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See detailFrom robust tests to Bayes-like posterior distributions
Baraud, Yannick UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions for estimating the law of an n-sample. The loss functions we have in mind are ... [more ▼]

In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions for estimating the law of an n-sample. The loss functions we have in mind are based on the total variation distance, the Hellinger distance as well as some 𝕃j-distances. We prove that, with a probability close to one, this new posterior distribution concentrates its mass in a neighbourhood of the law of the data, for the chosen loss function, provided that this law belongs to the support of the prior or, at least, lies close enough to it. We therefore establish that the new posterior distribution enjoys some robustness properties with respect to a possible misspecification of the prior, or more precisely, its support. For the total variation and squared Hellinger losses, we also show that the posterior distribution keeps its concentration properties when the data are only independent, hence not necessarily i.i.d., provided that most of their marginals are close enough to some probability distribution around which the prior puts enough mass. The posterior distribution is therefore also stable with respect to the equidistribution assumption. We illustrate these results by several applications. We consider the problems of estimating a location parameter or both the location and the scale of a density in a nonparametric framework. Finally, we also tackle the problem of estimating a density, with the squared Hellinger loss, in a high-dimensional parametric model under some sparcity conditions. The results established in this paper are non-asymptotic and provide, as much as possible, explicit constants. [less ▲]

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See detailWeighted numbers: Commentary on “The Number Sense Represents (Rational) Numbers” by Sam Clarke and Jacob Beck
Marinova, Mila UL; Fedele, Marta; Reynvoet, Bert

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2021)

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See detailWhen Trusting Your Family Hurts Your Family Business
Jaskiewicz, Peter; Carney, Michael G.; Hansen, Christopher UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailThought, Language, and Reasoning. Perspectives on the Relation Between Mind and Language
Fraissler, Hannes UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

This dissertation is an investigation into the relation between mind and language from different perspectives, split up into three interrelated but still, for the most part, self-standing parts. Parts I ... [more ▼]

This dissertation is an investigation into the relation between mind and language from different perspectives, split up into three interrelated but still, for the most part, self-standing parts. Parts I and II are concerned with the question how thought is affected by language while Part III investigates the scope covered by mind and language respectively. Part I provides a reconstruction of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s famous Private Language Argument in order to apply the rationale behind this line of argument to the relation between mind and language. This argumentative strategy yields the conclusion that reasoning – an important type of thought – is constitutively dependent on language possession and is therefore not available to non-linguistic creatures. This result is achieved by considering the preconditions for reasoning – given that it is a rule-governed activity – and eliminating competitors to language for providing reasoners with what it takes to reason. Part II provides a critical outlook on the wide and highly heterogeneous field of linguistic relativity theories. It is argued that no kind of linguistic relativity whatsoever follows from the conclusion of Part I – i.e., the claim that reasoning is constitutively dependent on having a language. While Part II does not provide a conclusive argument against the linguistic relativity hypothesis, it is argued that endorsement of linguistic relativity theories often rests on a mistaken assumption to the effect that language and culture are interwoven in a way which makes it impossible to separate culture and language, as well as their respective studies. This assumption is undermined by providing examples of languages which clearly predate their culture (Esperanto) or do not even have a culture at all (Klingon). So, the assumption that language and culture are inextricably intertwined is refuted by way of counterexample. Part III provides an in-depth examination of the Principle of Expressibility – prominently endorsed and formulated by John Searle – which claims that whatever can be thought can also be said. The domains of what can be thought and of what can be said are considered in set theoretic terms in order to determine whether one is contained in the other, so that everything we can think can also be adequately communicated. After thorough study of interpretative issues regarding the Principle of Expressibility and consideration of the most pressing potential counterexamples to the principle, we can conclude that we have good reason to believe in the truth of the Principle of Expressibility. In conclusion, the achieved results are related back to prominent positions in the discussion about thought and language which already make their appearance in the very beginning of this investigation. The final chapter of this dissertation reminds us that eminent figures in philosophy have often taken a wrongheaded perspective on the relation between language and thought, so that language has frequently appeared to be an impediment to thought. We can, however, confidently conclude that language, on the contrary, is by far our most apt means for thought and that reasoning would not even be possible without the resources language provides. [less ▲]

