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See detailDetecting the ‘Black Hole’ of age-period excess mortality in 25 countries: Age-period-cohort residual analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert L.

in Bell, Andrew (Ed.) Age, Period, and Cohort Effects (2021)

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We ... [more ▼]

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We provide a new age-period-cohort-based methodology, combining information from age-period (AP) and APC-Detrended (APCD) analyses to detect all-cause mortality increases. Plotting the resulting AP coefficients and APCD residuals in equilateral Lexis diagrams, mortality patterns can easily be distinguished as age, period, or cohort trends and fluctuations. We highlight abnormalities as interactions of age and period (‘Black Holes’). We then investigate the ‘Black Holes’ of mortality of young-adult cohorts in the early 1990s in Spain, other southern European countries, and the U.S., in emphasizing their simultaneously occurring mortality crises. Additional analyses with WHO mortality data and epidemiological evidence from other studies show that these mortality increases likely result from lack of treatment and inadequate public health responses to the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We discuss other possible applications of the new method. [less ▲]

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See detailOrienter les soins vers le patient partenaire. Un livre blanc pour la Grande Région
Pétré Benoit, Consortium APPS Lux; Baumann, Michèle UL; Chauvel, Louis UL et al

Book published by INTERREG APPS (2020)

Les différents chapitres de ce livre proposent une approche holistique pour faire évoluer le système de santé vers le partenariat de soins. Résultat de trois années de recherche et de concertation, le ... [more ▼]

Les différents chapitres de ce livre proposent une approche holistique pour faire évoluer le système de santé vers le partenariat de soins. Résultat de trois années de recherche et de concertation, le Livre Blanc s’appuie sur des recherches documentaires (analyse de la littérature scientifique et de la législation spécifique de chaque pays), des entretiens et des enquêtes auprès de nombreux acteurs, le repérage et l’analyse d’initiatives en GR et la discussion orientée vers le consensus. Par ailleurs, les propositions de recommandations ont été élaborées et discutées lors d’un séminaire interrégional réalisé en décembre 2019. Le Livre Blanc est structuré en 5 parties qui s’adressent chacune à un public ciblé. La première partie situe le contexte dans lequel s’est réalisé le projet et décrit la méthodologie du programme. La seconde partie est consacrée aux aspects réglementaires de l’approche patient partenaire et à leurs conséquences sur les pratiques et les initiatives analysées sur le terrain. Elle est destinée de manière privilégiée aux mandataires politiques. La troisième partie propose une réflexion sur le développement de stratégies de partenariat au niveau des institutions de santé. Elle concerne les gestionnaires des établissements de santé. La quatrième partie vise à amener les professionnels à s’interroger sur ce que le partenariat de soins peut leur apporter dans leurs pratiques de soins. Elle s’adresse, en particulier, aux acteurs en contact direct avec les patients. La cinquième et dernière partie suggère différentes voies possibles de développement de l’APPS dans les domaines de l’enseignement et de la recherche. Toutes ces parties s’adressent bien évidemment au patient, qui est au coeur de l’APPS. Les prises de position proposées par ce Livre Blanc s’appuient sur les données collectées par le consortium de recherche de 2017 à 2020. Dès lors, ce document ne peut être exhaustif et est appelé à évoluer, basé davantage sur une fonction vectrice de normes que de règles. Pour davantage d’information et pour connaitre nos activités et nos publications, rendezvous sur le site web du projet APPS (https://www.patientpartner.org/). [less ▲]

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See detailLogically Centralized Security for Software-Defined Networking
Kreutz, Diego UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) decouples the control and data planes of traditional networks, logically centralizing the functional properties of the network in the SDN controller. While this ... [more ▼]

