers' initial training to expand the complexity of the modelling tasks. In addition, our previous research results indicated a high difference between the quality and functionality of designs by students. Therefore, we investigated the design process in 3D modelling and printing. Based on the industrial iterative design process (e.g., design of a pen), we became aware of the importance of iterative process milestones, quality controls, discussions and peer evaluations. Therefore, we created a remote teaching course for pre-service teachers to design complex objects (e.g., functionality) and create learning settings and tasks based on an iterative design process concept. We will present the first results and reflections at this conference. [less ▲]

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See detailReforming the Institutions of Eurozone Governance
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 159162

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See detailTug of War over Financial Assistance: Which Way Forward for Eurozone Stability Mechanisms?
Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 173184

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See detailScrutiny or Complacency? Banking Union in the Bundestag and the Assemblée Nationale
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 219-229

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See detailThe European Central Bank and the German Constitutional Court: Police Patrols and Fire Alarms
Howarth, David UL; Fontan, Clément

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2),

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme ... [more ▼]

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme. Applying elements of a principal-agent analysis, this article analyses how the FCC ruling presents us with a new understanding of the relationship between the ECB, other EU institutions and Eurozone member states. Existing principal-agent analyses of the ECB focus upon its relations with other EU-level institutions and point to the limited ex ante control mechanisms and efforts to reinforce ex post control mechanisms—notably European Parliament oversight. The FCC ruling and the ECB’s reaction demonstrate the relative importance of national level controls over the ECB agent. This article understands the role of private plaintiffs in Germany as a form of ‘fire alarm’ on ECB policymaking against the background of weak ex post controls at the EU-level. [less ▲]

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See detailMetadiscourse by native and non-native English speakers: importance marking in lectures
Deroey, Katrien UL; Johnson, Jane Helen

Scientific Conference (2021, May 27)

This talk has a dual purpose. In addition to mapping the use of one type of metadiscourse, viz. importance markers, across ‘native’ and ‘English Medium Instruction’ (EMI) lecture corpora, we elaborate on ... [more ▼]

This talk has a dual purpose. In addition to mapping the use of one type of metadiscourse, viz. importance markers, across ‘native’ and ‘English Medium Instruction’ (EMI) lecture corpora, we elaborate on analytical issues related to studying metadiscourse in spoken and disciplinary discourse. ‘Importance markers’ (Deroey & Taverniers, 2012) are lexicogrammatical metadiscursive devices combining discourse organization with evaluation along a ‘parameter of importance or relevance’ (Thompson and Hunston, 2000, p. 24). In lectures, they help students identify key content, which is useful for allocating processing resources while listening to what are typically dense monologues that require processing in real time. This in turns is likely to benefit understanding, note-taking and retention. Comparing the use of importance markers in a single-discipline corpus of engineering lectures by ‘native’ speakers and EMI lecturers, our aim was to contribute to the limited insights into the linguistic features of EMI lecture discourse generally and metadiscourse important for lecture discourse organization and hence lecture listening, specifically. Both researchers independently identified potential importance markers manually in lectures 46 engineering lectures (364,542 words) delivered in the Italy, Malaysia, the UK, and New Zealand,. Agreed instances were tagged and the tagged corpus imported into Sketch Engine to facilitate further analysis. Overall, native speakers and EMI lecturers differed little in importance marker frequency, range, types, and lexemes. In both corpora, the predominant verb marker was V n/clause (e.g. remember they don't know each other). The main difference was the far more common use of the listener-oriented 2 pers pron V n/clause marker (you must understand how to apply this one) by the non-native speakers but this was largely due to idiolectic variation. Contrary to most corpus linguistic metadiscourse studies, we report the inevitable analytical difficulties when identifying and classifying metadiscourse. Issues include establishing a definition that is broad enough to capture the various realizations of a metadiscursive function, while not ‘opening the floodgates’ to include instances that are not representative or that render the study unfeasible. For us this included distinguishing between evaluation of discourse and ‘real world’ entities, excluding very frequent phrases that could be viewed as importance markers but in this discipline probably served another function, and establishing a continuum of highlighting ‘force’. These considerations necessitated careful manual analysis of a relatively small corpus, which however means that generalization are limited and idiolectic bias more likely. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration and mobility of third-country national labour workers to and inside Europe during the Covid-19 pandemic – a legal analysis
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Comparative Migration Studies (2021), 9(22), 17

