Results 161-180 of 5140.
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPerceptions of Society’s Necessary Standard of Living: Are Perceptions Determined by What People Have, or Do They Reflect a Social Consensus?
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Andreß, Hans-Jürgen

in Social Indicators Research (2020)

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls ... [more ▼]

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls below a certain threshold, the individual is assumed to be materially deprived. Also state-guaranteed minimum income payments are often based on a basket of goods, which are assumed to represent a minimal living standard in the respective society. However, this approach rests on the assumption that a social consensus exists about what constitutes society’s necessary standard of living, which has never been tested in a theoretically and methodologically sound way. Our paper provides a model of the main determinants of standard of living perceptions in the public, develops a measurement model for a survey of necessary items, and tests whether these perceptions are expressions of a consensual normative standard or reflections of the respondent’s idiosyncratic individual living situation. We have used two waves of the GESIS Panel in 2016 to survey the current opinions about the necessary standard of living in the German population. Estimating cross-lagged auto-correlated structural equation models, we find that necessity evaluations are quite homogeneous across social groups but are influenced by individuals’ possessions, which vary within society and hence, challenge the social consensus assumption. Moreover, instead of using only the most necessary items, survey instruments should include both necessary and less necessary items to reflect the whole distribution of possible standard of living perceptions. Our results further suggest that analyses using single items should be avoided due to possible measurement errors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailDeep dive into Interledger: Understanding the Ripple ecosystem - Part 4
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Cassagnes, Cyril UL; State, Radu UL

Learning material (2020)

At the technical level, the goal of Interledger is to provide an architecture and a minimal set of protocols to enable interoperability for any value transfer system. The Interledger protocol is literally ... [more ▼]

At the technical level, the goal of Interledger is to provide an architecture and a minimal set of protocols to enable interoperability for any value transfer system. The Interledger protocol is literally a protocol for interledger payments. To understand how is it possible to achieve this goal, several aspects of the technology require a deeper analysis. For this reason, in our journey to become knowledgeable and active contributor we decided to create our own test-bed on our premises. By doing so, we noticed that some aspects are well documented but we found that others might need more attention and clarification. Despite a large community effort, the task to keep information on a fast evolving software ecosystem is tedious and not always the priority for such a project. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to guide, through several hands-on activities, community members who want to engage at different levels. The document consolidates all the relevant information from generating a simple payment to ultimately create a test-bed with the Interledger protocol suite between Ripple and other distributed ledger technology. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailThe ALMA-Yactul Ecosystem: A Holistic Approach for Student-centered Integration of Learning Material
Grevisse, Christian UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Digital learning resources play a key role in technology enhanced learning, yet their organization poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. Students are confronted with an ever-growing amount of ... [more ▼]

Digital learning resources play a key role in technology enhanced learning, yet their organization poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. Students are confronted with an ever-growing amount of available resources in an open, heterogeneous corpus. Finding relevant learning material for a given context or task, such as an exercise, is non-trivial, especially for novices in a complex domain, who often lack specific search skills. In addition, there is often no direct link between the learning material and the task at hand, and the constant interruption of the task in order to search for resources may have an impact on the cognitive load. Moreover, from the perspective of teachers and instructional designers, authoring high-quality learning material is a time-intensive task. Hence, reusing the authored material in multiple contexts would be beneficial. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing the ALMA-Yactul ecosystem, a holistic approach for student-centered integration of learning material. Learners can benefit from scaffolding support to retrieve learning material relevant to their current context at a fine-grained level and across the boundaries of individual courses. This integration is showcased in multiple applications and domains, such as a plugin for an Integrated Development Environment or an enhanced sketchnoting app. While the former provides novices in computer programming the necessary tools to scaffold the search for heterogeneous documents on fine-grained syntactical elements, the latter allows for suggesting further information while taking notes in class. In both cases, it is not necessary for learners to leave their current study environment. To implicitly link learning resources and tasks, Semantic Web technologies such as ontologies are used to annotate documents. For this purpose, an extensible and lightweight modular domain ontology for programming languages has been created. While the main study domain in this work is computer science with a special focus on programming, the transferability of the proposed approach to other domains is demonstrated through multiple examples. Furthermore, to foster the active engagement of students in the learning process, Yactul, a game-based platform for continuous active learning has been developed. Apart from its use in the classroom, the platform also provides formative assessment to the individual learner by keeping track of her performance on a per-concept basis. Yactul activities are a key element in the ecosystem, both benefitting from and contributing to the integration of learning material. Finally, teachers are assisted in semantically enhancing their resources through semi-automatic annotation support within popular authoring tools. A Knowledge Graph-based approach is employed for core concept identification. Apart from analysing the usage of this ecosystem and evaluating the user satisfaction in university courses, an experiment with high school pupils lacking prior knowledge in programming yielded positive results with respect to the proposed scaffolding support. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Schwarz-Voronov embedding of Z_2^n - manifolds
Bruce, Andrew UL; Ibarguengoytia, Eduardo UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (2020), 16(002), 47

