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See detailNot all elementary school teachers are scared of math
Artemenko, Christina; Masson, Nicolas UL; Georges, Carrie UL et al

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2021)

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See detailBalancing approaches to Migration Security in Europe and Asia
Searle, Martin; Koff, Harlan UL

in Tan, See Sang; Christiansen, Thomas; Kirchner, Emil (Eds.) The European Union’s Security Relations with Asian Powers (2021)

Migration has recently been framed as a threat to security in many parts of the world. Numerous advanced industrial states have in fact, securitized migration by implementing measures to control and even ... [more ▼]

Migration has recently been framed as a threat to security in many parts of the world. Numerous advanced industrial states have in fact, securitized migration by implementing measures to control and even extend external borders, through increased policing and financial contributions to neighbouring countries that are linked to migration control strategies. This process has led to the spread of formal and informal regionalization strategies in migration affairs. However, levels and types of securitization of migration reflect different perspectives on regional integration. This chapter compares migration governance in Europe and Asia and illustrates how relatively uniform regionalization in Europe has led to institutionalized responses promoting securitization whereas the divergent bottom-up approach to regionalism in Asia has resulted in significant policy variation amongst Asian states. Consequently, Asia’s seeming patchwork response differs from the European Union’s blanket approach, thus impeding close inter-regional collaboration in this policy arena. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting the ‘Black Hole’ of age-period excess mortality in 25 countries: Age-period-cohort residual analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert L.

in Bell, Andrew (Ed.) Age, Period, and Cohort Effects (2021)

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We ... [more ▼]

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We provide a new age-period-cohort-based methodology, combining information from age-period (AP) and APC-Detrended (APCD) analyses to detect all-cause mortality increases. Plotting the resulting AP coefficients and APCD residuals in equilateral Lexis diagrams, mortality patterns can easily be distinguished as age, period, or cohort trends and fluctuations. We highlight abnormalities as interactions of age and period (‘Black Holes’). We then investigate the ‘Black Holes’ of mortality of young-adult cohorts in the early 1990s in Spain, other southern European countries, and the U.S., in emphasizing their simultaneously occurring mortality crises. Additional analyses with WHO mortality data and epidemiological evidence from other studies show that these mortality increases likely result from lack of treatment and inadequate public health responses to the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We discuss other possible applications of the new method. [less ▲]

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See detailThe degree of Kummer extensions of number fields
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in International Journal of Number Theory (2021)

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha ... [more ▼]

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}), where n_i divides n for all i. There is an integer x such that these extensions have maximal degree over K(\zeta_g, \sqrt[g_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[g_r]{\alpha_r}), where g=\gcd(n,x) and g_i=\gcd(n_i,x). We prove that the constant x is computable. This result reduces to finitely many cases the computation of the degrees of the extensions K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}) over K. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Law Applicable to the Civil Consequences of Human Rights Violations Committed Abroad
Kinsch, Patrick UL

in Forlati, Serena; Franzina, Pietro (Eds.) Universal Jurisdiction –Which Way Forward ? (2021)

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See detailIdentities and Methodologies of Border Studies: Recent Empirical and Conceptual Approaches
Wille, Christian UL; Gerst, Dominik; Krämer, Hannes

in Borders in Perspective (2021), (6), 126

In recent decades, Border Studies have gained importance and have seen a noticeable increase in development. This manifests itself in an increased institutionalization, a differentiation of the areas of ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, Border Studies have gained importance and have seen a noticeable increase in development. This manifests itself in an increased institutionalization, a differentiation of the areas of research interest and a conceptual reorientation that is interested in examining processes. So far, however, little attention has been paid to questions about (inter)disciplinary self-perception and methodological foundations of Border Studies and the associated consequences for research activities. This thematic issue addresses these desiderata and brings together articles that deal with their (inter)disciplinary foundations as well as method(olog)ical and practical research questions. The authors also provide sound insights into a disparate field of work, disclose practical research strategies, and present methodologically sophisticated systematizations. [less ▲]

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See detailBorder Studies: a long-overdue self-examination
Wille, Christian UL; Gerst, Dominik; Krämer, Hannes

in Borders in Perspective (2021), (6), 11-16

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See detailBorder or bordering practice? Changing perspectives on borders and challenges of praxeological approaches
Connor, Ulla UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In Border Studies, the ongoing discussions on methodological and theoretical questions have led to the development of transformed approaches and vocabulary for border research. This contribution ... [more ▼]