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See detailNo more Piecemeal Tactics
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL; Robert, Brochhaus

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailChair: Meeting the Editors: De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2021, July 09)

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See detailEin Mehr im Leben
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailIntegrated multi-omic analyses of mobile genetic elements within a mixed microbial community
Martinez Arbas, Susana UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Microbial communities are ubiquitous, complex and dynamic systems that constantly adapt to changing environmental conditions, while playing important roles in natural environments, human health and ... [more ▼]

Microbial communities are ubiquitous, complex and dynamic systems that constantly adapt to changing environmental conditions, while playing important roles in natural environments, human health and biotechnological processes. Invasive mobile genetic elements (iMGE) are considered as important biotic components of microbial communities, in particular (bacterio)-phages and plasmids are some of the most abundant and diverse biological entities, which may influence community structure and dynamics. Microbial populations within naturally occurring communities are constantly interacting with each other. Ecological interactions between those populations can be generally classified as competitive and cooperative relationships. To date, extensive studies on biotic interactions, i.e. relationships between microbial hosts with iMGEs and between microbial populations, have been somewhat limited, thus restricting our understanding of microbial community dynamics. Fortunately, high-throughput multi-omics derived from microbiomes, i.e. metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, enables access to both functional -potential and -expression information of those biotic components. Combining longitudinal multi-omics data with mathematical frameworks allows us to model microbial community interactions and dynamics, unlike ever before. Here, I present a longitudinal integrated multi-omics analysis of biotic components within foaming activated sludge, spanning ~1.5 years to unravel i) iMGE-host dynamics and ii) ecological interactome. In the first part of this work, empirical host-iMGE CRISPR-based links in combination with mathematical modelling highlighted the importance of plasmids, relative to phages, in shaping community structure, while also showing that plasmids vastly outnumbered, and were more targeted via CRISPR-Cas systems, compared to their phage counterparts. In the second part of this work, mathematical modelling is used to provide ecological contexts for the relationships between microbial community members. In general, we observed a dynamic interactome, with higher cooperative interactions, despite these populations encoding highly similar functional potential. In summary, this work demonstrates the potential of longitudinal multi-omics in expanding our understanding of microbial community dynamics, which could be expanded to other microbial ecosystems and potentially lead to applications in human health and biotechnological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailFAIR chemical structures in the Journal of Cheminformatics
Schymanski, Emma UL; Bolton, Evan E.

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2021), 13(1), 50

Abstract The ability to access chemical information openly is an essential part of many scientific disciplines. The Journal of Cheminformatics is leading the way for rigorous, open cheminformatics in many ... [more ▼]

Abstract The ability to access chemical information openly is an essential part of many scientific disciplines. The Journal of Cheminformatics is leading the way for rigorous, open cheminformatics in many ways, but there remains room for improvement in primary areas. This letter discusses how both authors and the journal alike can help increase the FAIR ness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, Reusability) of the chemical structural information in the journal. A proposed chemical structure template can serve as an interoperable Additional File format (already accessible ), made more findable by linking the DOI of this data file to the article DOI metadata, supporting further reuse . [less ▲]

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See detailSteps Towards Semantic Code Search
Kim, Kisub UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Code search can be a core activity in software development for enhancing productivity. Developers commonly reuse existing source code fragments by searching for codebases available in local or global ... [more ▼]