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (9 UL)
Full Text
See detailA newform theory for Katz modular forms
Berhanu, Daniel UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this paper, a strong multiplicity one theorem for Katz modular forms is studied. We show that a cuspidal Katz eigenform which admits an irreducible Galois representation is in the level and weight old ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a strong multiplicity one theorem for Katz modular forms is studied. We show that a cuspidal Katz eigenform which admits an irreducible Galois representation is in the level and weight old space of a uniquely associated Katz newform. We also set up multiplicity one results for Katz eigenforms which have reducible Galois representation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDie Landwirtschaft in der Provinz Gallia Narbonensis und die Frage nach dem Sozialstatus der Arbeitskräfte
Groff, Thierry UL

in Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (2020), 39(2019), 1-12

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic Guinier law
Michels, Andreas UL; Malyeyev, Artem UL; Titov, Ivan UL et al

in IUCrJ (2020), 7

Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons is a routine method for the determination of nanoparticle sizes. The so-called Guinier law represents the low-q approximation for the small-angle scattering ... [more ▼]

Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons is a routine method for the determination of nanoparticle sizes. The so-called Guinier law represents the low-q approximation for the small-angle scattering curve from an assembly of particles. The Guinier law has originally been derived for nonmagnetic particle-matrix-type systems, and it is successfully employed for the estimation of particle sizes in various scientific domains (e.g., soft matter physics, biology, colloidal chemistry, materials science). An important prerequisite for it to apply is the presence of a discontinuous interface separating particles and matrix. Here, we introduce the Guinier law for the case of magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and experimentally demonstrate its applicability for the example of nanocrystalline cobalt. It is well- known that the magnetic microstructure of nanocrystalline ferromagnets is highly nonuniform on the nanometer length scale and characterized by a spectrum of continuously varying long-wavelength magnetization fluctuations, i.e., these systems do not manifest sharp interfaces in their magnetization profile. The magnetic Guinier radius depends on the applied magnetic field, on the magnetic interactions (exchange, magnetostatics), and on the magnetic anisotropy-field radius, which characterizes the size over which the magnetic anisotropy field is coherently aligned into the same direction. In contrast to the nonmagnetic conventional Guinier law, the magnetic version can be applied to fully dense random-anisotropy-type ferromagnets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSuicide Prevention: Using the Number of Health Complaints as an Indirect Alternative for Screening Suicidal Adolescents
Heinz, Andreas UL; Catunda, Carolina UL; van Duin, Claire UL et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2020), 260

Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Screening for persons at risk usually includes asking about suicidal ideation, which is considered inappropriate in some societies ... [more ▼]

Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Screening for persons at risk usually includes asking about suicidal ideation, which is considered inappropriate in some societies and situations. To avoid directly addressing suicide, this paper investigates whether the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Symptom Checklist (HBSC-SCL), a validated non-clinical measure of eight subjective health complaints (e.g. headache, feeling low), could be used as a tool for screening suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents. Methods: 5262 secondary school students aged 12-18 answered the Luxembourgish HBSC 2014 survey, including the HBSC-SCL items and suicidal ideation and behavior questions. Results: Each HBSC-SCL item correlates with suicidal ideation and behavior. A sum score was calculated ranging from zero to eight health complaints to predict respondents who considered suicide (area under the ROC curve = .770). The ideal cut-off for screening students who consider suicide is three or more health complaints: sensitivity is 66.3%, specificity is 75.9% and positive predictive value is 32.9%. Limitations: One limitation is HBSC-SCL's low positive predictive value. This is a general problem of screening rare events: the lower the prevalence, the lower the positive predictive value. Sensitivity and specificity could be improved by taking age-, gender- and country-specific cut-off values, but such refinements would make the score calculation more complicated. Conclusions: The HBSC-SCL is short, easy to use, with satisfactory screening properties. The checklist can be used when suicide cannot be addressed directly, and also in a more general context, e.g. by school nurses when screening adolescents. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 142 (28 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModel Uncertainty and Pricing Performance in Option Valuation
Bams, Dennis; Blanchard, Gildas; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in The Journal of Derivatives (2020), 27(3), 31-49