In Border Studies, the ongoing discussions on methodological and theoretical questions have led to the development of transformed approaches and vocabulary for border research. This contribution highlights the shift from ‘border’ to ‘bordering practice’ and questions its sources in the scientific context, such as the cultural turn and the related practice turn. Despite the popular use of the term ‘practice’ in Border Studies, sociological practice theories are not at the center of the development of dynamic concepts for studying borders. The article emphasizes the compatibility of sociological practice theories with the practice and process orientation in Border Studies. It gives a short overview of praxeological thinking in sociology and identifies methodological challenges for Border Studies targeting the development of praxeological re-search perspectives for borders. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationale Disability Studies
Biermann, Julia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Waldschmidt, Anne (Ed.) Handbuch Disability Studies (2021)

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus auf den englischsprachigen Diskursen. Skizziert werden drei historische Phasen: die Etablierung der Disability Studies in den 1970er und 1980er Jahren, die Ausdifferenzierung in den 1990er und 2000er Jahren sowie die Pluralisierung seit den 2010er Jahren. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipath Mitigation Maps feasibility and applicability as an International GNSS Service product
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Elgered, Gunnar et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 17)

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to ... [more ▼]

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to improvements of reference frames, phase center offsets and variations of transmitter and receiver antennas, satellite orbits and clocks, and troposphere. Nonetheless, multipath remains for the most part an unmodelled source of error which causes range errors in the GNSS observations. The associated effects show highly localized features and have a different impact for each receiver and antenna. Multipath errors can propagate, can cause in-situ position biases and are also contributing to the prevalent draconitic harmonic signals. In order to mitigate the problem we generate site-specific corrections by employing a suitable averaging scheme for the stacking of carrier phase residuals. Our processing is based on globally distributed static multi-GNSS observations using several scientific GNSS software packages (Bernese GNSS Software, NAPEOS, GAMIT-GLOBK, and CSRS-PPP). Our multipath stacking maps (MPS) use the stacking of carrier phase residuals generated by variable azimuth cell size (congruent cells) and by allocating carrier phase residuals in each cell to generate the correction maps, unlike the standard fixed azimuth cell resolution approaches. This reduces the binning of fewer residuals at higher elevation angles. Before stacking, we also apply rigorous statistical outlier screening tests for each one-way post-fit carrier phase residual assigned to each of the congruent cells. We thus correct the multipath effects by subtracting the stacked multipath map from the post-fit carrier phase residual. Using this technique we produce a model available in the form of the Antenna Exchange (ANTEX) file format, that can potentially be implemented in routine GNSS analysis with no or little additional overhead for individual analysis centers (ACs). In this study, we assess the feasibility and applicability of the MPS maps as an International GNSS Service (IGS) product for routine GNSS analysis. We demonstrate the multipath stacking technique to result in a significant reduction of the variation in the one-way post-fit carrier phase residuals from multi-GNSS observations. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical Land Movements and Sea Level Changes on South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean: Results from 7 Years of Geodetic and Oceanographic Observations on a Remote Island
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Hibbert, Angela et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 16)

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge ... [more ▼]

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge, meteorological and seismic) in an otherwise largely under sampled oceanic region. Moreover, the South Atlantic Ocean plays an important role in global ocean circulation, con-necting the deep thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans, whilst also linking to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South, where the lack of continental barriers allows a free exchange of water between the major ocean basins. Hence, South Georgia po-tentially lies within a region susceptible to climatic changes before these can be felt further afield. In 2013 and 2014 a total of five GNSS stations were installed covering the area of the main island (approximately 170 x 50 km) with two of those being located close to the King Edward Point (KEP) Research Station and the GLOSS tide gauge (ID 187). Furthermore, precise levelling campaigns in 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2020 supported the analysis of local ground instabilities near the tide gauge. Through these activities the tide gauge datum within the Permanent Ser-vice for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been established, which in turn, makes the derived KEP mean sea level (MSL) record highly valuable for long-term studies and satellite altimetry cali-brations. In this study, we will present the vertical land movement estimates from seven years of GNSS observations, five precise levelling campaigns, and will discuss their impact on the sea level record from the KEP tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry sea surface heights. Our results confirm uplift all over South Georgia Island while the area at KEP and particularly the jetty with tide gauge are subsiding relative to the rest of the island. Using this information we correct the MSL record for the vertical land movements and investigate its signals together with those from nearby satellite altimetry tracks. [less ▲]

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See detailTest
Erkihune, Eshetu Nega UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

Poster (2020, December 11)

test

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See detailFootball activism as political contention: Contextual determinants of membership in the association of supporters of Hajduk Split
Glaurdic, Josip UL

in International Review for the Sociology of Sport (2020), 55(8), 1094-1115

Where do politically activist football supporters come from? What are the social conditions under which they are successfully recruited and mobilised? This article answers those questions by analysing a ... [more ▼]