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was asymmetrical, individualistic and significantly slow. The first measures taken were to close down the internal borders. The European Union's response was even slower, and it was not until 17th March 2020 that the external borders were closed. These actions affected legal migration into the European Union from four perspectives: it affected 1) the mobility of those third-country nationals who were on a temporary stay in the EU Member States; 2) the entry of third-country nationals to do seasonal work; 3) legal migrants entering and staying; and 4) the status of the third-country nationals already residing in the EU Member States, especially those experiencing a loss of income. This article will deal with the EU Member States' measures to manage the immigration services, as a case study how Luxembourg dealt to avoid that temporary staying migrants and regular migrants fall into irregularity. Finally, we will focus on the vulnerability of third-country nationals with the rising risk of unemployment and the risk of being returned to their country of origin. The article will also analyse access to healthcare and unemployment benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding the Inappropriate: The European Commission and Sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact
Sacher, Martin UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 163-172

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in ... [more ▼]

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in the aftermath of the financial and sovereign debt crisis, coercive provisions have been made stricter and the Commission has formally gained power vis‐à‐vis the Council. Nevertheless, sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact for budgetary non‐compliance have so far not been imposed. This article asks why the Commission has until now refrained from proposing such sanctions. Using minimalist process‐tracing methods, three post‐crisis cases in which the imposition of fines was possible, are analysed. Applying an adaptation of normative institutionalism, it is argued that the mechanism entitled “normative‐strategic minimum enforcement” provides an explanation of why no sanctions are imposed in the cases studied: Given that the Commission does not perceive punitive action as appropriate, it strategically refrains from applying the enforcement provisions to their full extent. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Web Archives Long View
Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

Presentation (2021, May 26)

This research seminar aims to explicitly consider that research happens in context. This presentation proposes to address the topic of born-digital heritage and in particular of web archives in context ... [more ▼]

This research seminar aims to explicitly consider that research happens in context. This presentation proposes to address the topic of born-digital heritage and in particular of web archives in context. It aims to question the past, present and future paths of research based on the plethora of born-digital sources that developed from the mid-1990s. Analysis of web archives requires both taking into account the very shaping of these archives - e.g. web archiving in context - and placing research on these web archives in context, from the early studies of the 2000s which focused on the nature of web archives themselves and the methods for studying them to current research that takes them as sources for exploring digital cultures. Thus, the first two parts of our presentation, devoted respectively to the history of web archiving and of web archives in research, will explore the multiple contextual elements at work. These may be related to the Web itself and its evolution, to institutional policies, or to crawling and analysis tools, and understanding them is crucial for addressing the current and future challenges that will arise for researchers, whether they concern transnational approaches, ethical issues or a claim for enhanced contextualization. In conclusion we will broaden the question to digital humanities, and consider why web archive studies have remained relatively marginalised in digital humanities discourse. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Smart Grid Resilience and Reliability by Using and Combining Simulation and Optimization Methods
Antoniadis, Nikolaos UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Modern electrical grids include numerous digital technologies for producing, transmitting, distributing, and supplying electricity. The electrical grids that achieve the most reliable, efficient, and less ... [more ▼]