The objective of this paper is to evaluate option pricing model performance at the cross sectional level. For this purpose, we propose a statistical framework, in which we in particular account for the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to evaluate option pricing model performance at the cross sectional level. For this purpose, we propose a statistical framework, in which we in particular account for the uncertainty associated with the reported pricing performance. Instead of a single figure, we determine an entire probability distribution function for the loss function that is used to measure option pricing model performance. This methodology enables us to visualize the effect of parameter uncertainty on the reported pricing performance. Using a data driven approach, we confirm previous evidence that standard volatility models with clustering and leverage effects are sufficient for the option pricing purpose. In addition, we demonstrate that there is short-term persistence but long-term heterogeneity in cross-sectional option pricing information. This finding has two important implications. First, it justifies the practitioner’s routine to refrain from time series approaches, and instead estimate option pricing models on a cross-section by cross-section basis. Second, the long term heterogeneity in option prices pinpoints the importance of measuring, comparing and testing option pricing model for each cross-section separately. To our knowledge no statistical testing framework has been applied to a single cross-section of option prices before. We propose a methodology that addresses this need. The proposed framework can be applied to a broad set of models and data. In the empirical part of the paper, we show by means of example, an application that uses a discrete time volatility model on S&P 500 index options. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConditionality in the European Union External Migration Policy – A Critical Appraisal
Silga, Janine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe economic impact of cross-border work on the municipalities of residence: an example at the French–Luxembourgish border
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Wille, Christian; Nienaber, Birte (Eds.) Border Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life – Working Life – Communication – Languages (2020)

This chapter seeks to investigate whether the proximity of a border can be seen as an engine of regional development, or a disruptive element. The impacts of cross-border activity on demographic evolution ... [more ▼]

This chapter seeks to investigate whether the proximity of a border can be seen as an engine of regional development, or a disruptive element. The impacts of cross-border activity on demographic evolution but also on unemployment or economic activity at the French–Luxembourgish border will be identified. Quantitative data from the municipal level (French census for 2014) will be used, with a special focus on the French border municipality of Longwy (formerly one of the main steel-producing areas in France). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailWie Zeki zu Göhte kommt : Eine Lehrerkonstruktion der besonderen Art
Arend, Béatrice UL

in Rauh, Bernhard; Weber, Jean-Marie (Eds.) Lehrkräftebildung mit Fack ju Göhte : Junge Lehrerinnen und Lehrer zwischen Adoleszenz und Verantwortung (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpillovers to small business credit risk
Wolff, Christian UL

in Small Business Economics (2020)

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default ... [more ▼]

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default and bankruptcy rates following a shock to a customer industry. On an industry level, the shock to a customer industry is followed by a decrease in industry markups, disproportionate closure of firms, and cutbacks in inventories. Our analysis quantifies the elevated credit risk among small businesses and suggests a non-negligible 0.83% increase in expected losses on a diversified loan portfolio following a credit risk shock. This study provides banks and supervisors with greater clarity on timing and on the extent of elevated small business credit risk. It also allows them to assess the exposure of a bank portfolio to fluctuations in small business default rate. Such improved default prediction reduces credit rationing to the small business economy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Potential Short- and Long-Term Disruptions and Transformative Impacts of 5G and Beyond Wireless Networks: Lessons Learnt from the Development of a 5G Testbed Environment
PATWARY, MOHMAMMAD; NAWAZ, SYED JUNAID; RAHMAN, MD. ABDUR et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

The capacity and coverage requirements for 5th generation (5G) and beyond wireless connectivity will be significantly different from the predecessor networks. To meet these requirements, the anticipated ... [more ▼]

The capacity and coverage requirements for 5th generation (5G) and beyond wireless connectivity will be significantly different from the predecessor networks. To meet these requirements, the anticipated deployment cost in the United Kingdom (UK) is predicted to be between £30bn and £50bn, whereas the current annual capital expenditure (CapEX) of the mobile network operators (MNOs) is £2.5bn. This prospect has vastly impacted and has become one of the major delaying factors for building the 5G physical infrastructure, whereas other areas of 5G are progressing at their speed. Due to the expensive and complicated nature of the network infrastructure and spectrum, the second-tier operators, widely known as mobile virtual network operators (MVNO), are entirely dependent on the MNOs. In this paper, an extensive study is conducted to explore the possibilities of reducing the 5G deployment cost and developing viable business models. In this regard, the potential of infrastructure, data, and spectrum sharing is thoroughly investigated. It is established that the use of existing public infrastructure (e.g., streetlights, telephone poles, etc.) has a potential to reduce the anticipated cost by about 40% to 60%. This paper also reviews the recent Ofcom initiatives to release location-based licenses of the 5G-compatible radio spectrum. Our study suggests that simplification of infrastructure and spectrum will encourage the exponential growth of scenario-specific cellular networks (e.g., private networks, community networks, micro-operators) and will potentially disrupt the current business models of telecommunication business stakeholders – specifically MNOs and TowerCos. Furthermore, the anticipated dense device connectivity in 5G will increase the resolution of traditional and non-traditional data availability significantly. This will encourage extensive data harvesting as a business opportunity and function within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as large social networks. Consequently, the rise of new infrastructures and spectrum stakeholders is anticipated. This will fuel the development of a 5G data exchange ecosystem where data transactions are deemed to be high-value business commodities. The privacy and security of such data, as well as definitions of the associated revenue models and ownership, are challenging areas – and these have yet to emerge and mature fully. In this direction, this paper proposes the development of a unified data hub with layered structured privacy and security along with blockchain and encrypted off-chain based ownership/royalty tracking. Also, a data economy-oriented business model is proposed. The study found that with the potential commodification of data and data transactions along with the low-cost physical infrastructure and spectrum, the 5G network will introduce significant disruption in the Telco business ecosystem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSoft law, effectiveness of fundamental rights and migration: how effective are migrants’ fundamental rights in an era of European governance
Mavrouli, Roila UL