Where do politically activist football supporters come from? What are the social conditions under which they are successfully recruited and mobilised? This article answers those questions by analysing a unique dataset of more than 43,000 members of Our Hajduk – the association of supporters of the Croatian club Hajduk Split – as well as a host of data on the communities they live in. The analysis shows that Our Hajduk thrives in exactly the same areas where most other social, civil and political organisations thrive: among the more educated and more socioeconomically successful. Most importantly, the analysis shows that the pattern of Our Hajduk membership closely follows the patterns of political affiliation and participation in Croatia’s electoral arena and is guided by the opposition to political players who have dominated Croatian football and turned it into a social field marked by corruption and mismanagement. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-Regulation of Fundamental Rights? The EU Code of Conduct on Hate Speech, Related Initiatives and Beyond
Quintel, Teresa Alegra UL; Ullrich, Carsten UL

in Ojanen, Tuomas; Petkova, Bilyana (Eds.) Fundamental Rights Protection Online: the Future Regulation of Intermediaries (2020)

This contribution will give a brief overview of EU legislation encouraging self-regulation, such as codes of conduct, communications and recommendations and propose an alternative approach towards ... [more ▼]

This contribution will give a brief overview of EU legislation encouraging self-regulation, such as codes of conduct, communications and recommendations and propose an alternative approach towards fighting illegal content on online platforms, which ventures squarely into co-regulation. There is no formal and straightforward definition on what constitutes illegal hate speech. However, hate speech might be classified as targeting minority groups in a way that promotes violence or social disorder and hatred. The use of social media and online platforms to spread illegal content and hate speech has increased progressively during recent years, as content may be disseminated anonymously and further shared by other users. Therefore, the timely removal or blocking of access to illegal content is essential to limit the wider dissemination and harm of individuals targeted by hate speech. The prominent role of online platforms in revolutionizing modern communication and as influencers of the public opinion has increasingly come to the attention of policy makers. Since online platforms provide an important stage for phenomena such as ‘fake news’, ‘hate speech’ or ‘disinformation’, the pressure to take more responsibility over content hosted by them has grown. The EU Commission took action via several attempts to set certain rules for online intermediaries, mostly relying on non-binding agreements, often in the form of self-regulatory measures, such as codes of conduct, guidelines and recommendations. These measures have raised concerns regarding possible limitations of Freedom of Expression, because they require online platforms to adjudicate on the legality of content, often by relying on automated systems. Meanwhile decisions over the unlawfulness of hate speech and “disinformation” are often notoriously difficult. The deployment of algorithms to analyse the content generated on platforms, such as recognition and filtering technologies, bear risks and pitfalls of automated compliance solutions. Although the use of algorithms to monitor content online still happens based on the “human-in-the-loop principle”, the diligence and efficiency with which illegal content can be reviewed is also dependent on the financial capacity and resources of each company. In addition, these privatized removal procedures maybe influenced by commercial interests and lack effective appeals mechanisms. All these issues throw up serious questions about the democratic legitimacy of self-regulatory removal procedures An alternative solution, proposed in this article, would require platforms to apply a risk-based approach to preventing and removing illegal content. The norms and standards of such an approach would be based on duty of care and be subject to regulatory oversight. It is suggested that the current self-regulatory proposals be replaced by co-regulatory solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of constitutive models for describing the flow of uncured styrene-butadiene rubber
Řehoř, Martin; Gansen, Alex UL; Sill, Clemens et al

in Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (2020), 286

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare multi-mode constitutive models combining two ... [more ▼]

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare multi-mode constitutive models combining two viscoelastic modes (linear and/or nonlinear) in three possible ways. Our particular choice of the two modes was inspired by models originally developed to describe the response of asphalt binders. We select the model that best fits the experimental data obtained from a modified stress relaxation experiment in the torsional configuration of the plate-plate rheometer. The optimisation of the five model parameters for each model is achieved by minimising the weighted least-squares distance between experimental observations and the computer model output using a tree-structured Parzen estimator algorithm to find an initial guess, followed by further optimisation using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The results show that the model combining the linear mode and the nonlinear mode is the most suitable variant to describe the observed behavior of SBR in the given regime. The predictive capabilities of the three models are further examined in changed experimental and numerical configurations. Full data and code to produce the figures in this article are included as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailOut-of-the-box Multipath TCP as a Tor Transport Protocol: Performance and Privacy Implications
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Panchenko, Andriy UL et al

in 19th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (IEEE NCA 2020) (2020, November 25)

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See detailThe Helpers of Anne Frank - Recontextualising the Rescue of Dutch Jews
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 24)

This paper sets out to recontextualise the memory of rescue as it pertains to Dutch Jewry during the Holocaust, by focusing on the helpers of Anne Frank and the other Jews in hiding in the Secret Annex ... [more ▼]

