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See detailLe Luxembourg, une nation vivante qui change
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailGrenzregionen zwischen Covidfencing und Debordering. Zur zivilgesellschaftlichen Anfechtung von Grenzen in Zeiten der Pandemie
Wille, Christian UL

Presentation (2021, June 11)

Proteste, Demonstrationen oder symbolische Aktionen gegen das Covid-Grenzregime sind neue Phänomene in europäischen Grenzregionen. Beispiele für die jüngsten zivilgesellschaftlichen Anfechtungen von ... [more ▼]

Proteste, Demonstrationen oder symbolische Aktionen gegen das Covid-Grenzregime sind neue Phänomene in europäischen Grenzregionen. Beispiele für die jüngsten zivilgesellschaftlichen Anfechtungen von Grenzen stellt C. Wille in seinem Vortrag am 11. Juni vor. Zu dem Workshop „Pandemisches Virus – nationales Handeln: Covid-19 und die europäische Idee” an der Uni des Saarlandes sind Kultur-, Raum- und Rechtswissenschaftler*innen eingeladen. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island and nitrogen dioxide with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

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See detailRole of Common Genetic Variants for Drug-Resistance to Specific Anti-Seizure Medications
Wolking, Stefan; Campbell, Ciarán; Stapleton, Caragh et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2021), 12

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians ... [more ▼]

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians to make better-informed choices for their patients. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether the response to individual ASMs was associated with common genetic variation.Methods: A cohort of 3,649 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping. We conducted genome-wide association analyses (GWASs) on responders to specific ASMs or groups of functionally related ASMs, using non-responders as controls. We performed a polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses based on risk variants for epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders and ASM resistance itself to delineate the polygenic burden of ASM-specific drug resistance.Results: We identified several potential regions of interest but did not detect genome-wide significant loci for ASM-specific response. We did not find polygenic risk for epilepsy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and drug-resistance associated with drug response to specific ASMs or mechanistically related groups of ASMs.Significance: This study could not ascertain the predictive value of common genetic variants for ASM responder status. The identified suggestive loci will need replication in future studies of a larger scale. [less ▲]

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See detailStillborn Banking Union: Explaining Ineffective European Union Bank Resolution Rules
Howarth, David UL; Asimakopoulos, Ioannis

in Journal of Common Market Studies (2021)

Our contribution demonstrates and explains the ineffectiveness of European Union (EU) bank resolution rules, a core element of Banking Union. This inadequacy owes in large part to the limited access to ... [more ▼]

Our contribution demonstrates and explains the ineffectiveness of European Union (EU) bank resolution rules, a core element of Banking Union. This inadequacy owes in large part to the limited access to and insufficient availability of EU resolution funds and inadequate national deposit guarantee schemes in most EU member states, in conjunction with the relatively high minimum requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL) for many EU banks. In many cases, these requirements are unlikely ever to be met – particularly for retail banks most likely to require resolution in the euro periphery. We offer a liberal intergovernmentalist analysis to explain the inadequacy of the EU resolution regime by examining German and French government preferences on EU rules on bank capital requirements agreed earlier in 2013 and national deposit guarantee schemes agreed in 2014. These government preferences were shaped significantly by the preferences of national banks and bank associations. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Round Table: “Different Cultures in Digital History”
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, June 08)

The aim of the round table is to bring together specialists in digital history and experts who use digital tools in historical research and education. History as an academic field is undergoing major ... [more ▼]

The aim of the round table is to bring together specialists in digital history and experts who use digital tools in historical research and education. History as an academic field is undergoing major changes as a result of the transformative impact of digital technologies. These technologies affect the very nature of sources, the practice of data collection and processing, and also the way in which historical knowledge is acquired and disseminated. The task of defining “digital history” has given rise to much debate and discussion, but developing an understanding of the field and the wide-ranging potential for interaction between history and digital technologies can offer insights into the future development of historical research and education. Analysing the challenges and opportunities of this interdisciplinary union can inform and enrich the various cultures within digital history and beyond. A number of prominent speakers from different cultures of digital history and related disciplines will participate in the round table: Prof. Leonid Borodkin is a Professor of the History Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University, the Chair of the Department for Historical Information Science, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Science (Russia). Prof. Hannu Salmi is a Professor of Cultural History at the University of Turku and has been Academy Professor since 2017 (Finland). Prof. Peter Gautschi is a Professor of History Education, Head of the Lucerne Institute of History Education and Memory Cultures, UTE Lucerne (Switzerland). Prof. Valérie Schafer has been a Professor in Contemporary European History at the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg since February 2018. Dr Mareike König is deputy director of the German Historical Institute in Paris. She is also director of its library and its digital humanities department. The round table will be organised and moderated by Nadezhda Povroznik (Center for Digital Humanities) and Frédéric Clavert (C²DH). [less ▲]