in Current Challenges in Migration Policy and Law, Edited by Emília Lana de Freitas Castro and Sergio Maia Tavares, Published in London, England, ISBN: 978-1-910781-77-7 (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (3 UL)
Full Text
See detailKatrin Becker, Was tun Sie?
Becker, Katrin UL

in forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur (2020), 402

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentification of pathogenic variant enriched regions across genes and gene families
Perez-Palma, Eduardo; May, Patrick UL; Iqbal, Sumaiya et al

in Genome Research (2020), 30(1), 62-71

Missense variant interpretation is challenging. Essential regions for protein function are conserved among gene family members, and genetic variants within these regions are potentially more likely to ... [more ▼]

Missense variant interpretation is challenging. Essential regions for protein function are conserved among gene family members, and genetic variants within these regions are potentially more likely to confer risk to disease. Here, we generated 2,871 gene family protein sequence alignments involving 9,990 genes and performed missense variant burden analyses to identify novel essential protein regions. We mapped 2,219,811 variants from the general population into these alignments and compared their distribution with 76,153 missense variants from patients. With this gene family approach, we identified 465 regions enriched for patient variants spanning 41,463 amino acids in 1,252 genes. As a comparison, testing the same genes individually we identified less patient variant enriched regions involving only 2,639 amino acids and 215 genes. Next, we selected de novo variants from 6,753 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders and 1,911 unaffected siblings, and observed an 8.33-fold enrichment of patient variants in our identified regions (95% C.I.=3.90-Inf, p-value = 2.72x10-11). Using the complete ClinVar variant set, we found that missense variants inside the identified regions are 106-fold more likely to be classified as pathogenic in comparison to benign classification (OR = 106.15, 95% C.I = 70.66-Inf, p-value < 2.2 x 10-16). All pathogenic variant enriched regions (PERs) identified are available online through the “PER viewer” a user-friendly online platform for interactive data mining, visualization and download. In summary, our gene family burden analysis approach identified novel pathogenic variant enriched regions in protein sequences. This annotation can empower variant interpretation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 183 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChapter 16 - Cognitive factors associated with gaming disorder
Billieux, Joël UL; Potenza, Marc N.; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio (Ed.) Cognition and Addiction (2020)

There is substantial clinical and public health evidence that video gaming, particularly online gaming, can become excessive and lead to psychological distress and functional impairment. This has led to ... [more ▼]

There is substantial clinical and public health evidence that video gaming, particularly online gaming, can become excessive and lead to psychological distress and functional impairment. This has led to the inclusion of gaming disorder as an official mental condition in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2019). Psychological models recognize the importance of cognitive factors to explain the initiation, development, and maintenance of problematic gaming behaviors. This chapter will summarize some of the known cognitive factors associated with problem gaming and gaming disorder. These cognitions will be divided into two broad categories: (1) cognitive deficits (e.g., impaired executive functioning, hazardous decision-making, or deliberative processes) and (2) cognitive biases (e.g., attentional biases, cognitive distortions, dysfunctional cognitions). This chapter will review and synthesize available research findings and highlight their clinical implications for gaming disorder. The limitations of the research base are considered and some potential avenues for future research are proposed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCVH Malach – Centrum vizuální historie Konference a workshop o novém přístupu a využití video databáze Fortunoff
Bronec, Jakub UL

in Marginalia Historica (2020)

On May 18, I took part in a very interesting workshop organized by the Malach Centre for Visual History at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University in Prague. This exceptional ... [more ▼]

On May 18, I took part in a very interesting workshop organized by the Malach Centre for Visual History at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University in Prague. This exceptional association provides local access to the extensive digital archives of the USC Shoah Foundation - the Institute for Visual history and Education (USC), the Refugee Voices archive of the Association of Jewish Refugees and the testimony collection of the Jewish Holocaust Centre in Melbourne. Nevertheless, the workshop focused on the newly incorporated Fortunoff Video Archive (FVA) that belongs to the category of long-awaited ingestion, and the path to get a licence was more than difficult. The archive represents a new source for all scholars including me, but in this short comment, I would like to critically point out to several minor drawbacks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (5 UL)