Modern electrical grids include numerous digital technologies for producing, transmitting, distributing, and supplying electricity. The electrical grids that achieve the most reliable, efficient, and less environmental impact operation using the above technologies combined with renewable energy sources are characterized as smart grids. The study of electricity networks aims at the continuous and uninterrupted production, transmission, and distribution of electricity under the safest operating conditions. Therefore, an electrical grid is designed and studied in a multifaceted way to highlight the weaknesses and reduce possible disturbances. One of the most critical disturbances that can occur in energy grids is overload. Overloads on an electrical system are dangerous, as they can cause overheating or an electric arc. Cables in an electrical grid have a maximum ampacity, i.e., current capacity, that can safely flow. If an excessive number of devices, such as electric vehicles, are connected to a circuit, the electrical current will overheat the cables. If the cable insulation melts, an electric arc can be generated and cause a fire in the overheating area, even inside a wall. In order to avoid overloads, fuses are installed in the circuits. If the current exceeds a specific value, the fuse is activated, drops, and opens the circuit, thus interrupting electricity flow. However, even if they are below the safety limits, sustained overloads could also damage the wires. Smart grid operators could change the state of each grid's fuse or could remotely curtail the over-producing/over-consuming users so that, with the minimum interruption, any potential overload could be prevented. Nevertheless, making the most appropriate decisions is a complicated decision-making task, mainly due to contractual and technical obligations. The present dissertation studies the overloading prevention problem in terms of smart grids' reliability and resilience and evaluates real-world topology in a Luxembourg city district. To this end, it suggests solution methods that can suggest optimal countermeasures to operators facing potential overloading incidents. Specifically, the dissertation has three main axes: The first axis regards the deterministic overloading prevention problem. Given the topology and the energy data of a microgrid at the current time, the potential overloading incidents are detected, and the optimal countermeasures are calculated for the next measurement interval. The grid operators can apply the proposed actions to recover the grid from the disturbance. Into the thesis, the problem is defined and formulated as a Multiobjective Mixed Integer Quadratically Constrained Program. The dissertation also suggests a solution method using a combinatorial optimization approach with a state-of-the-art exact solver. The second axis focuses on reliability analysis through simulation after a potential overloading incident. Smart grid operators would be of great use to ensure stability after a potential overload for a planning horizon, as the future electrical values are unknown. To evaluate the robustness of the topology reconfiguration after a disturbance, like an overload, reliability analysis through simulation is employed. The third axis proposes the single-stage stochastic overloading prevention problem. It differs from the deterministic problem as the optimal countermeasures are calculated for a measurement horizon, e.g., 24 h. The dissertation defines the corresponding single-stage stochastic program and proposes a simheuristic method to solve it. Overall, this thesis presents a fully-edge study on reliability optimization for smart grids to provide the appropriate countermeasures after a potential overloading disturbance. The present approach has been developed in collaboration with an industrial partner and evaluated on real-world topology. [less ▲]

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See detailPractitioners’ language-supporting strategies in multilingual ECE institutions in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (2021), 29(3),

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction ... [more ▼]

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction-promoting and language-modelling strategies for language development. In addition, teachers in bilingual contexts have been translanguaging to foster language learning. To this day, few research studies have examined these strategies in combination and their deployment in multilingual contexts. The present study takes place in multilingual Luxembourg where 64% of the four-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish. It focuses on three practitioners who took part in a professional development course on multilingual pedagogies and presents their language-supporting strategies as well as their translanguaging practices. The findings show that the practitioners use a range of strategies in Luxembourgish, French and home languages, in daily conversations, routines and language and literacy activities to address children’s linguistic needs. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the History of Digital History
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2021, May 25)

For as long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that ... [more ▼]

For as long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that historical knowledge production has always been affected by new and emerging technologies is often forgotten. Similarly, the fact that key epistemological and methodological questions in what we now call ‘digital history’ were already debated decades ago by earlier generations of computing historians (analogue and digital) is often overlooked. There is a lack of transmission of accumulated knowledge from the past and it sometimes seems as if every new generation of historians rediscovers the promise of ‘digital history’, with all of its attending hopes, visions and ambitions for reinventing and reshaping historical research. In order to ground our current ‘digital’ practices and learn from past experiences and expertise, we need to contextualise and qualify what is new and what is not. In other words, we need an answer to the question: what were, and are, the continuities and ruptures in the use and uptake of new technologies in historical research, and in the debates that accompanied them? This paper is an attempt to frame what such a history of digital history might look like. It will do so by focusing on hybridity as a key characteristic of historical research. Hybridity, seen as some form of integrating newly emerging tools, technologies, materials, and/or practices in historical research, has a long history that predates the advent of computers. In my paper I will map and qualify that history according to the main phases of historical research: data & information gathering, processing, analysis and dissemination. Importantly, the speed, enthusiasm and rate of the uptake of new technologies in historical research differs and has differed significantly across these phases, in space as well as time. The paper will conclude by outlining what groundwork is necessary to explore digital history’s forgotten roots: a basic overview of the field’s different spatio-temporal trajectories and the networks of computing historians in the pre-PC and early PC period. [less ▲]

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See detailBrillouin light scattering during shearing of complex fluids
Lehr, Claudius Moritz UL; Astasheva, Olga UL; Baller, Jörg

in Optics Express (2021), 29(11), 16019-16031

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure ... [more ▼]

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure the high-frequency longitudinal elastic modulus in a classical rheometer along with the zero-shear viscosity. Brillouin light scattering allows for the contactless determination of local elastic properties. First measurements of a diluted polymer system suggest a homogeneous orientation of polymer molecules throughout the sample as soon as a critical shear rate has been reached at one spatial position. [less ▲]

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See detail70.000 Luxembourgeois aux Etats-Unis au 19e siècle? Bullshit!
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2021)

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