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See detailCognitive inequalities in later life: Cross-country differences in the education-cognition gradient
Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2016), 56(S3), 428-429

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See detailMeasuring rank mobility with variable population size
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Can, Burak

in Social Choice and Welfare (2016), 46

We provide a characterization of a class of rank-mobility measures. These measures generalize the Kemeny measure that is well-known from the literature on measuring the distance between orderings. We use ... [more ▼]

We provide a characterization of a class of rank-mobility measures. These measures generalize the Kemeny measure that is well-known from the literature on measuring the distance between orderings. We use replication invariance to ensure that our measures are applicable in variable-population settings. The rank-based approach to mobility has a natural connection with the study of social status. Rank-based measures are widely applied in empirical research but their theoretical foundation is still in need of further investigation, and we consider our approach to be a contribution towards this objective. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation to Poverty in Long-Run Panel Data
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Ghislandi, Simone

in Review of Economics and Statistics (2016), 98

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to ... [more ▼]

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to 2012 to show first that life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. We then reveal that there is little evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. We cannot identify any cause of poverty entry which explains the overall lack of poverty adaptation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn a Family of Achievement and Shortfall Inequality Indices
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa

in Health Economics (2016), 25

This paper identifies a family of absolute consistent inequality indices using a weakly decomposable postulate suggested by Ebert (2010). Since one member employs an Atkinson (1970) type aggregation we ... [more ▼]

This paper identifies a family of absolute consistent inequality indices using a weakly decomposable postulate suggested by Ebert (2010). Since one member employs an Atkinson (1970) type aggregation we refer to it as the Atkinson index of consistent inequality. A second member of this family parallels the Kolm (1976) index of inequality. Two innovative features of these indices are that no specific structure is imposed on the form of the index at the outset and no transformation of any existing index is considered to ensure consistency. Each of them regards an achievement distribution as equally unequal as the corresponding shortfall distribution. We apply these indices to study inequality in grip strength among 50+ year-old Europeans. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of income volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana UL

Scientific Conference (2015, July 15)

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See detailSocial epidemiology
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical ... [more ▼]

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical evidence for the three main research strands: First, social inequalities can explain health differences. Here, we first focus on hierarchic social stratification with regard to socioeconomic and social class differences influencing health, then we extend the view towards non-hierarchic social stratification with regard to ethno-cultural differences, lifestyle, and cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. We shortly mention social relations and social network as determinants of health. Last, we use the concept of social times to distinguish age, period, and cohort effects in population health. After presenting evidence on contextual social determinants of health, we close with methodological challenges, social policy implications, and translation to practice. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the stratification of health in more and less equal societies: The role of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Full paper in press at International Journal for Equity in Health: Chauvel, L., & Leist, A. K. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins

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See detailIncome inequality and health: Age-related health gains for those better-off, in more equal societies
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2015), 55(Suppl 2), 459-460

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See detailThe endless baby-boomer generation: Cohort differences in participation in political discussions in nine European countries in the period 1976-2008
Chauvel, Louis UL; Smits, Fransje UL

in European Societies (2015), 17(2), 242-278

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative ... [more ▼]

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative dataset (Eurobarometer 1976-2008) and of recent improvements of the APC methodology to have a better assessment of these cohort-based changes. Thereafter, we search for appropriate explanations for these cohort fluctuations with contextual elements of cohort specific socialization and life conditions. The Easterlin effect (problematic consequences of oversized birth cohort) and the economic scarcity scarring effect explanation (difficulties of socialization of cohorts that faced economic slow down at age 20) are tested. The economic explanation is better than the demographic one. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schroeder, Martin

in European Sociological Review (2015)

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy ... [more ▼]