This paper sets out to recontextualise the memory of rescue as it pertains to Dutch Jewry during the Holocaust, by focusing on the helpers of Anne Frank and the other Jews in hiding in the Secret Annex. Much in the same way as perceptions of Jews in hiding have been decisively shaped by the story of Anne Frank, not only in the Dutch public imagination but arguably globally, so too the image of help, at least in the Western European and Anglosaxon world, has been considerably shaped by the story of two of the five helpers, Miep and Jan Gies, even if the support they provided to the onderduikers in the Secret Annex could ultimately not prevent discovery. The question of help, as well as the ultimate betrayal, of the onderduikers are linked to the broader question of the role of the Dutch population during the Holocaust. Within that context the Anne Frank story can and has indeed been used to provide both a stereotypical image of Gentile betrayal as well as an idealized and, arguably, romanticized image of Gentile help. In this paper I will trace the ways in which the image of help and rescue of Dutch Jews was shaped by the story of, especially, Miep Gies and analyse the ways in which her story resonated in the Netherlands as well as abroad. Important moments in this regard were the recognition of Miep Gies and the other helpers as Righteous Among the Nations in 1972, and the global publication of Miep Gies’ memoirs in 1987. I will frame this analysis within the broader historical context of 1) help provided to Jews in hiding in the Netherlands and the question of how representative the ‘helpers of Anne Frank’ were, and 2) the extent to which a focus on a few key individuals obscures the more complex reality of how rescue functioned in the first place. [less ▲]

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See detailLëtzbuerger Musek säit dem 2. Weltkrich
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2020)

An dësem Virtrag gëtt d’Museksliewen zu Lëtzebuerg säit dem Zweete Weltkrich behandelt, den Opschwong vun der Amateurmusik an der kuerz dono, an d’Community Music an eisem haitege Medienzäitalter. Déi ... [more ▼]

An dësem Virtrag gëtt d’Museksliewen zu Lëtzebuerg säit dem Zweete Weltkrich behandelt, den Opschwong vun der Amateurmusik an der kuerz dono, an d’Community Music an eisem haitege Medienzäitalter. Déi folgend Aspekter stinn am Mëttelpunkt: D’”Gläichschaltung” vum Museks- a Kulturliewe während der nationalsozialistischer Besatzungszäit unhand vum Beispill vun der Dikrecher Philharmonie. Heiru gëtt kloer, dass déi un der Muecht sech dacks ouni Erfolleg ëm d’Gonscht vun der musizéierender Bevëlkerung beméit hunn a mat wéi engen drastesche Mëttelen si Veräiner begéint sinn, déi net noginn hunn. Am musekssoziologeschen Deel vun der Konferenz gëtt d’Museksveräinsliewen nom Zweete Weltkrich thematiséiert. Den Neiufank no de Krichsjoren huet de Veräiner eng nei Beléiftheet bruecht, déi souguer déi aus der Grënnungszäit iwwertraff huet. Dozou koum, dass d’Aarbechter aus den Industriegebidder am Süde vum Land an de Museken an de Chéier en intellektuellen Ausgläich zu hirer kierperlecher Aarbecht fonnt hunn. De kënschtlereschen Niveau vun de verschiddene Gesellschafte gouf zu engem iwwerregionale Virbild. D’Enn vun der Stolindustrie an den 1980er Jore war och d’Enn vu ville Museksgesellschaften, wéi zum Beispill der Déifferdenger Harmonie Municipale ënnert der Direktioun vum Asca Rampini. Säitdeem huet sech d’Museksliewen ëmmer méi dezentraliséiert. Et gouf versicht, des batter Erfarung mat enger prononcéierter musikalescher Bildung wettzemaachen, wat dozou gefouert huet, dass souguer an den entleeënsten Ecke vum Land Musekscoursen ugebuede goufen. Des Entwécklung huet eng Dezentraliséierung vum ganze Kulturliewen zu Lëtzebuerg matsechbruecht, e weideren Aspekt, deen dëse Virtrag behandele wäert. [less ▲]

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See detailTribune dans Le Monde: Numérique : avec le Covid-19, « la présence physique s’est avérée soudainement porteuse d’une dimension politique »
Becker, Katrin UL

in Le Monde (2020)

La philosophe Katrin Becker estime, dans une tribune au « Monde », que lorsqu’il devient possible de façonner son propre accès aux autres depuis un écran, on en oublie la nécessité des contacts directs ... [more ▼]

La philosophe Katrin Becker estime, dans une tribune au « Monde », que lorsqu’il devient possible de façonner son propre accès aux autres depuis un écran, on en oublie la nécessité des contacts directs, fondements de la coexistence sociale. [less ▲]

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See detailHey, lass uns das zusammen machen!
Feist, Peter; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

Article for general public (2020)

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