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) decouples the control and data planes of traditional networks, logically centralizing the functional properties of the network in the SDN controller. While this centralization brought advantages such as a faster pace of innovation, it also disrupted some of the natural defenses of traditional architectures against different threats. Until now, SDN research has essentially been concerned with the functional side, despite some specific works relating to non-functional properties like ‘security’, ‘dependability’, or ‘quality of service’. Security is an essential non-functional property of SDN. The lack of reliable security-by-design mechanisms can quickly lead to the compromise of the entire network. For instance, most of the current security mechanisms in SDN controllers lead to exploitable vulnerabilities that allow adversaries to easily control or even shut down the entire control plane. The growing concern regarding insider threats substantially amplifies the problem. The reason lies in the fact that current Software-Defined Networks (SDNs) (e.g., OpenFlow-enabled networks) rely on weak protection mechanisms. To address these crucial security issues in the SDN control plane, it is necessary, though not sufficient, that we start by securely identifying, authenticating, and authorizing all devices before allowing them to become part of the network. Though SDN security is the central tenet of this thesis, we believe that the problem is much more generic. In essence, there is still a lack of a systematic approach to ensuring such relevant non-functional properties as security, dependability, or quality of service. Current approaches are mostly ad-hoc and piecemeal, which has led to efficiency and effectiveness problems. This reflection led us to claim that the successful enforcement of non-functional properties as a pillar of SDN robustness calls for a systematic approach. We further advocate, for its materialization, the re-iteration of the successful formula behind SDN– ‘logical centralization’. In consequence, we propose ANCHOR, a subsystem architecture for SDN that promotes the logical centralization of non-functional properties. We start by presenting the general concept and architectural principles, suggesting how they can satisfactorily enhance the current state of the art with regard to any non-functional property (security, dependability, performance, quality of service, etc.). We claim and justify that centralizing such mechanisms is vital for their effectiveness, by allowing us to: define and enforce global policies for those properties; reduce the complexity of controllers and forwarding devices; ensure higher levels of robustness for critical services; foster interoperability of the non-functional property enforcement mechanisms; and finally, better foster the resilience of the architecture itself. We focus on ‘security’ as a use case in the rest of the thesis, discussing the specialization of the ANCHOR architecture to logically-centralized enforcement of security properties. However, by presenting a principled solution to the main problem of the thesis (SDN security), we also show the effectiveness of the general ANCHOR concept, opening avenues for further research on its extension to other desirable non-functional properties, such as dependability and Quality of Service (QoS). We identify the current security gaps in SDNs, and investigate the adequate security mechanisms that should populate the architecture middleware, globally and consistently. ANCHOR sets out to provide — in a homogeneous manner to all controllers and forwarding devices — essential security mechanisms such as strong entropy, resilient pseudo-random generators, secure device registration, association and recommendation, amongst other crucial services. We present the design of those mechanisms and protocols. With the objective of promoting generalized use of encryption and authentication in the control plane, we additionally propose and describe a secure control plane communication infrastructure, Keep It Simple and Secure (KISS), based on a novel lightweight mechanism for generating cryptographic secrets — integrated Device Verification Value (iDVV). iDVV can be used in a number of ways, in a number of protocols, and outperforms widely used alternatives. In the context of this thesis, the KISS infrastructure is set up by ANCHOR and used to ensure the security of interactions amongst it, controllers and forwarding devices. Being conceptually logically-centralized, ANCHOR presents a single-point-of-failure (SPoF) challenge, which we address, through incremental measures, some of which can be selectively present in concrete designs. As a baseline, we harden the design, by endowing it with robust functions in the different modules. We increase assurance by discussing and informally proving correctness of all mechanisms and algorithms, and we also formally verify the main algorithms through a proof-assistant. By only using symmetric cryptography, we make the system Post-Quantum Secure (PQS). We also embed measures to achieve Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) in all algorithms, protecting pre-compromise communications in the presence of successful attacks. Finally, for higher criticality systems, we take additional algorithmic and architectural measures to mitigate the effects of possible security failures. We provide for Post-Compromise Security (PCS) through the semi-automatic restart of operation after a full compromise of ANCHOR. We present as well a design of resilience mechanisms — the continued prevention of failure/compromise by automatic means — through fail-fast recovery techniques. The prototypes’ implementation aspects and the evaluation of the two fundamental pieces of our work (ANCHOR and KISS) are performed in the respective chapters. The above-mentioned discussion and informal proof of correctness of all mechanisms and algorithms is given in appendices. We also formally machine- verified the main algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Western Middle Classes under Stress: Welfare State Retrenchments, Globalization, and Declining Returns to Education
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Mir Rossii (2020), 29(4), 85-111