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy that is, say, two percent richer, should have two percent more disposable income over its life-course. In reality however, increasing prosperity could have bypassed some birth cohorts, while others disproportionately reaped the fruits of economic growth, appropriating lucrative positions and social transfers, thereby disadvantaging other birth cohorts. We measure whether this happened for birth cohorts of the 20th century in West Germany, France and the US. We show how much belonging to a certain birth cohort influences incomes in these three countries and whether they advantage some birth cohorts while disadvantaging others. The existing literature has speculated on this question, but not answered it. This is largely due to methodological limitations, as we show below. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreases in well-being after transition to retirement for unemployed. Catching up with formerly employed persons.
Ponomarenko, Valentina UL; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning from employment to unemployment has been found to cause an increase in depressive symptoms or decline in life satisfaction with more time spent in unemployment, it is not clear to which extent transitioning from unemployment to retirement affects well-being levels compared to retiring after being employed or economically inactive. We use two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe monitoring respondents transitioning to retirement and use life satisfaction as well-being measure. The effect of the transition is captured with a difference-in-difference like approach to test if the change in well-being after retirement is different for persons who were formerly unemployed or inactive, respectively, compared to formerly employed retirees. Results indicate that retiring from unemployment is associated with an increase in life satisfaction, but presents mainly a catching-up effect compared to employed persons transitioning to retirement. Retirement from labour market inactivity, especially sick leave, does not lead to significant changes in well-being. Findings are robust to selection into unemployment and country differences. As well-being of unemployed persons recovers after transitioning to retirement, especially the currently unemployed population should be supported to prevent detrimental consequences of economically unfavourable conditions and lower well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015), 14(132), 1-12

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. Method. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Results. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Discussion. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such as familial orientation play a considerable role in explaining steepness of the health gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailPoverty Profiles and Well-Being: Panel Evidence from Germany
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Ghislandi, Simone

in Research on Economic Inequality (2015), 23

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2012 to uncover three ... [more ▼]

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2012 to uncover three empirical relationships. First, life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. Second, poverty scars: those who have been poor in the past report lower life satisfaction today, even when out of poverty. Last, the order of poverty spells matters: for a given number of years in poverty, satisfaction is lower when the years are linked together. As such, poverty persistence reduces well-being. These effects differ by population subgroups. [less ▲]

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See detailLe destin des générations. Structure sociale et cohortes en France du XXe siècle aux années 2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

Book published by Presses Universitaires de France - 2e édition (19 août 2014) (2014)

Les hasards de l'année de naissance marquent le destin des générations. Deux guerres entrecoupées d'une crise économique majeure, une reprise de trente ans, un ralentissement depuis trois décennies, tel ... [more ▼]

Les hasards de l'année de naissance marquent le destin des générations. Deux guerres entrecoupées d'une crise économique majeure, une reprise de trente ans, un ralentissement depuis trois décennies, tel est le legs inégalement partagé de l'histoire sociale du XXe siècle français. Les générations nées avant 1920 subirent un sort difficile. Les suivantes, nées jusqu'en 1950, qui connurent les Trente Glorieuses au temps de leur jeunesse, ont rencontré un destin collectif inespéré : multiplication des diplômes sans dévalorisation, forte mobilité sociale ascendante, salaires et revenus rapidement croissants, meilleure protection sociale, etc. Avec la crise, cette dynamique cesse, et souvent se retourne, pour les successeurs, arrivés trop tard dans la vie adulte. Première analyse systématique de la structure sociale à la lumière des clivages générationnels, cet essai devenu un classique souligne l'existence d'une fracture qui s'amplifie au début du XXIe siècle. Cette question est politique, car au croisement de la transformation des classes sociales et de l'avenir de l'État-providence. Pour dépasser ces périls, il faudrait construire une véritable politique des générations engageant la responsabilité de tous. [less ▲]

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See detailGenerational Inequalities and Welfare Regimes
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Social Forces (2014), 92(4), 1259-1283

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such ... [more ▼]

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such inequalities between generations are much stronger in conservative, continental European welfare states, compared to social democratic and liberal welfare states. As we show, this is because conservative welfare states expose some cohorts to high youth unemployment and make lifetime earnings dependent on a favorable entry into the labor market. We thus demonstrate that conservative welfare states have put the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown on birth cohorts that could not get stable jobs before 1975, while similar cohort inequalities are much weaker in liberal and social democratic welfare states. In these latter two welfare regimes, the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown was not put on the shoulders of some cohorts relative to others. Our analysis is the first to show which welfare regimes are more conducive to such inequalities between cohorts and what mechanisms lead to these material cohort inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyennisation ou polarisation ? La dynamique des classes moyennes en France dans un monde globalisé
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Cahiers français (2014), (378), 21-27

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See detailDie Grenzen des Ausbildungsexports. Arbeitsmarktchancen Jugendlicher in Südeuropa sind besonders konjunkturabhängig
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 43(6), 4-5

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von ... [more ▼]

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von 11,9 auf 7,9 Prozent gesunken. In den südeuropäischen Ländern ist sie jedoch um ein Vielfaches gestiegen. Deswegen zu schlussfolgern, dass eine bessere Ausbildung auch die Arbeitsmarktchancen junger Südeuropäer verbessert, ist jedoch zu einfach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (13 UL)