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See detailDe la poussière à la lumière bleue. Émotions, récits, gestes de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Muller, Caroline; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Signata - Annales des sémiotiques (2021), 12(12),

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity ... [more ▼]

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity has emerged between this book and the actual experience and practice of historical research because of the rise in digital technologies, which have prompted a dramatic change in historians’ relationship with archives. Based on the collective online book Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique (“The allure of the archives in the digital age” – https://www.gout-numerique.net/) and on a study day held in 2018 at the French National Archives, this paper aims to investigate the changing relationship of historians with archives: their emotional engagement, their relations with archivists and their practices when consulting paper, digitised or born-digital archives. From dusty shelves to blue light, the entire profession of historian has changed, often in discreet, implicit ways, such as the recent practice of taking photos at archival centers, a consequence of the widespread ownership and use of digital cameras. Do archives still elicit the same emotions when they are merely one snapshot among many on a hard disk, or when they are turned into data and published online in a corpus? If the emotion attached to archives is no longer the same, does this change the way in which we interpret them? How should we reflect on our own practices so that we can see past the algorithms that drive the search engines and software we now use? [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the role of polygenic background on the penetrance of monogenic forms in Parkinson\textquoterights disease. 2021.06.06.21253270
Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick UL; Aldisi, Rana et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease ... [more ▼]

Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease. To address this issue, we investigated whether a PRS calculated from significant GWAS SNPs affects the penetrance of Parkinson's disease among carriers of rare monogenic variants in known Parkinson's disease genes and those with a family history. Methods: We calculated the PRS based on common variants and selected the carriers of rare monogenic variants by using the exome data from UK Biobank. Individuals were divided into three risk categories based on PRS: low (<10%), intermediate (10%-90%), and high (>90%) risk groups. We then compared how PRS affects Parkinson\textquoterights disease risk among carriers of rare monogenic variants and those with family-history. Results: We observed a two-fold higher odds ratio for a carrier of a monogenic variant that had a high PRS (OR 4.07,95\% CI, 1.72-8.08) compared to carriers with a low PRS (OR 1.91, 95\% CI, 0.31-6.05). In the same line, carriers with a first-degree family history and with \>90\% PRS have even a higher risk of developing PD (OR 23.53, 95\%CI 5.39-71.54) compared to those with \<90\% PRS (OR 9.54, 95\% CI 3.32-21.65). Conclusions: Our results show that PRS, carrier status, and family history contribute independently and additively to the Parkinson's disease risk. [less ▲]

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See detailBreast and prostate cancer risk: the interplay of polygenic risk, high-impact monogenic variants, and family history 2021.06.04.21258277
Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick UL; Aldisi, Rana et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer cumulative lifetime incidence. Methods 200,643 individuals from the UK Biobank were stratified as follows: 1. carriers or non-carriers of high impact constitutive, monogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes, 2. high or non-high PRS (90th percentile threshold), 3. with or without a family history of cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds ratio (OR) across the different groups while Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the cumulative incidence through life. Results Breast and prostate cancer cumulative incidence by age 70 is 7 and 5 for non-carriers with non-high PRS and reaches 37 and 32 among carriers of high-impact variants in cancer susceptibility genes with high PRS. The additional presence of family history is associated with a further increase of the risk of developing cancer reaching an OR of 14 and 21 for breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusion: High PRS confers a cancer risk comparable to high-impact monogenic variants. Family history, monogenic variants, and PRS contribute additively to breast and prostate cancer risk. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg
Leist, Anja UL

in Immergut, E.; Anderson, K.; Devitt, C. (Eds.) et al Health politics in Europe: A handbook (2021)

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See detailReplicating the Kinora: 3D modelling and printing as heuristics in digital media history
van der Heijden, Tim UL; Wolf, Claude UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 02)

This presentation reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering ... [more ▼]

This presentation reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering (DoE) of the University of Luxembourg. Combining historical inquiry with a hands-on and technical approach – involving the latest 3D modelling and desktop additive manufacturing engineering techniques – it provides insights into the process of making a working replica of the Kinora motion picture technology from the early 1900s. [less ▲]

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See detailThe FEniCS Project (SOFA Talk)
Hale, Jack UL

Presentation (2021, June 01)

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See detailIntelligent Misbehavior Detection System for Detecting False Position Attacks in Vehicular Networks
Hawlader, Faisal UL; Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Faye, Sébastien UL et al

in Hawlader, Faisal; Boualouache, Abdelwahab; Faye, Sébastien (Eds.) et al The 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications (the 4th Workshop on 5G and Beyond Wireless Security) (2021, June)