Code search can be a core activity in software development for enhancing productivity. Developers commonly reuse existing source code fragments by searching for codebases available in local or global repositories. Code search helps developers ease the implementation by supplying code snippets to reuse or understand specific concepts deeper during software development by providing various code snippets for the same tasks. In addition, reading real-world examples (the results of code search) is helpful for developers to make programs more reliable, faster, or secure as the examples have been tested and reused by many other developers. However, it is getting more challenging as the codebases are becoming larger since the large codebase can derive too many code candidates. Thus, the research community has invested substantial efforts in developing new techniques, combining methods, and applying more extensive data to improve the performance and efficiency of code search. Despite the significant efforts made by researchers in the field, code search still has many open problems that the community needs to address, such as lack of benchmarks, vocabulary mismatch (between natural language and source code), and low extensibility on programming languages. Our work focuses on the open issues and the momentum of the domain on semantic code search, which considers the meaning of the user query rather than concerning the syntactic similarity that most other studies have approached. The thesis begins with exploring general issues on code search by conducting a systematic literature review. The survey organizes and classifies the code search approaches with various directions such as learning-based, feedback-driven, dynamic techniques. It reveals insights and new research directions. Given the research directions by the survey, we concentrate on alleviating the vocabulary mismatch problem between free-form text query and source code to improve the overall performance of code search first. To understand the free-form text query, we leverage crowd knowledge. The survey also discovered that there are only a few code-to-code approaches and investigation on crowd-knowledge indicated there exists demand, especially on finding semantically similar source code, i.e., source code that is syntactically different but performs the same functionality. Therefore, we go further, reformulating the user code query with real-world code snippets. This allows catching the semantics from the source code. Given the semantic information, a user can search for desired source code by using their code fragments. In this context, the present dissertation aims to explore semantic code search by contributing to the following three building blocks: Review of state-of-the-art: Despite the growing interest in code search, a comprehensive survey or systematic literature review on the field of code search remains limited. We conducted a large-scale systematic literature review on the internet-scale code search. Our objective in this study was to devise a grounded approach to understand the procedure for the code search approach. We built an operational taxonomy on top of each procedure to categorize the approaches and provide insights on the selection of various approaches. Our investigation on the open issues from the literature guide researchers and practitioners to future research directions. CoCaBu: Source code terms such as method names and variable types are often different from conceptual words mentioned in a search query. This vocabulary mismatch problem can make code search inefficient. We presented COde voCABUlary (CoCaBu), an approach to resolving the vocabulary mismatch problem when dealing with free-form code search queries. Our approach leverages common developer questions and the associated expert answers to augment user queries with the relevant but missing structural code entities to improve matching relevant code examples within large code repositories. To instantiate this approach, we built GitSearch, a code search engine, on top of GitHub and Stack Overflow Q&A data. Experimental results, collected via several comparisons against the state-of-the-art code search and existing online search engines such as Google, show that CoCaBu provides qualitatively better results. Furthermore, our live study on the developer community indicates that it can retrieve acceptable or attractive answers for their questions. FaCoY: Most existing approaches focus on serving user queries provided as natural language free-form input. However, there exists a wide range of use-case scenarios where a code-to-code approach would be most beneficial. For example, research directions in code transplantation, code diversity, patch recommendation can leverage a code-to-code search engine to find essential ingredients for their techniques. Given the wide range of use-case for code-to-code search, we propose FaCoY, a novel approach for statically finding code snippets that may be semantically similar to user input code. FaCoY implements a query alternation strategy: instead of directly matching code query tokens with code in the search space, FaCoY first attempts to identify other tokens, which may also be relevant in implementing the functional behavior of the input code. The experimental results show that FaCoY is more effective than all the existing online code-to-code search engines, and it can also be used to find semantic code clones (i.e., Type-4). Moreover, the results proved that FaCoY could be helpful in code/patch recommendation. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Career Researchers in Digital Medieval Studies: A Round Table Discussion
Busch, Hannah; Dubuisson, Bastien UL; Davies, Helen et al

Presentation (2021, July 06)

As a relatively young and constantly emerging field, the Digital Humanities (DH) encompasses a large group of early career researchers with different backgrounds and diverse career paths. Digital Medieval ... [more ▼]