Following the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Gustav Schmoller before him, the multipolarity of the middle classes between higher and lower, and between cultural and economic capitals is well acknowledged ... [more ▼]

Following the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Gustav Schmoller before him, the multipolarity of the middle classes between higher and lower, and between cultural and economic capitals is well acknowledged. This old vision is useful to understand the “middle classes adrift” of the last 20 years in France and Continental Europe. The expansion of the “new wage earner middle class” of the 1960s to 1990s is now an old dream of the welfare state expansion of Western societies, and the European social structure now faces a trend of “repatrimonialization”, meaning a U-turn towards a decline in the value of mid-qualified work and an expansion of the return to the inheritance of family assets. This paper addresses three main points. First, a new description of repatrimonialization is useful in the specific European context of middle-class societies. We need a redefinition of the system of middle classes (plural) in the context of the construction and decline of strong welfare states. Second, there are three ruptures in the social trends of the ‘wage earner society’ of the 1960s to 1990s. In this period, economic growth, social homogenization and social protection were major contextual elements of the expansion of ‘the new middle class,’ based on educational meritocracy, the valorization of credentialed skills, and the expansion of the average wage compared to housing and capital assets (‘depatrimonialization’). After the 1990s, the rupture and reversal of these trends, with ‘stagnation’, ‘new inequalities’ and ‘social uncertainty’ as new trends, generated a backlash in the “middle class society”. Third, I analyze the demographic and social consequences of these new trends in terms of the shrinking of the middle classes in a context where the inheritance of assets and resources changed the previous equilibrium. Finally, I highlight the importance of addressing the problem of social stability when large strata of the middle class have less interest in the maintenance of the social order. [less ▲]

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See detailCore Values that Influence the Patient—Healthcare Professional Power Dynamic: Steering Interaction towards Partnership
Odero, Angela UL; Pongy, Manon UL; Chauvel, Louis UL et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 7(8458),

Healthcare has long been marked by the authoritative-physician–passive-patient interaction, with patients seeking help and physicians seeking to restore patients back to health. However, lobalisation ... [more ▼]

Healthcare has long been marked by the authoritative-physician–passive-patient interaction, with patients seeking help and physicians seeking to restore patients back to health. However, lobalisation, social movements, and technological advancements are transforming the nature of this relationship. We aim to identify core values that influence the power dynamic betweenpatients and healthcare professionals, and determine how to steer these interactions towards partnership, a more suitable approach to current healthcare needs. Patients with physical chronic diseases (10 men, 18 women) and healthcare professionals (11 men, 12 women) were interviewed, sessions transcribed, and the framework method used to thematically analyse the data. Validation was done through analyst triangulation and member check recheck. Core values identified as influencing the patient-healthcare professional power dynamic include: (A) values that empower patients (acceptance of diagnosis and autonomy); (B) values unique to healthcare professionals (HCPs) (acknowledging patients experiential knowledge and including patients in the therapeutic process); and (C) shared capitals related to their interactions (communication, information sharing and exchange, collaboration, and mutual commitment). These interdependent core values can be considered prerequisites to the implementation of the patient-as-partner approach in healthcare. Partnership would imply a paradigm shift such that stakeholders systematically examine each other’s perspective, motivations, capabilities, and goals, and then adapt their interactions in this accord, for optimal outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailLosing ground in the income hierarchy: relative deprivation revisited
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2020), 18

The paper discusses a one-parameter generalization of individual relative deprivation measures to a two-period setting that differs from earlier approaches. The parameter is, by definition, independent of ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses a one-parameter generalization of individual relative deprivation measures to a two-period setting that differs from earlier approaches. The parameter is, by definition, independent of the income distributions under consideration—it is to be chosen by a social planner. Its value has an intuitive interpretation: it represents the additional weight assigned to the income shortfalls associated with agents who passed the individual in question when moving from yesterday’s income distribution to today’s. Therefore, the choice of this parameter represents an important value judgment on the part of a social planner regarding the relative impact of being left behind. As a special case, it is illustrated how the well-known Yitzhaki index can be extended to this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailMoney and Happiness: Income, Wealth and Subjective Well-being
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Jäntti, Markus

in Social Indicators Research (2020), 148

We examine the complex relationship between money and happiness. We find that both permanent income and wealth are better predictors of life satisfaction than current income and wealth. They matter not ... [more ▼]