Position falsification attacks are one of the most dangerous internal attacks in vehicular networks. Several Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems (ML-based MDSs) have recently been proposed ... [more ▼]

Position falsification attacks are one of the most dangerous internal attacks in vehicular networks. Several Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems (ML-based MDSs) have recently been proposed to detect these attacks and mitigate their impact. However, existing ML-based MDSs require numerous features, which increases the computational time needed to detect attacks. In this context, this paper introduces a novel ML-based MDS for the early detection of position falsification attacks. Based only on received positions, our system provides real-time and accurate predictions. Our system is intensively trained and tested using a publicly available data set, while its validation is done by simulation. Six conventional classification algorithms are applied to estimate and construct the best model based on supervised learning. The results show that the proposed system can detect position falsification attacks with almost 100% accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailBoys don't cry (or do the dishes): Family size and the housework gender gap
Menta, Giorgia UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 186

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an ... [more ▼]

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an increasing function of family size and using an instrument to account for the endogeneity of fertility, we show that larger families have a different effect on boys and girls at age 16: girls in large families are significantly more likely to contribute to housework, with no effect for boys. We then show that childhood family size affects the housework gender gap between the cohort members and their partners at age 34. Women who grew up in larger families are more likely to carry out a greater share of household tasks in adulthood, as compared to women from smaller families. In addition, growing up in a large family makes cohort members more likely to sort into households with a wider housework gender gap as adults. We show that the persistent effect of family size is due to the adoption of behaviours in line with traditional gender roles: a lower likelihood of employment and shorter commutes for women, along with a higher employment probability for their partners. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Meanings of Proportionality
Marketou, Afroditi UL

Book published by Cambridge University Press (2021)

Proportionality increasingly dominates legal imagination. Initially conceived of as a principle that regulates police action, today it is progressively established as an advanced tool of liberal ... [more ▼]

Proportionality increasingly dominates legal imagination. Initially conceived of as a principle that regulates police action, today it is progressively established as an advanced tool of liberal constitutional science. Its spread, accompanied by a global paradigm of constitutional rights, appears to be an irresistible natural development. This thesis was inspired by the intuition that even though courts and lawyers around the world reason more and more in proportionality terms, proportionality can mean very different things in different contexts, even within the same legal system. While the relevant literature has paid little attention to differences in the use of proportionality, identifying the local meanings of proportionality is crucial to making sense of its spread, to assessing its success, and to appraising the possibility of convergence between legal systems. Through an in-depth study and comparison of the use of proportionality by legal actors in France, England and Greece, this work shows that the local meanings of proportionality are not simply deviant applications of a global model. Instead, they reflect the legal cultures in which they evolve, local paths of cultural change and local patterns of Europeanisation. [less ▲]

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See detailDemocracy, Freedom and Truth at a Time of Digital Disruption: An equation with three unknowns?
Danescu, Elena UL

in Višňovský, Ján; Radošinská (Eds.) Fake News Is Bad News - Hoaxes, Half-truths and the Nature of Today's Journalism (2021)

The pattern of a knowledge-based society relies to a large extent on digital technologies and intangible outputs and generate considerable transnational financial flows and gains. These technologies also ... [more ▼]

The pattern of a knowledge-based society relies to a large extent on digital technologies and intangible outputs and generate considerable transnational financial flows and gains. These technologies also play a key role in providing free access to data and information, encouraging citizen participation in public decision-making, fostering transparency and scrutiny of government action and mobilising new players capable of identifying alternative means of civic and political participation worldwide. At the same time, the increasingly impact of online platforms in manipulating transnational public debates, and the surge in extremist groups using the digital ecosystem to incite hatred, hostility and violence are a warning sign that these modes of communication may be having an adverse effect on democracy and that the boundary between fact and fiction is not as clear as we may like to think. The US presidential election campaign and the Brexit referendum (2016), the theories about COVID-19 (that have flooded the web since 2019), the terrorist attack against French teacher Samuel Paty (16 October 2020) all highlight these trends. When the majority of the world’s citizens are using online media as their main source of information, the proliferation of disinformation and the related threat of radicalism and extremism have led to a growing awareness of these issues at international- and European Union level. What can be done to tackle the situation? How should the democratic states with new forms of private power in the algorithmic society? Where should the line be drawn between freedom of expression and media pluralism on the one hand, and intrusion and censorship of dissenting opinions on the other? How should information be defended as a fundamental right? Is there a moral or ethical code when it comes to information? How can be created an environment that is conducive to inclusive, pluralistic public debate? How to equip citizens to develop a critical approach and to take informed decisions? How to balance innovation with the need to ensure transparency and fairness? Could we be witnessing a situation in which algorithms are “dissolving” democracy? Drawing on the archives of the international and European multilateral organisations (UN/UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the European Union) and several public and private stakeholders worldwide, this chapter proposes: a) to take stock of the issues and challenges raised by the proliferation of fake news, social media and algorithms, and their impact on freedom and democracy; b) to review the regulatory provisions implemented in this area at European and international level; and c) to identify future prospects. [less ▲]