As a relatively young and constantly emerging field, the Digital Humanities (DH) encompasses a large group of early career researchers with different backgrounds and diverse career paths. Digital Medieval Studies as a subfield of DH is characterised by various disciplines as well as a high number of international collaborations and is populated by scholars with different educational backgrounds: from scholars trained as medievalists who implemented digital components only during their postgrad studies to scholars who approached medieval studies through their technical skills. This round table discussion brings together early career scholars from this domain on the border between traditional humanities research and DH to discuss the challenges and opportunities of their diverse career paths. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Hume to Wuhan: An Epistemological Journey on the Problem of Induction in COVID-19 Machine Learning Models and its Impact Upon Medical Research
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

Advances in computer science have transformed the way artificial intelligence is employed in academia, with Machine Learning (ML) methods easily available to researchers from diverse areas thanks to ... [more ▼]

Advances in computer science have transformed the way artificial intelligence is employed in academia, with Machine Learning (ML) methods easily available to researchers from diverse areas thanks to intuitive frameworks that yield extraordinary results. Notwithstanding, current trends in the mainstream ML community tend to emphasise <italic>wins</italic> over knowledge, putting the scientific method aside, and focusing on maximising metrics of interest. Methodological flaws lead to poor justification of method choice, which in turn leads to disregard the limitations of the methods employed, ultimately putting at risk the translation of solutions into real-world clinical settings. This work exemplifies the impact of the problem of induction in medical research, studying the methodological issues of recent solutions for computer-aided diagnosis of COVID-19 from chest X-Ray images. [less ▲]

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See detailNationwide implementation of media literacy training sessions on internet safety
Tiemann, Aline; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Communications: the European Journal of Communication Research (2021)

Although numerous media literacy training sessions on internet safety for children and adolescents have been conducted, their number contrasts sharply with the few systematic studies on their ... [more ▼]

Although numerous media literacy training sessions on internet safety for children and adolescents have been conducted, their number contrasts sharply with the few systematic studies on their effectiveness. In this study, we describe the evaluation of nationwide-implemented training sessions on internet safety in Luxembourg, which included perceptions of learning outcomes and evaluations of implementation and effectiveness. Training data from 2011 to 2018 were analyzed, including 28,060 students and 5,031 teachers. Students reported pronounced learning effects, especially for younger students and for repeated training participation. Teachers greatly appreciated the implementation and effectiveness, which generally increased over the years. The perceived effectiveness of the training was significantly related to teachers’ planning to cover internet safety topics in future lessons. The present study shows that carefully planned and continuously evaluated training sessions on internet safety successfully support children’s understanding and teachers’ willingness to implement internet safety in their curriculum. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL

in Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md; Teferle, Felix Norman; Li, Jonathan (Eds.) et al An efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds (2021, July 02)

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and ... [more ▼]

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and disaster management. Many methods have been developed over the last three decades. Recently, Deep Learning (DL) has become the most dominant technique for 3D point cloud classification. DL methods used for classification can be categorized into end-to-end and non end-to-end approaches. One of the main challenges of using supervised DL approaches is getting a sufficient amount of training data. The main advantage of using a supervised non end-to-end approach is that it requires less training data. This paper introduces a novel local feature-based non end-to-end DL algorithm that generates a binary classifier for ground point filtering. It studies feature relevance, and investigates three models that are different combinations of features. This method is free from the limitations of point clouds’ irregular data structure and varying data density, which is the biggest challenge for using the elegant convolutional neural network. The new algorithm does not require transforming data into regular 3D voxel grids or any rasterization. The performance of the new method has been demonstrated through two ALS datasets covering urban environments. The method successfully labels ground and non-ground points in the presence of steep slopes and height discontinuity in the terrain. Experiments in this paper show that the algorithm achieves around 97% in both F1-score and model accuracy for ground point labelling. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age: Global Governance
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the ... [more ▼]

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism and communication rights. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archives du Web luxembourgeois. Histoire, enjeux et perspectives
Els, Ben; Maurer, Yves; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de ... [more ▼]

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de proposer des réflexions sur les usages scientifiques qui peuvent en âtre faits, et ce au-delà de la seule histoire du numérique. [less ▲]

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