We examine the complex relationship between money and happiness. We find that both permanent income and wealth are better predictors of life satisfaction than current income and wealth. They matter not only in absolute terms but also in comparative terms. However, their relative impacts differ. The first exerts a comparison effect – the higher the permanent income of the reference group, the lower life satisfaction – the second exerts an information effect – the higher the permanent wealth of the reference group, the higher life satisfaction. We also show that negative transitory shocks to income reduce life satisfaction while transitory shocks to wealth have no effect. Lastly, we analyse the effects of their components and find that not all of them predict life satisfaction: permanent taxes do not matter, while only the value of permanent real estate, financial and business assets do. Finally, we use quantile regression and analyse to what extent our results vary along the well-being distribution, finding the impacts to be larger at lower levels of life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Satisfaction and mobility: Their associations with career attitudes, and health-related factors among postgraduates having studied in universities intra EU and outside EU
Odero, Angela UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL et al

in BMC Public Health (2020), 20(3),

Background. University postgraduates’ mobility towards, and outside the EU is continuously increasing, creating a competitive context in which maintaining a high life satisfaction (LS) is a public health ... [more ▼]

Background. University postgraduates’ mobility towards, and outside the EU is continuously increasing, creating a competitive context in which maintaining a high life satisfaction (LS) is a public health challenge. However, the relationship between LS and its determinants among this population are under-documented. Our aims were to measure LS indicators of mobile postgraduates (Intra EU: Who pursue part of their studies in Europe; Outside EU: Who study outside of Europe) versus non-mobile (pursue their studies in Luxembourg), and to analyze the associations between LS and career attitudes, socioeconomic characteristics, and health-related factors for each group. Method. Six hundred and sixty-four (644) students obtained financial aid from the Luxembourgish government independent of their family’s socioeconomic situation. Contacted by post, they completed an online questionnaire. Analyses included a multiple linear regression model in which only significant relationships (p < 0.05) were used. Results.Three groups were created: Mobile intra EU (n = 381), mobile outside EU (n = 43) and non-mobile (n = 66) postgraduates. Health satisfaction was positively linked to LS, in all groups. Among the mobile outside EU group, majority (63.2%) were men and 57.9% did not live alone - health was the only determinant which contributed to their LS. Among the mobile intra EU, majority (57.8%) were women, and 64.3% not living alone. Autonomy and career adaptability attitudes were positively associated with their LS (b: 0.210 and 0.119, respectively), whereas the worry factor was negatively (b: − 0.153 and -0.159) associated. The non-mobile, were the oldest of the three groups. Majority (51.6%) were women, and 93.7% did not live alone. Career optimism and planning attitudes were positively correlated to their LS (regression parameter estimates (b: 0.400 and 0.212, respectively). Conclusions.Attention should be devoted to the LS of local and cosmopolitan students, as it seems to be a relevant health indicator. Overall, the farther the mobility was, the higher the postgraduates’ general LS (8.5/10) was; this indicator was higher than the LS indicator for the age group 25–34 years 7.53/10 (EU-28, in 2013). University’ services could promote the development of career projects and the promotion of health to enhance postgraduates’ LS. University policy makers need to ensure this for all students. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome Inequality and the Strength of the Origins-Health Gradient in 20 European Countries
Chauvel, Louis UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 12)

Health is determined by socio-economic position not only of the individual, but also by that of their parents. The intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status is suggested ... [more ▼]

Health is determined by socio-economic position not only of the individual, but also by that of their parents. The intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status is suggested to vary according to contextual factors such as income inequality. Earlier studies with a comparative perspective had a limited number of countries available. This study uses 20 countries at up to five waves from the European Social Survey (2008-2016) and SWIID in order to examine the extent to which income inequality is related to the origins-health gradient. The higher the income inequality of a given country and year, the stronger the origins-health gradient. Contrary to earlier findings, this association can be fully explained by intergenerational transmission of status, i.e. education. Implications of this finding are that health is largely determined by educational attainment and associated health behaviors, giving societal context a less prominent role than earlier studies suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational mobility in Europe: Home ownership as a facet of social reproduction?
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