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See detailChannel Modeling and Analysis of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Assisted Vehicular Networks
Kong, Long UL; He, Jiguang; Ai, Yun et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailProtection of Personal Data in High Performance Computing Platform for Scientific Research Purposes
Paseri, Ludovica; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proc. of the EU Annual Privacy Forum (APF) 2021 (2021, June)

The Open Science projects are also aimed at strongly encouraging the use of Cloud technologies and High Performance Computing (HPC), for the benefit of European researchers and universities. The emerging ... [more ▼]

The Open Science projects are also aimed at strongly encouraging the use of Cloud technologies and High Performance Computing (HPC), for the benefit of European researchers and universities. The emerging paradigm of Open Science enables an easier access to expert knowledge and material; however, it also raises some challenges regarding the protection of personal data, considering that part of the research data are personal data thus subjected to the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This paper investigates the concept of scientific research in the field of data protection, with regard both to the European (GDPR) and national (Luxembourg Data Protection Law) legal framework for the compliance of the HPC technology. Therefore, it focuses on a case study, the HPC platform of the University of Luxembourg (ULHPC), to pinpoint the major data protection issues arising from the processing activities through HPC from the perspective of the HPC platform operators. Our study illustrates where the most problematic aspects of compliance lie. In this regard, possible solutions are also suggested, which mainly revolve around (1) standardisation of procedures; (2) cooperation at institutional level; (3) identification of guidelines for common challenges. This research is aimed to support legal researchers in the field of data protection, in order to help deepen the understanding of HPC technology’s challenges and universities and research centres holding an HPC platform for research purposes, which have to address the same issues. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Age-Of-Information Perspective on Decentralized Congestion Control in Vehicular Networks
Turcanu, Ion UL; Baiocchi, Andrea; Lyamin, Nikita et al

in 19th Mediterranean Communication and Computer Networking Conference, Online Conference, 15-17 June 2021 (2021, June)

Vehicular networking enables a wide range of emerging Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) applications, from safety to traffic efficiency and infotainment. Many of these applications ... [more ▼]

Vehicular networking enables a wide range of emerging Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) applications, from safety to traffic efficiency and infotainment. Many of these applications depend on the reliability and timeliness of status information periodically exchanged among vehicles on the same wireless communication channel. A major effort has been spent, especially by standardization bodies, to define congestion control algorithms for the vehicular networking environment. The picture is, however, more complex than simply controlling the load level on the channel, given the non-trivial interplay of delivery reliability, system throughput, and timeliness of updates. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of the main state-of- the-art broadcast rate control algorithms from the point of view of channel load, utilization efficiency, and information freshness. We evaluate these algorithms in a realistic simulation environment and describe a centralized approach to define a bound on the performance. We show that controlling the congestion based on either channel load or information freshness only leads to sub-optimal performance. [less ▲]

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See detailTypes of health-related behaviours: a cluster analysis of the Luxembourgish HBSC data
Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL; van Duin, Claire UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Background: Although it is known that health behaviours, socio-demographic variables and outcomes correlate, it is rarely investigated if there are typical patterns of these variables among the research ... [more ▼]

Background: Although it is known that health behaviours, socio-demographic variables and outcomes correlate, it is rarely investigated if there are typical patterns of these variables among the research subjects. Objectives: To find out whether the students can be divided into distinct groups based on their health behaviour and whether these groups differ in other ways (outcomes and socio-demographics). Method: In step 1, a hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out to determine the number of groups and to identify the cluster centres. In step 2, this information was entered as the initial values of a cluster centre analysis. In step 3, the clusters were characterised using additional variables. Results: The 8065 students surveyed could be divided into 5 distinct groups based on their data on smoking, drinking, soft drinks, exercising, fighting and bullying, with cluster 1 and cluster 5 representing the strongest contrast. Cluster 1 comprises students whose health behaviour is generally positive. It is the largest cluster with 49.5% of students. Cluster 5 comprises students whose behaviour is consistently negative. It is the smallest cluster with 7.1% of students. Students in cluster 2 are close to average on many variables, but their dental health is problematic because they frequently consume soft drinks and rarely brush their teeth. Students in cluster 3 are physically inactive, their mental health is poor, but they are also rarely injured. The students in cluster 4 stand out because of their aggressive behaviour. Conclusion: With the help of cluster analysis, it is possible to categorise the students into a small number of groups based on their health behaviour. These groups are coherent in terms of health behaviour, many outcome variables and socio-demographic variables. [less ▲]

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