Scientific Conference (2019, March)

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See detailSecond-Chance Alternatives and Maintained Inequality in Access to Higher Education in Israel
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Blank, Carmel

in Social Inclusion (2019), 7(1), 28-37

Abstract Access to higher education (HE) has a long history. To offer a view on the current debates and worldwide issues regarding access to HE, this editorial depicts how the control of educational ... [more ▼]

Abstract Access to higher education (HE) has a long history. To offer a view on the current debates and worldwide issues regarding access to HE, this editorial depicts how the control of educational access has historically been used as an instrument of governance at the interface of two processes: social stratification and the territorialisation of politics. Access to HE has remained embedded in these large structural processes even though HE has expanded from a highly elitist institution into mass education systems with equity of educational opportunities having become a desirable goal across societies. Analysing these processes helps understand the complex mechanisms producing inequalities in HE today, which are brought together by the ten articles composing this special issue. Tacking stock of how inequalities in access are produced in different continents, countries, HE Institutions, applying to different social groups though evolving mechanisms, these articles document the importance of contrasting methodological and theoretical approaches to produce comprehensive knowledge on this sensitive issue for democratic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic inequality and intergenerational socioeconomic persistence: A European test of the Great Gatsby Curve hypothesis
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

in Long-term consequences of the Great Recession for stratification, mobility and inequality. Abstracts booklet. (2019)

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See detailA cohort perspective on intergenerational mobility and inequality
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

in Long-term consequences of the Great Recession for stratification, mobility and inequality. Abstracts booklet. (2019)

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See detailDYNAMICS OF INDIVIDUAL INCOME RANK VOLATILITY: EVIDENCE FROM WEST GERMANY AND THE US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana

in B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy (2019)

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions, this paper proposes a framework that is based on individuals’ relative positions in the distribution, and is neutral in relation to structural changes that occur in the economy. Applying this approach to investigate rank volatility in Germany and the US over three decades, we show that while poorer individuals within both countries are the most volatile, the volatility trend for the middle class in each of these countries differs. [less ▲]

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See detailMore Necessary and Less Sufficient: An Age-Period-Cohort Approach to Overeducation in Comparative Perspective
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

in Higher Education (2019)

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or ... [more ▼]

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or overeducation. Surprisingly, decreasing occupational outcomes do not coincide empirically with the economic returns among those with tertiary education. Regarding the process of changes in economic returns to education based on cohort transformations, we expect that the expansion of tertiary education affects specific cohorts, which find themselves facing more labor market competition. As a result, the economic returns to education should decrease among younger cohorts even when the overall returns to education remain stable over time. To study this process, we model economic returns with a new age-period-cohort-trended lag (APCTLAG) method, which allows us to compare the gap in economic returns between tertiary and less than tertiary education over cohorts. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we analyze trends over three decades in 12 countries. Our results confirm that educational returns for tertiary education have declined over time, even though the gap between the educated and the less educated has remained similar in most of the countries. For younger cohorts, tertiary education has become more necessary to survive in the competitive labor market, but the actual economic returns have decreased—making tertiary education less sufficient than before. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome and Wealth Above the Median: New Measurements and Results for Europe and the United States
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal et al

in Decancq, Koen; van Kerm, Philippe (Eds.) What Drives Inequality (2019)

The study of the upper tail of the income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. By means of the ‘isograph’, a new tool to describe income or wealth ... [more ▼]

The study of the upper tail of the income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. By means of the ‘isograph’, a new tool to describe income or wealth distributions, the authors compare wealth and income and wealth-to-income ratios in 16 European countries and the United States using data for years 2013/2014 from the Eurozone Household Finance and Consumption Survey and the US Survey on Consumer Finance. Focussing on the top half of the distribution, the authors find that for households in the top income quintile, wealth-to-income ratios generally increase rapidly with income; the association between high wealth and high incomes is highest among the highest percentiles. There is generally a positive relationship between median wealth in the country and the wealth of the top 1%. However, the United States is an outlier where the median wealth is relatively low but the wealth of the top 1% is extremely high. [less ▲]

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See detailLes “petites classes moyennes” se vivent comme les suivants sur la liste des victimes
Chauvel, Louis UL

Article for general public (2018)

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